An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15793 entries, 13706 authors and 1920 subjects. Updated: October 6, 2022

BICHAT, Marie François Xavier

5 entries
  • 2927
  • 4165.02
  • 5580

Oeuvres chirurgicales de P. J. Desault....ou tableau de sa doctrine & de sa pratique dans le traitement des maladies externes. Ouvrage publié par Xav. Bichat, son èlève. 3 vols.

Paris: la C. Ve. Desault & Méquignon l'aîné, 17981799.

Desault was one of the first professors at the École Pratique de Chirurgie, Paris. He made many suggestions regarding the treatment of fractures and dislocations and is one of the founders of modern vascular surgery. In Remarques et observations sur l’opération de l’anévrisme (Vol. 2,  553-80) he described his technique of tying blood vessels for the treatment of aneurism.  Desault was Xavier Bichat’s teacher, and Bichat edited the first edition of this set.
In the second edition (3 vols., 1801-3) volume 3, which concerns urological diseases, was edited by P. J. Roux. With Chopart, Desault founded urological surgery, and was one of the first to have a clear understanding of urological disease. Vol. 1 was translated into English as A Treatise on Fractures, luxations and other affections of the bones, Philadelphia, 1805. The translation of vols. 2 & 3 was entitled The Surgical Works, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1814. Desault edited the first journal specifically on surgery: Journal de chirurgie, 4 vols., 1791-92. 



Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations, SURGERY: General , UROLOGY, VASCULAR SURGERY › Ligations
  • 537

Traité des membranes en général et diverses membranes en particulier.

Paris: Richard, Caille & Ravier, 1800.

Bichat conceived the idea of a science of anatomy and pathology based upon an accurate classification of the various tissues of the body, their distribution in the various organs and parts, and their particular susceptibilities to disease (Corner). He is regarded as the founder of modern histology and tissue pathology. English translation, Boston, 1813.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), PATHOLOGY
  • 597

Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la mort.

Paris: Gabon et Cie, 1800.

When Volta questioned the validity of experiments claiming to show responsiveness of an ex vivo heart, devoid of blood flow and nervous connections, Bichat obtained permission to experiment upon the freshly killed bodies of those guillotined during the French Revolution. His trials on both laboratory animals and human cadavers led him to conclude that cardiac excitation by electricity would occur only when the organ was stimulated by direct contact. English translation of second edition, Philadelphia, 1809.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, DEATH & DYING, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 403

Anatomie générale, appliquée à la physiologie et à la médecine. 4 vols.

Paris: Brosson, Gabon & Cie, 1801.

Bichat revolutionized descriptive anatomy. Where Morgagni and others had conceived of whole organs being diseased, Bichat showed how individual tissues could be separately affected. He covered tissue pathology, system by system in the Anatomie générale, showing that tissues from different organs are similar and subject to the same diseases, and identifying 21 different types of tissues. This was done essentially without a microscope, but marks the beginning of modern histology. The above work and No. 404 are remarkable in their total reliance on verbal description to convey anatomical detail, since neither work contains a single illustration. Translated into English by George Hayward as General anatomy, applied to physiology and medicine. 3 vols., Boston: Richardson and Lord, 1822. Digital facsimile of the French edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the English translation also from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1315
  • 404

Traité d’anatomie descriptive. 5 vols.

Paris: Gabon et Cie, 18011803.

Bichat was the creator of descriptive anatomy. He introduced the terms “animal” and “vegetative” system. This was his last work, unfinished at his death. Vol. 4 was prepared by Bichat's student and cousin, Mathieu-François Buisson, and vol. 5 by Philibert-Joseph Roux. Vol. 3, pp. 319-68 includes Bichat's Nerfs de la vie organique. Digital facsimiles of all 5 vols are available from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System