An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15961 entries, 13944 authors and 1935 subjects. Updated: March 22, 2024

DARWIN, Charles Robert

27 entries
  • 8920

For private distribution. The following pages contain extracts from letters addressed to Professor Henslow by C. Darwin, Esq.

Cambridge, England: [Privately Printed], 1835.

Darwin's teacher, John Stevens Henslow, had some of Darwin's letters to him published for private distribution as a pamphlet while Darwin was on the Beagle circumnavigation. Estimates of the number of copies printed vary from about 25 to about 200.

  • 7438

Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H. M. S. Beagle ....

London: Henry Colburn, 1839.

Darwin’s first published book, now universally known as The Voyage of the Beagle, is the most often read and the most often printed of all his works, after On the origin of species. Its relation to the background of Darwin's evolutionary ideas has often been stressed.

The traditionally identified first issue forms the third volume of The Narrative of the Voyages of H. M. Ships Adventure and Beagle, edited by Captain Robert Fitzroy and published, in three volumes and an appendix to Volume II, in 1839 in London by Henry Colburn. In its first separate issue, also in 1839, it was called Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History. Whether the separate version was issued simultaneously with the set, or slightly later is unknown, as both were advertised in the same set of advertisements in August 1839. The text and maps of the separate version are identifical to the set except that pp. i-iv of the preliminaries are cancels and [v-vi], the original volume title, is discarded.

Though Darwin tended to discard or disperse the manuscripts of his later works after they were published, in some cases giving sheets to his children for use as scrap paper, he saved the  original autograph manuscript for this work, and it is preserved at Down House. The manuscript was reproduced in facsimile by Genesis Publications, London, 1979.


Subjects: BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION, NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 7437

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R. N., during the years 1832 to 1836. Edited by Charles Darwin. 5 pts in 3 vols.

London: Smith, Elder, 18401843.

Part 1: Fossil mammalia by Richard Owen; Part 2: Mammalia by George Waterhouse; Part 3: Birds by John Gould; Part 4: Fish by Leonard Jenyns; Part 5: Reptiles by Thomas Bell. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Ecuador, EVOLUTION, NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 8916

The structure and distribution of coral reefs. Being the first part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle, under the command of Capt. Fitzroy, R. N. During the years 1832 to 1836.

London: Smith, Elder, 1842.

With slight modification, Darwin's work remains the accepted explanation for these phenomena. "Even if he had done nothing else, the theory of the coral islands alone would have placed Darwin in the very front of investigations of nature" (Geikie).

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, BIOLOGY › Marine Biology, EVOLUTION, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY › Anthozoology
  • 8917

Observations on the volcanic islands, visited during the voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle, together with some brief notices on the geology of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. Being the second part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle.

London: Smith, Elder, 1844.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, EVOLUTION
  • 8918

Geological observations on South America. Being the third part of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle.

London: Smith, Elder, 1846.

The third and last of Darwin's geological reports on the Beagle voyage. In it he described the pampas, the plateaus and the Andres, showing how they had been gradually pushed up in the way that Charles Lyell surmised without the introduction of catastrophic events. The descriptions of secondary fossil shells from South America, illustrated in Sowerby's plates, are by Edward Forbes.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, EVOLUTION
  • 219

On the tendency of species to form varieties: and on the perpetuation of varieties and species by natural means of selection.

J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (1858), 3, Zool., 45-62, 1859.

The first printed exposition of the “Darwinian” theory of evolution by natural selection. Had not Wallace independently discovered the theory of natural selection, it is possible that the extremely cautious Darwin might never have published his evolutionary theories during his lifetime. However, Wallace conceived the theory during an attack of malarial fever in Ternate in the Mollucas (February, 1858) and sent a manuscript summary to Darwin, who feared that his discovery would be pre-empted. In the interest of justice Joseph Dalton Hooker and Charles Lyell suggested joint publication of Wallace’s paper, On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type, prefaced by a section of a manuscript of a work on species written by Darwin in 1844, when it was read by Hooker, plus an abstract of a letter by Darwin to Asa Gray, dated 1857, to show that Darwin’s views on the subject had not changed between 1844 and 1857.

  • 220

On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life.

London: John Murray, 1859.

Prepared under the advice of Lyell and Hooker, and brought to press soon after publication of the joint paper by Darwin and Wallace (No. 219), this was Darwin’s greatest work and one of the most important books ever published. The whole edition of 1250 copies was sold on the day of publication. Although the theory of evolution can be traced to the ancient Greek belief in the “great chain of being”, Darwin’s greatest achievement was to make this centuries-old “underground” concept acceptable to the scientific community by cogently arguing for the existence of a viable mechanism – natural selection – by which new species evolve over vast periods of time. Darwin’s influence on biology was fundamental, and continues to be felt today. He remains one of the best-known scientists of all time. Facsimile reproduction, with introduction by E. Mayr, Cambridge, Mass., 1964. See R.B. Freeman, The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist. 2nd ed. Folkestone, Kent, Dawson: 1977. See the Online Variorum of Darwin's Origin of Species, edited by Barbara Bordalejo. This is a new variorum edition of the six British editions of Darwin's Origin of Species, published between 1859 and 1872. It identifies and presents every change between the six editions. See the editor's Introduction. Digital facsimile of the 1859 edition from Darwin Online at this link.


  • 8914

On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing.

London: John Murray, 1861.

Darwin's first work on plant fertilization and the first volume of evidence that he published to support the theories advanced in On the origin of species (1859). This was also the only book by Darwin that was issued by Murray in distinctive purple cloth (first edition only).

  • 8915

On the origin of species by means of natural selection....Third edition with additions and corrections (Seventh thousand).

London: John Murray, 1861.

Extensively revised, and the first edition to include the "historical sketch" crediting the historical precursors to the theory of evolution by natural selection. Darwin added this chapter in response to writings by Samuel Butler and others.

  • 8910

On the movements and habits of climbing plants.

J. Linn. Soc., 9 (33 &34) 1-118., 1865.

Darwin's report on his discoveries concerning the adaptive value of climbing for certain plants, including the development of circumnutation. Darwin waited ten years to publish the first edition in book form (1875) with the same title. That edition included data published by Fritz Muller and Hugo de Vrie's as well as darwin's own folllow-up research. The illustrations in the book form edition were drawn by the author's son George Darwin.

  • 224.1

The variation of animals and plants under domestication. 2 vols.

London: John Murray, 1868.

Darwin carried out numerous investigations with pigeons and various plants. He recognized continuous and discontinuous variation; he concluded that crossing tends to keep populations uniform.

  • 170
  • 227

The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. 2 vols.

London: John Murray, 1871.

This is really two works. The first demolished the theory that the universe was created for humans while in the second Darwin presented a mass of evidence in support of his earlier hypothesis regarding sexual selection. With respect to human origins, Darwin predicted that the ancestors of humanity would eventually be found in Africa, based on the extensive primate populations there. However, during the 19th and early 20th centuries paleoanthropologists focused their researches in Europe and Asia rather than Africa. This focus only very gradually changed after Raymond Dart discovered Australopithecus africanus in 1924.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, EVOLUTION, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy › Primatology
  • 4975

The expression of the emotions in man and animals.

London: John Murray, 1872.

Darwin examined the causes, physiological and psychological, of all the fundamental emotions in man and animals. He concluded that “the chief expressive actions exhibited by man and by the lower animals are now innate or inherited”, and that most of the movements of expression must have been gradually acquired. This is the only book by Darwin illustrated with photographs. It reproduces a number of photographs from Duchenne (No. 4973), and other photographs by Oscar Gustav Reijlander. Reprinted, New York, 1955. See P. Ekman (ed.): Darwin and facial expression: A century of research in review. New York, 1973.

Subjects: EVOLUTION, IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , PSYCHOLOGY
  • 8911

The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom.

London: John Murray, 1876.

Darwin's report on over 12 years of experimentation with cross and self-fertilization on 57 species. In these experiments Darwin discovered and demonstrated the concept of hybrid vigor or heterosis.

  • 9481

A biographical sketch of an infant.

Mind, 2, 285-294, 1877.

The first significant paper on child psychology, written from Darwin's personal notes of his observations of the development of his first born son, William Erasmus. The text is available from Darwin Online at this link.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Child
  • 8919

Erasmus Darwin. By Ernst Krause. Translated from the German by W. S. Dallas. With a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin.

London: John Murray, 1879.

Krause's short biography originally appeared in the German evolutionary periodical Kosmos in February 1879. In this translation Darwin added a biographical contribution that is longer than Krause's, i.e. 127pp by Darwin versus 89pp. by Krause. Darwin paid frequent tribute to his grandfather Erasmus, but denied that Erasmus's ideas had influenced him significantly in the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Digital facsimile of the copy Darwin presented to his daughter Henrietta Litchfield from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, EVOLUTION
  • 8913

The formation of vegetable mould through the action of worms, with observations on their habits.

London: John Murray, 1881.

Darwin's last book, published only 6 months before his death, but reporting on a subject that he had studied for more than 50 years. "He showed the services performed by earthworms in eating leaves and grinding earth in their gizzards and turning it into fertile soil, which they constantly sift and turn over down to a depth of twenty inches form the surface, thereby aerating it. He calculating from the weight of worm-casting that on one acre in one year's time eighteen tons of soil are brought up to the surface by worms. This was a pioneer study of quantaitative ecology" (Gavin de Beer in D.S.B.)

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment
  • 7945

Mental evolution in animals. With a posthumous essay on instinct by Charles Darwin.

London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1883.

Includes the first editon of Darwin's most significant contribution to psychology. This was part of Chapter 10 of Darwin's unpublished "big book" on the origin of species. Romanes attempted, with Darwin, to develop a theory of mental evolution in which development of successively higher stages of intelligence, including that of man, could be explained in terms of natural, historical causes. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

  • 7094

Catalogue of the Library of Charles Darwin now in the Botany School, Cambridge, compiled by H. W. Rutherford, with an introduction by Francis Darwin.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1908.

See also the digital edition and virtual reconstruction of the surviving books owned by Charles Darwin from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. This BHL special collection draws on original copies and surrogates from other libraries. It also provides full transcriptions of his annotations and marks. "In this first release (2011) we provide 330 of the 1480 titles in his library, concentrating on the most heavily annotated books." 

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries, EVOLUTION, ZOOLOGY
  • 8912

Darwin on man: A psychological study of scientific creativity by Howard E. Gruber. Together with Darwin's early and unpublished notebooks transcribed and annotated by Paul H. Barrett. Foreward by Jean Piaget.

New York: E. P. Dutton, 1974.

In addition to a frequently original study of the development of Darwin's psychological theories, the authors publish for the first time two extremely significant manuscript notebooks by Darwin written in 1837. These notebooks, which the authors supplement with notes and commentary, provide the earliest available insight into the origins of Darwin's views on human and comparative psychology. Some of the ideas they record were later developed in The descent of man and The expression of emotions in man and animals. Also the notebooks prove something that Darwin never publically admitted: the belief that man and the great apes descended from a common ancestor was the core of his theory of human evolution as early as 1837. Furthermore, the notebooks show that Darwin recognized the relationship between animal and human sexual behavior during the height of Victorian prudery. No wonder he never developed in print such theories as "Our descent, then is the origin of our evil passions!!− The Devil under form of Baboon is our grandfather!" (M. Notebook, p. 123).

Subjects: EVOLUTION, EVOLUTION › History of Evolutionary Thought, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 10551

The Darwin correspondence project.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Library, 1974."

"Search over 12000 letters and articles..."


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals › Edited Correspondence & Archives, BIOLOGY, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , EVOLUTION
  • 11208

Charles Darwin: An annotated bibliographical handlist. By R. B. Freeman. Second edition.

London: Dawsons , 1977.

This bibliography has been extensively supplemented by the Freeman Bibliographical Database at Darwin Online edited by John van Wyhe. "The database has been supplemented by the entries from unpublished manuscript corrections by Freeman and those in:
Freeman. 1986. The works of Charles Darwin: an annotated bibliographical handlist. Additions and Corrections to Second Edition of 1977 to 1 January, 1986. University College London: for the author; as well as Freeman. 1986. Darwin in Chinese. Archives of Natural History 13 (1): 19-24; P. J. P. Whitehead. 1988. Darwin in Chinese: some additions. Archives of Natural History 15 (1): 61-62; the bibliography of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin; and subsequent research by John van Wyhe, Kees Rookmaaker, Angus Carroll, J. David Archibald and other contributors."

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases › , BIOLOGY › History of Biology, DIGITAL RESOURCES, EVOLUTION
  • 13470

Charles Darwin's notebooks 1836-1844. Geology, transmutation of species, metaphysical enquiries. Transcribed and edited by Paul H. Barrett, Peter J. Gautrey, Sandra Herbert, David Kohn, Sydney Smith.

London: British Museum (Natural History) & Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.

  • 8706

Darwin Online. The complete works of Charles Darwin, edited by John van Wyhe.


Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, BIOLOGY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Singapore, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , EVOLUTION, NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 8929

Dispelling the darkness: Voyage in the Malay Archipelago and the discovery of evolution by Wallace and Darwin.

Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2013.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Singapore, EVOLUTION › History of Evolutionary Thought
  • 10423

Charles Darwin’s life with birds: His complete ornithology.

New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Subjects: EVOLUTION › History of Evolutionary Thought, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology