An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15849 entries, 13787 authors and 1925 subjects. Updated: January 28, 2023

STENO, Nicolas [Niels Steensen, Nicholaus Stenonis]

7 entries
  • 1543
  • 973

Observationes anatomicae, quibus varia oris, oculorum & narium vas describuntur novique salivae, lacrymarum & muci fontes deteguntur.

Leiden: J. Chouët, 1662.

Includes the first account of the excretory duct of the parotid gland (“Stensen’s duct”), discovered by Stensen. He first reported his discovery in a letter to his teacher, Thomas Bartholin, dated April, 22, 1661. Stensen was also the first mention the ceruminous glands in this work. Facsimile reproduction, with English translation, Copenhagen, 1951.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 576

De musculis et glandulis observationum specimen.

Copenhagen: lit. M. Godiechenii, 1664.

Stensen described the structure of muscles, the fibra motrix, confirming that contraction actually occurs in the muscle fibres, not in the tendon as Galen had thought. He attempted a geometrical description of muscle contraction. He described the anatomy of the heart and its function as a muscle, and described the anatomy and function of the respiratory muscles including the diaphragm. English translation of the section on the muscles and the tongue in J.E. Poulson & E. Snorrason, Nicolaus Steno 1638-1686, A re-consideration by Danish scientists. Gentofte, Denmark, 1986.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY
  • 577

Elementorum myologiae specimen.

Florence: Ex typ. sub signo stellae, 1667.

In this work Stensen, in collaboration with the mathematician Vincenzio Viviani (1622-1703), a pupil of Galileo, developed a geometrical description of muscular contraction, and attempted to show theoretically that muscles did not increase in volume during contraction. The appendix contains his anatomical descriptions of the head of two sharks. In discussing the relationship of the shark teeth to similar-shaped fossil stones found in the Mediterranean, Stensen developed theories of how geological structures and fossils might be formed. This was translated by A. Garboe as The earliest geological treatise (1667), London, 1958.



Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1378.1

Discours sur l’anatomie du cerveau.

Paris: Robert de Ninville, 1669.

In this remarkably prescient argument for, and critique of, anatomical research into brain function Stensen opposed Descartes (No. 574) arguing that it was idle to speculate about cerebral function when so little was known about the anatomical structure of the brain. Stensen proved anatomically that the pineal gland was not the seat of the soul. Latin translation, Leiden, 1671. Reprinted in Winslow (No. 394), and translated in that work. Modern English translation, Copenhagen, 1950. Digital facsimile of the 1669 edition from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 2726.1

Embryo monstro affinis Parisiis dissectus.

Acta med. philos. Hafniensia, 1, 202-03., 16711672.

First known description of the “tetralogy of Fallot” (see No. 2792). Reprinted in his Opera philosophica, ed. W. Maar, Vol. 2, Copenhagen, V. Tryde, 1910, pp. 49-53. For translation see Proc. Mayo Clin., 1948, 23, 317.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 7474

Opera philosophica. Edited by Vilhelm Maar. 2 vols.

Copenhagen: Vilhelm Tryde, 1910.

Steno's collected works, presented in the original Latin with an introduction in English. Digital facsimile from biusante.parisdescartes.fr at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 7475

Opere scientifiche. Traduzione integrale dai testi originali. Coordinatore Luciano Casella. Revisione e note a cura di Enrico Coturri. 2 vols.

Florence: Cassa di Risparmi et e Depositi di Prato, 1986.

Steno's collected works translated from Latin into Italian. Reproduces Steno's original engraved illustrations, plus others from the time (some in color).



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, PHYSIOLOGY