An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15791 entries, 13704 authors and 1919 subjects. Updated: September 13, 2022

BALDWIN, James Mark

2 entries
  • 9320

The mental development of the child and the race.

New York: Macmillan, 1895.

A central text in the development of social psychology in North America; now also considered a pioneering study of adaptive learning, and in this sense a precursor to research in artificial intelligence. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Child
  • 9319

A new factor in evolution.

American Naturalist, 30, 441-451, 536-553., 1896.

The Baldwin effect. "In evolutionary biology, the Baldwin effect describes the effect of learned behavior on evolution. In brief, James Mark Baldwin suggested that an organism's ability to learn new behaviors (e.g. to acclimatise to a new stressor) will affect its reproductive success and will therefore have an effect on the genetic makeup of its species through natural selection. Though this process appears similar to Lamarckian evolution, Lamarck proposed that living things inherited their parents' acquired characteristics. The Baldwin effect has been independently proposed several times, and today it is generally recognized as part of the modern evolutionary synthesis" (Wikipedia article on Baldwin effect, accessed 04-2017). Digital text of the paper from brocku.ca at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION, PSYCHOLOGY