An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15849 entries, 13787 authors and 1925 subjects. Updated: January 28, 2023

SANGER, Frederick

5 entries
  • 1207

The disulphide bonds of insulin.

Biochem. J., 60, 541-56, 1955.

Sanger sequenced the amino acids of insulin, the first of any protein. His work “revealed that a protein has a definite constant, genetically determined sequence—and yet a sequence with no general rule for its assembly. Therefore it had to have a code” (Judson, The Eighth Day of Creation, p. 188). With Andrew Peter Ryle, L. F. Smith and R. Kitai. Sanger received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1958 for this work; he shared the Prize in 1980 for work on the sequencing of DNA.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pancreas
  • 6883

DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 74, 5463-5467, 1977.

Sanger and colleagues developed methods for rapid sequencing of long sections of DNA molecules. Sanger’s method, and that developed by Gilbert and Maxam, made it possible to read the nucleotide sequence for entire genes that ran from 1000 to 30,000 bases long. With S. Nicklen and A. R. Coulson. This paper is available from the PNAS at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics
  • 6884

The nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi-X174.

J. Mol. Biol., 125, 225-46, 1977.

Sanger and colleagues sequenced the first whole DNA genome—that of bacteriophage phi-X174 (5375 bases) 



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics
  • 6893

Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing.

J. Mol. Biol., 143, 161-78, 1980.

Sanger and colleagues developed the random shotgun method to prepare templates for DNA sequencing. With A. R. Coulson, B. G. Barrell, A. J. H. Smith & B. A. Roe.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics
  • 6885

Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda.

J. Mol. Biol., 162, 729-773, 1982.

Sanger and colleagues sequenced the entire genome of bacteriophage lambda using a random shotgun technique. This was the first whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequence. 



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics