An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15791 entries, 13704 authors and 1919 subjects. Updated: September 13, 2022

BERNAL, John Desmond

4 entries
  • 6923

X-Ray photographs of crystalline pepsin.

Nature, 133, 794-95, 1934.

Bernal and Hodgkin took the first X-ray photograph of a protein structure—crystalline pepsin. They showed that crystals of pepsin give an X-ray diffaction pattern, beginning protein crystallography. This may also be the beginning of structural molecular biology. The paper is freely available from Nature at this link.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › X-Ray Crystallography, IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 12005

Liquid crystalline substances from virus infected plants.

Nature, 138, 1051-1052, 1936.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Bawden, Pirie, Bernal, Fankuchen. The authors isolated and crystallized tobacco mosaic virus, finding for the first time that a virus contained nucleic acids, when others claimed that it just contained proteins. They showed that the virus molecules were anisometric and consist of ribonucleoprotein.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › X-Ray Crystallography, VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › Molecular Virology, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 8120

The social function of science.

London: George Routledge, 1939.

This pioneering sociological study contained two large folding information graphics. The first was one of the first attempts at a "map of science." It divided science into physical, biological, and social sectors, and distinguished between fundamental and technical research.



Subjects: SOCIAL MEDICINE
  • 7466

The origin of life.

London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson & New York: World Publishing Company, 1967.

An outstanding illustrated synthesis of the topics as they stood in 1967, including Chapter 2: "Notions of the origins of life in the past," summarizing prior theories. Appendix 1 publishes the English translation of Oparin's Proiskhozhedenie Zhizni (No. 7384) followed by Bernal's commentary, as well as Haldane's "The origin of life (No. 7467), followed by Bernal's commentary. 



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › Astrobiology / Exobiology / Abiogenesis