An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15961 entries, 13944 authors and 1935 subjects. Updated: April 29, 2024


4 entries
  • 8381

The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains.

Exp. Cell. Res., 25 (3), 585-621., 1961.

The Hayflick limit. Hayflick demonstrated that a population of normal human fetal cells in a cell culture will divide between 40 and 60 times. The population then enters a senescence phase. 

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging
  • 3215.5

Growth on artificial medium of an agent associated with atypical pneumonia and its identification as a PPLO.

Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), 48, 41-49, 1962.

A mycoplasma shown to be the cause of some cases of primary atypical pneumonia, or "walking pneumonia." With M. F. Barile.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Mycoplasma › Mycoplasma Pneumonia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Pneumonia, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases
  • 8380

George A Sacher, Life table modification and life prolongation. IN: Handbook of the biology of aging, edited by Caleb E. Finch and Leonard Hayflick, pp. 582–638.

New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970.

"The building of a connection between the Gompertz equation and the biology of ageing owes much to the work of biophysicist George Sacher [10] of the Argonne National Laboratory, whose introduction to ageing stemmed from the growing recognition during the 1950s that irradiation would shorten length of life [11]. The same recognition led physicist Leo Szilard [12] to propose the somatic mutation theory of ageing and prompted a range of studies on the effects of radiation on ageing both in animal models such as Drosophila (e.g. [13]) and also in human survivors of atomic bomb irradiation [14].

Sacher [10] used the Gompertz model to compare the patterns of increase in age-specific mortality rates across different species. By plotting age-specific mortality on a logarithmic scale against age (figure 1), he showed that a linear increase was generally observed, in accordance with the logarithmic version of equation (1.1), i.e.Embedded Image   

"Thomas B. L. Kirkwood, Decipherng death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function express of the law of human mortality and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies"). (,  accessed 01-2017

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging
  • 14102

The role of the WI-38 cell strain in saving lives and reducing morbidity.

AIMS Public Health, 4, 127-138, 2017.

In 1961 "Hayflick developed the first normal human diploid cell strains for studies on human aging and for research use throughout the world. Prior to his seminal research, all cultured cell lines were immortal and aneuploid. One of these new cell strains, developed by Hayflick and his colleague Paul Moorhead at the Wistar Institute in PhiladelphiaPennsylvania, called WI-38, has become the most widely used and highly characterized normal human cell population in the world. Hayflick had found that his normal cell strain WI-38 was capable of growing all of the then known human viruses. He hypothesized that because WI-38 was free from contaminating viruses, it could replace the then widely used primary monkey kidney cells, which contained several dangerous contaminating viruses. Indeed, WI-38 became used worldwide for human virus vaccine manufacture, to the benefit of billions of people" (Wikipedia article on Leonard Hayflick).

Order of authorship in the original publication: Olshansky, Hayflick. Available from PubMedCentral at this link.

In January 2008 I collaborated with fellow ABAA member and tax lawyer Bruce Barnett on the appraisal of frozen ampoules of WI-38 that Leonard Hayflick donated to the Coriell Institute for Medical Research. This was one of the first, if not the very first, appraisals of the fair market value of living material donated to a non-profit organization.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines