An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15998 entries, 14032 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: June 18, 2024


3 entries
  • 14115

Multi-infarct dementia. A cause of mental deterioration in the elderly.

Lancet 2, 207-210, 1974.

The authors showed that contrary to the prevailing view that most dementias were caused by hardened brain arteries (cerebral atherosclerosis), most were multi-infarct dementias—dementias caused by multiple, small, often imperceptible strokes.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurovascular Disorders › Stroke
  • 14116

Cognitive and neurologic findings in subjects with diffuse white matter lucencies on computed tomographic scan (Leuko-Araiosis).

Arch. Neurol., 44, 32-35, 1987.

"Abstract: As part of a prospective clinicopathologic study, a cohort of 105 "normal" elderly volunteers was investigated with computed tomographic scans, psychometric testing (Extended Scale for Dementia [ESD]) and neurologic examination. Computed tomographic scans were evaluated for the presence or absence of white matter lucencies, termed leuko-araiosis. These are defined as patchy or diffuse areas of decreased attenuation involving only white matter and with no change in adjacent ventricles or sulci. The nine controls with leuko-araiosis had lower scores on the ESD than the 96 controls without leuko-araiosis (mean ESD with leuko-araiosis, 227.1 +/- 14; without leuko-araiosis, 237.1 +/- 8), and the difference remains significant even after adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, education, and infarct detected on computed tomography. Significant differences were also found comparing subjects with leuko-araiosis and those without in respect to abnormal gait, limb power, plantar response, and the rooting and palmomental reflexes. Leuko-araiosis may represent a marker for early dementia. The pathophysiology of this finding remains uncertain. Our results suggest that white matter abnormalities play a role in the development of intellectual impairment in the elderly."

Order of authorship in the original publication: Steingart, Hachinski, ... Merskey.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders › Presenile or Senile Dementia
  • 14114

Cardiovascular and neurological causes of sudden death after ischaemic stroke.

Lancet Neurology, 11, 179-188, 2012.

Hachinski and Sörös discovered that the control of the heart by the brain is asymmetric, with the fight/flight (sympathetic) response controlled by the right hemisphere and the rest and digest (parasympathetic) response controlled by the left hemisphere. Damage to one key component (the insula) can lead to heart irregularities and sudden death (Wikipedia).

"Summary: Sudden death is an important but widely under-recognised consequence of stroke. Acute stroke can disturb central autonomic control, resulting in myocardial injury, electrocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac arrhythmias, and ultimately sudden death. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that autonomic imbalance is more frequent after infarcts involving the insular cortex, a crucial region for the control of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. Cardiovascular comorbidities increase the risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality after stroke. Thus, many sudden deaths and serious non-fatal cardiac events after stroke are probably due to an interaction between cardiovascular and neurological causes. The exact mechanisms leading to sudden death remain incompletely understood. Further research is needed to investigate the autonomic consequences of acute stroke and to identify patients at high risk of sudden death" (Lancet Neurology).

Order of authorship in the original publication: Sörös, Hachinski.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurovascular Disorders › Stroke