The first workable process for canning foods. In 1795 Appert began developing the process under Napoleon’s auspices as a way to maintain food on military expeditions. For strategic reasons he was not allowed to publish the secret method until 1810. Appert’s method was strictly empirical. Pasteur eventually discovered a scientific explanation for the process and refined its operation. See Nos. 2479 & 2480. Digital facsimile of Appert's work from BnF Gallica at this link. Appert's work was translated into English as The art of preserving all kinds of animal and vegetable substances for several years (London, 1811).