An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15478 entries, 13333 authors and 1903 subjects. Updated: December 6, 2021

BERNARD, Claude

27 entries
  • 992.3

Du suc gastrique et de son rôle dans la nutrition.

Paris: Rignoux, 1843.

Bernard showed that if sucrose is injected directly into the blood it is eliminated by the kidneys while glucose is retained, and that gastric juice transforms sucrose into assimilable sugar. See F. J. Holmes, Claude Bernard and animal chemistry: The emergence of a scientist, Cambridge, Mass., 1974. This includes a history of research on digestion from 1750-1848.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 1264

Recherches expérimentales sur les fonctions du nerf spinal, étudié spécialement dans ses rapports avec le pneumogastrique.

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 4, 397-426; 5, 51-93, 1844.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses, Neurophysiology
  • 995

De l’origine du sucre dans l’économie animale.

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 18, 303-19, 1848.

Bernard’s first communication regarding his investigation of the glycogenic function of the liver. Reprinted, with translation, in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 552-80.



Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 996

Du sue pancréatique et de son rôle dans les phénomenès de la digestion.

Arch. gén Méd., 19, 60-81, 1849.

Discovery of the digestive action of the pancreatic juice, especially its role in the digestion and absorption of fats. Reprinted, with translation, in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 581-617.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 3933

Chiens rendus diabétiques.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1849), 1, 60, 1850.

By experimental puncture (piqûre) of the fourth ventricle of the brain, Claude Bernard produced temporary glycosuria.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 1320

Influence du grand sympathique sur la sensibilité et sur la calorification.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1851), 3, 163-64, 1852.

Bernard discovered the existence of vasomotor nerves.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1321

Expérience sur les fonctions de la portion céphalique du grand sympathique.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1852), 4, 155, 1853.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1324

Recherches expérimentales sur le grand sympathique et spécialement sur l’influence que la section de ce nerf exerce sur la chaleur animal.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (Mémoires), (1853), 5, 77-107, 1854.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 11549

Notes of M. Bernard's lectures on the blood; with an appendix by Walter F. Atlee.

Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1854.

This record of Bernard's actual lectures contains the first published description of Bernard's technique of right and left heart cathererization, a technique that Bernard invented. The appendix includes notes of lectures by Charles Robin. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Bernard published a detailed account of the procedure in "Recherches experimentales sur la temperature animale," Comptes rendus Acad. Sci, 43, 551-569. He undertook the proceedure in an attempt to study the difference in temperature between the two circulations.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 615
  • 812.1

Leçons de physiologie expérimentale appliquée à la médecine. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18551856.

Claude Bernard made strenuous efforts to introduce experimental methods into physiology. The above includes his classic work on the function of the liver, pancreas, and gastric glands. Vol. 1, p. 126: Catheterization of the heart of a dog (in some editions, p. 119). See also No. 634.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1000

Sur le mécanisme de la formation du sucre dans le foie.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 41, 461-69, 1855.

The culmination of Bernard’s work on the glycogenic function of the liver. He invented the term “internal secretion” and can be said to have started the scientific investigation of the internal secretions, although for 30 years the significance of his work was not generally realized. By his research on glycogen Bernard showed that the body can not only break down, but can also build up, complex chemical substances.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 2079
  • 616

Analyse physiologique des propriétés des systèmes musculaires et nerveux au moyen de curare.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 43, 825-29, 1856.

Bernard paralysed motor nerve-endings with curare and demonstrated the independent excitability of muscle. He showed that curare acted by stopping the transmission of impulses from motor nerves to voluntary muscles.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA, Neurophysiology, TOXICOLOGY › Neurotoxicology, TOXICOLOGY › Venoms
  • 1000.1

Mémoire sur le pancréas et sur le rôle du sue pancréatique dans les phénomènes digestifs.

Suppl. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 1, 379-563, 1856.

The most beautifully illustrated of all Bernard’s writings, which summed up the results of his work on the role of the pancreas in digestion. English translation reproducing the color plates in color. London, 1985.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Anatomy, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 1863

Leçons sur les effets des substances toxiques et médicamenteuses.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1857.

Bernard included a summary of his experiments with curare in the Leçons to establish his priority in researching its effects. He demonstrated in these experiments the susceptibility of the nerve-muscle preparation to a chemical (pharmacological) effect.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, PHARMACOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY
  • 999.1

Nouvelles recherches expérimentales sur les phénomènes glycogéniques du foie.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Memoires), (1857) 2 sér. 4, 1-7, 1858.

Isolation of glycogen. See also C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 1857, 44, 578-86, 1325-31.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 774

De l’influence de deux ordres de nerfs qui déterminent les variations de couleur du sang veineux dans les organes glondulaires.

C. R. Acad. Sci., (Paris), 47, 245-53; 393-400, 1858.

Discovery of the vasoconstrictor and vasodilator nerves and description of their function of regulating the blood supply to the different parts of the body.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1399

Leçons sur la physiologie et la pathologie du système nerveux. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1858.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1234.1

Leçons sur les propriétés physiologiques et les altérations pathologiques des liquides de l’organisme.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1859.

Bernard was the first to describe an effect of the renal nerves on urine flow.



Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 622

Du rôle des actions réflexes paralysantes dans le phénomène des sécrétions.

J. Anat. Physiol. (Paris), 1, 507-13, 1864.

Studies of the “paralytic secretions” occasioned by section of glandular nerves.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1766.501

Introduction à l’étude de la médecine expérimentale.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1865.

Probably the greatest classic on the principles of physiological investigation and of the scientific method as applied to the life sciences. The English translation, New York, 1927, has been frequently reprinted. See P.F. Cranefield, Claude Bernard’s revised edition of his Introduction à l’étude de la médecine expérimentale, New York, 1976.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, Medicine: General Works › Experimental Design
  • 2301

Leçons de pathologie expérimentale.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1872.

An elaboration of his lectures on the subject at the Collège de France.



Subjects: PATHOLOGY
  • 5673

Leçons sur les anesthésiques et sur l’asphyxie.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1875.

As early as 1864 Bernard discovered that chloroform anesthesia could be prolonged and intensified by the injection of morphine. J. N. von Nussbaum also observed this. English translation by B. Fink, Park Ridge, 1989.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Chloroform, ANESTHESIA › Opiates
  • 3942

Leçons sur le diabète et la glycogenèse animale.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1877.

Bernard showed that in diabetes there is primarily glycemia followed by glycosuria.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 700

La fermentation alcoolique.

Rev. sci. (Paris), 16, 49-56, 1878.

Bernard disbelieved Pasteur’s definition of a ferment as “a living form originating from a germ”.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 11427

Catalogue des livres composant la bibliothèque scientifique de Claude Bernard.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière et fils, 1878.

Auction catalogue of Bernard's library conducted by Bernard's publisher and bookseller, J.-B Baillière et Fils.  The sale, conducted over 4 days, included 1077 lots. Most were books published during Bernard's lifetime. Bernard did own a few antiquarian anatomical works, including a Vesalius Epitome (1543) but no Fabrica. Digital facsimile from picus.unica.it at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 634

Leçons de physiologie opératoire.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1879.

In this, his last work, Bernard showed himself “the unapproachable master in the technique of experimental procedure” (Garrison).



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY
  • 11207

Catalogue des manuscrits de Claude Bernard avec la bibliographie de ses travaux imprimés et des études sur son oeuvre. Collège de France. By Mirko D. Grmek.

Paris: Masson, 1967.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Manuscripts & Philology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology