Billroth, professor of surgery at Zürich and Vienna, was the founder of the Vienna School of Surgery. He has also been called the founder of modern abdominal surgery, and he was one of the first to introduce antisepsis into the Continental operating room. The above work, which placed him in the front rank, was translated into ten languages. English translation from the 4th edition as General surgical pathology and therapy, N. Y., 1871, and from the 8th German edition, 2 vols., London, New Sydenham Society, 1877-78. Biography by K. B. Absolon, 3 vols., Lawrence, Kansas, 1979-1987.