Ramón y Cajal, son of a struggling Aragonese doctor, lived to become one of the greatest of all histologists. He devised many staining methods for nervous tissue and did work of fundamental importance to neuroanatomy. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology with Golgi in 1906. By this and later work Cajal provided evidence to support the neuron doctrine. French translation including 2 additional papers, Paris, 1894. Translated into English by Neely Swanson and Larry W. Swanson as New ideas on the structure of the nervous system in man and vertebrates (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990).