An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16011 entries, 14068 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: June 22, 2024

CHIU, Charles Y.

2 entries
  • 12440

Using a pan-viral microarray assay (Virochip) to screen clinical samples for viral pathogens.

J. Vis. Exp., (50): 2536, 2011.

Direct link to the Journal of Visualized Experiments,

"The diagnosis of viral causes of many infectious diseases is difficult due to the inherent sequence diversity of viruses as well as the ongoing emergence of novel viral pathogens, such as SARS coronavirus and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, that are not detectable by traditional methods. To address these challenges, we have previously developed and validated a pan-viral microarray platform called the Virochip with the capacity to detect all known viruses as well as novel variants on the basis of conserved sequence homology1. Using the Virochip, we have identified the full spectrum of viruses associated with respiratory infections, including cases of unexplained critical illness in hospitalized patients, with a sensitivity equivalent to or superior to conventional clinical testing2-5. The Virochip has also been used to identify novel viruses, including the SARS coronavirus6,7, a novel rhinovirus clade5, XMRV (a retrovirus linked to prostate cancer)8, avian bornavirus (the cause of a wasting disease in parrots)9, and a novel cardiovirus in children with respiratory and diarrheal illness10. The current version of the Virochip has been ported to an Agilent microarray platform and consists of ~36,000 probes derived from over ~1,500 viruses in GenBank as of December of 2009. Here we demonstrate the steps involved in processing a Virochip assay from start to finish (~24 hour turnaround time), including sample nucleic acid extraction, PCR amplification using random primers, fluorescent dye incorporation, and microarray hybridization, scanning, and analysis."

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Chen, Miller, DeRisi, Chiu.) Digital text and embedded video from PubMedCentral at this link.
(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Computing / Mathematics in Medicine & Biology, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Visualization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, VIROLOGY
  • 11397

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.

New Eng. J. Med., 370, 2408-2416, 2014.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Wilson, Naccache, Samayoa...Chiu. This research demonstrated the value of "next-generation-sequencing" in the diagnosis of a specific meningoencephalitis, a disease which can be caused by more than 100 different infectious agents.

"Summary: A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 sequence reads (0.016%) corresponding to leptospira infection. Clinical assays for leptospirosis were negative. Targeted antimicrobial agents were administered, and the patient was discharged home 32 days later with a status close to his premorbid condition. Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic testing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) subsequently confirmed evidence of Leptospira santarosai infection."

Digital facsimile from at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, Biomedical Informatics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis