An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15858 entries, 13798 authors and 1925 subjects. Updated: February 4, 2023

FRANKLIN, Rosalind Elsie

3 entries
  • 6847

Molecular configuration in sodium thymonucleate.

Nature (Lond.) 171, 740-41, 1953.

This paper reports Franklin's discovery of the existence of DNA in 2 forms, and conditions for readily and rapidly changing from one to the other. Its phosphates were on the outside.” (Maddox 195)  The Watson-Crick model of the double helix was in large part derived from her work. The striking Photo 51 of the B form of DNA that was influential in convincing Watson that the form was helical, appeared as an illustration to her and Gosling’s paper, with no suggestion that Watson had seen it, let alone been inspired by it. She appended also her comment that the photograph ‘is strongly characteristic . . .of a helical structure. See Maddox, Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA (2002) 211-212)  Various authorities have suggested that it was Rosalind Franklin, rather than Maurice Wilkins, who should have shared the Nobel Prize with Watson and Crick for the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA; however, Franklin died before the prize was awarded, and the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 13946

Evidence for 2-chain helix in crystalline structure of sodium deoxyribonucleate.

Nature, 172, 156-157, 1953.

Franklin and Gosling's completed Patterson synthesis of the A-form of DNA, based on work begun in 1952, represents the first independent confirmation that the Watson-Crick double-helix model was correct. "We suggest that the unit in structure A is, as in Structure B, two co-axial helical chains running in opposite directions" (p. [5]). "The demonstration of the correctness of the structure is thus doubly convincing because the double-helical structure may be arranged to fit the X-ray data of both forms." (Klug, "Rosalind Franklin and the Discovery of the Structure of DNA" Nature 219 [1968]: 808). Judson, Eighth Day of Creation, p. 161. 

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › X-Ray Crystallography
  • 14001

Structure of tobacco mosaic virus.

Nature, 175, 379-381, 1955.

The first discovery of the geometry of a protein structure. Franklin, whose X-ray photographs of DNA were crucial to Watson and Crick's discovery of the molecule's double helix structure in 1953, began researching the molecular structure of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) after moving from King's College to Birkbeck College in mid-1953. Between 1953 and her death in 1958, Franklin and her team of researchers made significant advances in knowledge of the virus's molecular structure, beginning with the present paper announcing her discovery, based on her X-ray photographs, that the rod-shaped TMV units are all the same length and that they are made up of identical protein subunits. Preceding Perutz and Kendrew's mapping of the structures of myoglobin and hemoglobin by several years, this was the first discovery of the geometry of a protein structure.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus