An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15791 entries, 13704 authors and 1919 subjects. Updated: September 13, 2022

HELMHOLTZ, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von

9 entries
  • 611

Ueber die Erhaltung der Kraft, eine physikalische Abhandlung.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1847.

An epoch-making work which led the way to the acceptance of the fundamental physical doctrine of the conservation of energy.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › Biophysics
  • 612

Ueber die Wärmeentwickelung bei der Muskelaction.

Arch. Anat. Physiol, wiss. Med, 144-64, 1848.

Helmholtz showed the muscles to be the principal source of animal heat.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1265

Vorläufiger Bericht über die Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit der Nervenreizung.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., [71]-73, 1850.

Helmholtz succeeded in measuring the velocity of the nervous impulse, by applying the knowledge and techniques of ballistics to the problem. In 1852, using a pendulum-myograph of his own invention, he measured the duration of an electric current through a galvanometer from the moment the nerve was stimulated to its interruption when the muscle contracted. A more detailed report “Messungen über den zeitlichen Verlauf der Zukkung animalischer Muskeln und die Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit der Reizung in den Nerven”, appeared in the same journal volume, [276]-364, with its second part in the volume for 1852, 199-216.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 5866

Beschreibung eines Augen-Spiegels zur Untersuchung der Netzhaut im lebenden Auge.

Berlin: A. Förstner, 1851.

Invention of the ophthalmoscope, one of the greatest events in the history of ophthalmology. English translation by T. H. Shastid, Chicago, Cleveland Press, 1916.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Ophthalmoscope, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy
  • 1508

Ueber die Theorie der zusammengesetzten Farben.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 461-82; Ann. Phys. Chem., 87, 45-66, 1852.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1509

Ueber die Accommodation des Auges.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 1, 2 Abt., 1-74, 18541855.

Helmholtz determined the optical constants and explained the mechanism of accommodation, with the help of the ophthalmometer which he had invented in 1852.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1562

Die Lehre von der Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1863.

Helmholtz’s theory of hearing, upon which all modern theories of resonance are based. This exhaustive study of acoustics ranks as one of the greatest books on the subject and shows that Helmholtz was, besides being a great physicist and physician, an accomplished musician. English translation of 3rd edition, London, 1875.



Subjects: Music and Medicine, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1513

Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. 1 vol. and atlas.

Leipzig: L. Voss, 1867.

Includes Helmholtz’s revival of the Young theory of color vision. English translation by J.P.C. Southall of 3rd German edition, 3 vols., Menasha, Wis., 1924-25.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, Optics
  • 1563

Die Mechanik der Gehörknöchelchen und des Trommelfells.

Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol 1, 1-60, 1868.

Helmholtz’s study of the mechanism of the tympanum and ossicles of the middle ear did much to elucidate the phenomenon of audition. It includes a description of “Helmholtz’s ligament” of the malleus. Separate offprint, Bonn, 1869. English translation, London, 1873.



Subjects: OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing