An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 14, 2024

Browse by Publication Year 1760–1769

103 entries
  • 4850.5

Observations on the nature and consequences of wounds and contusions of the head, fractures of the skull, concussions of the brain, etc.

London: C. Hitch & L. Hawes, 1760.

This book, which showed Pott’s extensive knowledge of surgical literature, systematized the treatment of head injuries. It shows what a variety of injuries of the head could be sustained even before the advent of the motor-car. Includes the first description of “Pott’s puffy tumor”. Pott was bom in Threadneedle Street, where the Bank of England now stands; he succeeded Cheselden as the greatest surgeon of his day. The book was altered and re-published under a different title in 1768.

  • 6951

Sur les mouvements du cerveau et de la dure-mere. Premier mémoire, sur le mouvement des parties contenues dans le crâne, considérées dans leur état naturel. Second mémoire. Sur les mouvements contre nature de ce viscère, & sur les organes qui sont le principe de son action.

Mém. Math. Phys. (Paris) 3, 277-313, 344-377., Paris, 1760.

Probably the first example in the literature of a definite localization of function in the brain. In the first memoir Lorry examined the normal movements of the brain; in the second memoir he set out specifically, systematically, and experimentally to find “which particular organ within the bony casing of the brain, can produce sudden death” (Neuburger, Historical development of experimental brain and spinal cord physiology [1981] p. 97). As explained by Neuburger Chapter 6, Lorry systematically eliminated the cerebrum, cerebellum, and most of the spinal cord, and so focussed in on the medulla. He found that sudden death occurred in dogs only when the rostral spinal cord was punctured between the first and second vertebra in small animals and between the second and third vertebra in large animals. Puncture caudal to this level produced paralysis but not death. He had damaged the phrenic nucleus, the origin of the phrenic nerve controlling contraction of the diaphragm and thus breathing. “These precise data constitute probably the first example in the literature of a definite localization of function. This was the first center to be established, the earliest identification of ‘the ganglion of life’ ” (Neuburger p. 98). (communication from Larry W. Swanson)

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 7060

A discourse on the nature, causes, and cure of corpulency. Illustrated by a remarkable case, Read before the Royal Society, November 1757. And now first published.

London: L. David and C. Reymers, 1760.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET, Obesity Research
  • 9902

An essay on the medicinal nature of hemlock.

London: Printed for J. Nourse, 1760.

"Störck is remembered for his clinical research of various herbs, and their associated toxicity and medicinal properties. His studies are considered to be the pioneering work of experimental pharmacology and his method can be regarded as forming a blueprint for the clinical trials of modern medicine. He was convinced that plants regarded as poisonous still had medicinal applications if employed in carefully controlled quantities. Störck was particularly interested in the medical possibilities of plants such as hemlockhenbanejimsonweed and autumn crocus. His experiments with these plants involved a three-step process; initially used on animals, followed by a personal trial, and finally given to his patients, all the while maintaining a "sliding-scale" approach to determine the optimum dosage" (Wikipedia article on Anton von Störck, accessed 03-2018). Digital facsimile from Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf at this link.

Subjects: Medicine: General Works › Experimental Design, PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY › Drug Trials, TOXICOLOGY
  • 12703

Select remains of the learned John Ray, M.A. and F.R.S. with his life by the late William Derham, D. D. Canon of Windsor, and F.R.S. Published by George Scott, M.A. and F.R.S.

London: J. Dodsley, 1760.

Because Derham died in 1735 this biography would have been written in the early part of the 18th century after the death of Ray in 1705. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, BOTANY › History of Botany, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences › Natural Theology
  • 13143

Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés: a laquelle on a joint une description exacte de chaque espece, avec les citations des auteurs qui en ont traité, les noms quils leur ont donnés, ceux que leur ont donnés les différentes nations, & les noms vulgaires. 6 vols.

Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760.

Title pages in both French and Latin. One of the earliest systematic treatises on birds by a contemporary of Linnaeus. The work treats 1336 species of which Brisson claimed to recognize more than 800 by sight. The plates were engraved by François-Nicolas Martinet.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 13238

Verzeichnis der Práparaten welche auf dem anatomischen Theater der Akademie zu Greifswald befindlich sich nebst einer Vorrede von dem Einfluß der Zergliederungskunst in die glückseligkeit eines Staats.

Stralsund: Hieronymus Johann Struck, 1760.

First printed catalogue of the anatomical preparations in the Anatomical Theatre and Institute directed by the professor of anatomy, Andreas Westphal.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 13640

Caroli Linnaei ... disquisitio de qvaestione ab Academia Imperiali Scientiarum Petropol. in annvm MDCCLIX. pro praemio proposita: sexum plantarum argumentis et experimentis nouis, praeter adhuc iam cognita, vel corroborare, vel impugnare, praemissa expositione historica et physica omnium plantae partium, quae aliquid ad foecundationem et perfectionem seminis et fructus conferre creduntur, ab eadem Academia die VI. Septembris MDCCLX. in conuentu publico praemio ornata.

St. Petersburg, Russia: Typis Academiae Scientiarum, 1760.

This work is typically referred to as Disquisitio de sexu plantarum. Translated into English as A dissertation on the sexes of plants translated from the Latin of Linnaeus by James Edward Smith. London: Printed for the author, and sold by George Nicol, 1786.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 1597

Avis au peuple sur la santé.

Lausanne: J. Zimmerli pour F. Grasset, 1761.

A tract on medicine written for the lay public; it ran through many editions and was translated into all European languages. It has been called "the greatest medical best-seller of the eighteenth century" (Singy,  "The Popularization of Medicine in the Eighteenth Century: Writing, Reading, and Rewriting Samuel Auguste Tissot's Avis au peuple sur sa santé". Journal of Modern History, 82 (2010) 769–800).

English translation in 1765. Digital facsimile of the 1761 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Household or Self-Help Medicine, Hygiene, Popularization of Medicine
  • 2276
  • 2734
  • 2885

De sedibus, et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis libri quinque. 2 vols.

Venice: typog. Remondiniana, 1761.

Morgagni was the founder of modern pathological anatomy. The work was completed in Morgagni’s 79th year and consists of a series of 70 letters reporting about 700 cases and necropsies. As best he could, he correlated the clinical record with the post–mortem finding. Morgagni gave the first descriptions of several pathological conditions. He was Professor of Anatomy at Padua. Selections from the above work are reproduced in Med. Classics, 1940, 4, 640-839. English translation by B. Alexander, 3 vols., London, 1769, (facsimile reprint, New York, Hafner, 1960; Mount Kisco, N.Y., Futura, 1980).

Classic descriptions of mitral stenosis (Letter III) and heart block, Stokes–Adams syndrome (vol. 1, p. 70) are reprinted in English translation in Willius & Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 177-82. In Volume one, p. 282 Morgagni also reported an authentic case of angina pectoris is recorded by Morgagni; he observed it in 1707.

  • 1549

De aquaeductibus auris humanae intemae.

Naples: ex typ. Simoniana, 1761.

Cotugno is sometimes accredited with the discovery of the “liquor Cotunnii”, the labyrinthine fluid, first noted by Pyl in 1742. He did, however, make important contributions to the knowledge on the structure and function of the ear, including the discovery of the aural aqueducts. The naso-palatine nerve and the columns in the osseous spiral lamina are named after him.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 2607.1

Cautions against the immoderate use of snuff. Founded on the known qualities of the tobacco Plant; and the effects it must produce when this way taken Into the body: And by instances of persons who have perished miserably of diseases, occasioned, or rendered incurable by its use,

London: R. Baldwin & J. Jackson, 1761.

First clinical report (pp. 30-31) of an association between tobacco and cancer, in this case “polypusses” of the nose caused by taking snuff. Hill was a distinguished botanist and apothecary, although regarded by some as a quack. See D.E. Redmond, Jr., Tobacco and cancer: the first clinical report. New Eng. J. Med., (1970), 282, 18-23.

Digital facsimile of the second edition, also published in 1761, from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Tobacco
  • 2672

Inventum novum ex percussione thoracis humani ut signo abstrusos interni pectoris morbos detegendi.

Vienna: J. T. Trattner, 1761.

The greatness of Auenbrugger’s discovery of the value of immediate percussion of the chest as a diagnostic measure was not recognized until many years after he first published. His little book met with a cold reception, while a French translation by Rozière de la Chassagne in 1770 attracted little notice. But Auenbrugger lived to see the appearance in 1808 of J. N. Corvisart’s classic translation of the book, after which the value of percussion was universally recognized. It should be noted that recognition did not occur until nearly 50 years after Auenbrugger first published.

English translation by J. Forbes, 1824 (reprinted in Willius and Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941., pp. 193-213); also with introduction by H. E. Sigerist, in Bull. Hist. Med., 1936, 4, 373-403. For bibliography of the Inventum novum see P.J. Bishop, Tubercle, 1961, 42, 78. The facsimile reprint by Max Neuburger (Vienna, 1922) includes a facsimile of the original edition, and translations into English, French and German.

Subjects: PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS › Percussion
  • 6019

Traité des maladies des femmes. 6 vols.

Paris: P. G. Cavelier, 17611765.

Mettler considers this “the most pretentious gynecologic work of the [eighteenth] century… chiefly useful for its historical orientation”. English translation, 3 vols., London, 1762-67.

  • 7430

Continuation of the account of the Pennsylvania Hospital, from the first of May 1754, to the fifth of May 1761.

Philadelphia: B. Franklin & D. Hall, 1761.

Written in Franklin's absence, this continuation was printed in the same style and format as Franklin's 1761 work. Rhoads was an American architect who served as the 59th mayor of Philadelphia.

  • 7669

History of the travels and adventures of the Chevalier John Taylor, ophthalmiater; pontifical imperial and royal to the Kings of Poland, Denmark, Sweden, the electors of the Holy Empire, the princes of Saxegotha, Mecklenburg, Anspach, Brunswick, Parma, Modena... Addressed to his only son.

London: Printed for J. Williams., 1761.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY , Quackery, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11816

Die gottliche Ordnung in den Veranderungen des menschlichen Geschlechts, aus der Geburt, dem Tode und der Fortpflanzung desselben erwiesen. Zwote und ganz umgearbeitete Ausgabe. 2 vols.

Dresden: Fr. von Boetticher, 17611762.

Twenty years after publication of the first edition (No. 1691), Süssmilch published a second edition "that was so different from the earlier book that it may well be called a separate work. While maintaining his original demographic theses, Süssmilch enlarged the scope of demographic enquiry to the field of social and economic policies. Many commentators have alluded to the differences between these two editions (Arisawa, 1979, p. 23; Hecht, 1980, p. 670; Rohrbasser, 1996, p. 984; Dreitzel, 1986a, p. 43). Still, the evolution of Süssmilch’s work has not yet been adequately highlighted and even less explained in the context of the population debates of his time.... Süssmilch radically changed his project and his outlook on the purpose of assembling demographic material in the twenty years between the two separate editions. The latter one deliberately forms part of the German political and economic discourse of the second third of the eighteenth century, while his previous intervention showed no signs of knowledge of this discourse and little interest in contributing to it. This reading of Süssmilch is informed by the assumption that the erudite discourse on population development and the debates about population politics were largely separated in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, thus differing from the situation in Western Europe" (Nipperdey, "Johann Peter Süssmilch: From divine law to human intervention," Population, 66 (2011/3) 611-636).

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 305

Traité anatomique de la chénille, qui ronge le bois de saule. Augmenté d'une explication abrégée des planches, et d'une description de l'instrument et des outils dont l'auteur s'est servi pour anatomiser à la loupe et au microscope, & pour déterminer la forcer de ses verres, suivant les règles de l'optique, & méchaniquement.

The Hague: Pierre Gosse Jr. & Daniel Pinet & Amsterdam: Marc Michel Rey, 1762.

Lyonet’s monograph on the goat moth caterpillar remains a famous example of anatomical examination. It is also a thorough treatise on the microscope and lenses that Lyonet used. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, Microscopy, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 65

Opere. 7 vols.

Venice: Remondini, 1762.

Redi was a leading physician in Italy. He is best remembered for his experiments discrediting the theory of spontaneous generation and for his pioneer work in the field of parasitology (see No. 2448.1); see also the article on Redi by R. Cole in Annals of Medical History 1926, 8, 347-59.

Subjects: BIOLOGY, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, PARASITOLOGY
  • 472

Considérations sur les corps organisés. 2 vols.

Amsterdam: M. M. Rey, 1762.

Bonnet’s theory of generation offered the best synthesis of 18th century ideas of development and remained a leading authority until von Baer. Bonnet believed in the preformation of the embryo. He used many of Haller’s arguments to support his own opinions. J. Needham (No.533) calls him an organicistic preformationist, for his objection to epigenesis lay in the fact that it apparently did not allow for the integration of the organism as a whole.

  • 1771
  • 3750

Historia natural, y medica de el Principado de Asturias.

Madrid: M. Martin, 1762.

The first recognizable description of pellagra is included on pp. 327-60 of this book, which was written in 1735 but not published until 1762, after the writer’s death. He called the disease mal de la rosa. Reprinted, Oviedo, 1900.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Pellagra
  • 2734.1

Observations concerning the body of his late Majesty, October 26, 1760.

Phil. Trans. (1761) 52, 265-75, 1762.

Nicholls was the first to describe dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, the patient being King George II, to whom he was physician from 1753-60. Nicholls was also the first to give a correct description of the mode of production of aneurysm. Nicholls' pa;er was illustrated with two folding plates of the heart engraved by J. Mynde and printed in two colors (brown and sanguine). These were probably the first color-printed plates in a major scientific periodical.

This "case was that of a rupture of the right ventricle of the heart showing an effusion of blood into the pericardium and an aneurism of the aorta. The King had complained for some years of frequent distress about the region of the heart. His death was due to tamponade by the extravasated blood from a tear in the myocardium, probably caused by a coronary occlusion. Though complicated by a 'transverse fissure in the trunk of the aorta, one and a half inches long' Nicholls' report may be regarded as a contribution to the history of myocardial infaraction" (Leibowitz, The history of cononary heart disease, 83).

Also published in Gentleman's Magazine (issue of November 1762, 520-523.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aneurysms, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Myocardial Infarction
  • 4302.1

Nouvelles observations, ou méthode certaine sur le traitement des cors.

The Hague & Paris: P. Alex. le Prieur, 1762.

The first formally published pamphlet (45pp.) on podiatry or chiropody. Rousselot argued that podiatry should become a specialty of surgery. Author's first name is unknown. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: Podiatry
  • 5078

Opera medico-physica in quatuor tractatus digesta.

Vienna: J. T. Trattner, 1762.

Plenciz was the first to grasp the significance of Leeuwenhoek’s animalculae for the etiology of contagious disease. Part III of the above is concerned with scarlatina.

  • 4164

Practical remarks on the hydrocele or watry rupture.

London: C. Hitch & L. Hawes, 1762.

Classic description of hydrocele.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4407

An account of a new method of reducing shoulders (without the use of an ambe) which have been several months dislocated, in cases where the common methods have proved inefficient.

Med. Obs. Inqu., 2, 373-81, 1762.

White’s method of reducing shoulder dislocations by means of suspending the patient from the affected arm. This method either reduced the dislocation entirely, or moved the head of the humerus into a position where it could be reduced by traditional methods such as applying the surgeon’s heel to the axilla.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Shoulder
  • 5021

De morbo mucoso.

Göttingen: V. Bossiegel, 1762.

An exhaustive study of typhoid, which the writers confused with dysentery and relapsing fever.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever
  • 6254

A singular case of the separation of the ossa pubis.

Med. Obs. Inqu., 2, 321-33, 415-18, 1762.

A case of osteomalacic pelvis was reported to Hunter by a country practitioner.

Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Pelvis: Pelvic Anomalies
  • 11523

The medical works of Richard Mead.

London: Hitch & Hawes, 1762.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, TOXICOLOGY
  • 2202

Nosologia methodica sistens morborum classes, genera et species juxtà Sydenhami mentem & botanicorum ordinem. 5 vols.

Amsterdam: frat. de Tournes, 1763.

Sauvages de Lacroix, a friend of Linnaeus, adopted the botanical system of Linnaeus for the classification of diseases. His classification system listed 10 major classes of disease, which were further broken down into numerous orders, 295 genera, and 2400 species (individual diseases). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: Nosology
  • 1730

Mémoire sur une question anatomique relative à la jurisprudence; dans lequel on établit les principes pour distinguer, à l’inspection d’un corps trouvé pendu, les signes du suicide d’avec ceux de l’assassinat.

Paris: P. G. Cavelier, 1763.

Louis was a pioneer of French medical jurisprudence. Above is a classic discussion on the differential signs of murder and suicide in cases of hanging.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Suicide, Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 6970

An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues.

Phil. Trans. 53, 195-200, 1763.

Stone, a vicar from Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, discovered that the bark of the willow tree (active ingredient: salicylic acid) was effective in reducing a fever. This was the first report in the scientific literature of a traditional remedy known since antiquity, and an ethnobotanical remedy widely used by native Americans, and perhaps other native peoples. Remarkably the remedy seems to have been forgotten or unknown to the scientific establishment until Stone published. Digital facsimile from the Royal Society at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Ethnobotany, NATIVE AMERICANS & Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Willow Tree Bark (Salycilic Acid; Aspirin)
  • 7363

Travels from St. Petersburg in Russia to various parts of Asia in 1716, 1719, 1722 &c. 2 vols.

Glasgow: Printed for the Author by Robert & Andrew Foulis, 1763.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 8288

Nicolai Josephi Jacquin Selectarum stirpium Americanarum historia, in qua ad Linneanum systema determinatae descriptaeque sistuntur plantse illae, quas in insulis Martinica, Jamaica, Domingo, aliisque, et in vicinae continentis parte, observavit rariores; : adjectis iconibus in solo natali delineatis. 2 vols.

Vienna: Ex officina Krausiana, 1763.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Caribbean, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Caribbean › Jamaica, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 8370

An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances. By the late Rev. Mr. Bayes, F.R.S. communicated by Mr. Price, in a letter to John Canton, A.M., F.R.S.

Phil. Trans., 53, 370-418, 1763.

Bayes's paper enunciated Bayes's Theorem for calculating "inverse probabilities”—the basis for methods of extracting patterns from data in decision analysisdata mining, statistical learning machinesBayesian networksBayesian inference. Digital facsimile from the Royal Society at this link.

Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 10628

Catalogue de la bibliotheque de feu M. Falconet, medecin consultant du roi, et doyen des médecins de la Faculté de Paris. 2 vols.

Paris: Chez Barrois, 1763.

Of the 19,798 lots in the auction catalogue of Falconet's library, which at its peak contained around 60,000 volumes, there were 3,672 lots of medical books, including a major cross-section of significant medical works published up through his time. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 10989

Observations on some of the diseases of the parts of the human body. Chiefly taken from the dissections of morbid bodies.

London: G. Kearsly, 1763.

Clossy, an Irish physician, previously at Trinity College, Dublin, gave the first anatomy classes and dissections at King’s College in New York City (now Columbia) in 1763. Clossy worked closely with other King’s College faculty, including Samuel Bard, to professionalize the study of medicine in the United States. He is understood to have dissected the bodies of deceased slaves in his lectures. His Observations, which he wrote during the 1750s, was the first treatise on anatomy and pathology published by a physician working in America. Clossy had it printed in London. Some of Clossy's innovative observations bear a relationship to similar kinds of observations made by Morgagni (1761). Clossy had his book printed in London. He returned to Europe in 1780

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American Northeast, PATHOLOGY
  • 74

Opera physico-medica.

Leipzig: J. P. Kraus, 1764.

Huxham, a Devonshire man, was a pupil of Boerhaave. His most important contributions to medicine were in connection with fevers and infectious diseases.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia
  • 2153

Oeconomical and medical observations … tending to the improvement of military hospitals, and to the cure of camp diseases, incident to soldiers.

London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt, 1764.

The best book of the century regarding military sanitation.

  • 1731

Mémoire contre la légitimité des naissances prétendues tardives.

Paris: P. G. Cavelier, 1764.

An attempt to set the minimum and maximum time limits of duration of human pregnancy. Supplement published in 1764.

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 6155

A case of extra-uterine foetus.

Med. Obs. Soc. Physicians Lond., 2, 369-72, 1764.

This description of an abdominal pregnancy, successfully operated on by Bard was “the first scientific paper on a surgical subject to come from the North American Colonies” (Earle). John Bard was the father of Samuel Bard.

  • 6323

Underrättelser om barn-sjukdomar och deras botemedel.

Stockholm: Kongl. Wet. Acad, 1764.

Sir Frederic Still considered this work “the most progressive which had yet been written”; it gave an impetus to research which influenced the future course of pediatrics. Rosén was particularly interested in infant feeding. The Underrättelserwere originally published in the calenders of the Academy and were later collected and issued in book form in 1764. English and German translations in 1776. For a biography, bibliography, and essays on this book, see Nils Rosen von Rosenstein and his textbook on paediatrics, ed. B. Vahlquist and A. Wallgren. Acta paediat., 1964. Suppl. 156.

  • 1382
  • 4204.2
  • 4515

De ischiade nervosa commentarius.

Naples: apud Frat. Simonios, 1764.

Cotugno published a classic description of sciatica, which is useful even today. He recognized two types – arthritic and nervous; the latter has been called “Cotugno’s disease”, and his book is confined to that type. It includes the first clear description of the association of edema with proteinuria.

Valsalva in 1692 briefly mentioned the cerebrospinal fluid, but “Cotugno was the first to describe the fluid surrounding the spinal cord and to suggest tht it was in continuity with the ventricular and cerebral subarachnoid fluids. However, his concept of the cerebral and spinal fluid, which is the beginning of its modern physiology, remained in obscurity until rediscovery by Magendie some 60 years later” (Clarke & O’Malley). For more information regarding this book and a translation of the section dealing with the cerebrospinal fluid, see the article by H. R. Viets in Bull. Inst. Hist. Med., 1935, 3, 701-38. English translation, London, 1775.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 4488

Podagra. In his Commentaria in Hermanni Boerhaave aphorismos de cognoscendis et curandis morbis, 4, 287-393

Leiden: J. & H. Verbeek, 1764.

Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 9205

An account of the diseases which were most frequent in the British military hospitals in Germany, from January 1761 to the return of the troops to England in March 1763. To which is added an essay on the means of preserving the health of soldiers, and conducting military hospitals.

London: Printed for A. Millar...., 1764.

Donald Monro was the second son of Alexander Monro (primus). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 9509

An essay on the more common West-India diseases and the remedies which that country itself produces: To which are added some hints on the management, &c. of negroes.

London: Printed for T. Becket and P.A. DeHondt , 1764.

Though the title suggests tropical medicine in general, this work mainly concerns the selection and medical care of slaves. Digital facsimile of the second edition (Edinburgh, 1802) expanded "with practical notes and a Linnean index") from the Internet Archive at this link.

"Grainger first travelled to the West Indies in 1759 as a companion to a former patient. While there he married Miss Burt whose uncle Daniel Mathew owned estates and enslaved people in St Kitts, Tobago and Antigua. Grainger managed Mathew's St Kitts' estates as well as practising as a physician. Although he never owned an estate, Grainger is reported to have bought enslaved people" (

Subjects: BLACK PEOPLE & MEDICINE & BIOLOGY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Caribbean, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines, Slavery and Medicine, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 12817

De morbis navigantium, liber unus. Accedit observatio de effectu extracti cicutae storkiano in cancro.

Leiden: apud Theodorum Haak, 1764.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. Translated into English as Observations on diseases incidental to seamen. Translated from the Latin edition printed at Leyden. London: T. Carnan and F. Newbery, jun, 1772. Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Maritime Medicine
  • 1250

Essay on the use of the ganglions of the nerves.

Phil. Trans. (1764) 54,177-84., 1765.

See also his supplementary papers on the subject, in Phil. Trans., (1767), 1768, 57, 118-31; (1770), 1771, 60, 30-35. Revised edition in book form, Shrewsbury, 1771.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1251

Pars quinti nervorum encephali disquisitio anatomica.

Vienna, 1765.

The “Gasserian ganglion”, already described by Santorini and others, was named after Johann Ludwig Gasser (fl. 1757-65), Professor of Anatomy at Vienna, by his pupil Hirsch. Also published in Ludwig, C. F., Scriptores, 1791, vol. 1, pp. 244-62.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1485

Ricerche de motu del iride.

Lucca: Giusta, 1765.

An investigation of how and why the iris contracts. See P.K. Knoefel, Felice Fontana: life and works, Trento, [1984], See also No.2103.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1766.5

A discourse upon the institution of medical schools in America.…

Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1765.

The first American publication on medical education. Morgan founded the first medical school in the United States, in connection with what is now the University of Pennsylvania.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American Northeast, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Pennsylvania
  • 4841

Observations on the nature, causes, and cure of those disorders which have been commonly called nervous hypochondriac, or hysteric, to which are prefixed some remarks on the sympathy of the nerves.

London: T. Becket and P. Du Hondt & Edinburgh: J. Balfour, 1765.

“First important English work on neurology after Willis” (Garrison).

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 3424.2

Remarks on the disease commonly called a fistula in ano.

London: Hawes, 1765.

Probably the greatest English classic of colon-rectal surgery. Pott recommended the practice of simple division rather than the newer, more complicated methods proposed by Cheselden and Le Dran, and audaciously pointed out that there were lessons regular practitioners might learn from quacks apropos of this subject.

Subjects: Colon & Rectal Diseases & Surgery
  • 5051

An enquiry into the nature, cause, and cure of the croup.

Edinburgh: Kincaid & Bell, 1765.

First clear and complete clinical description of diphtheria.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria
  • 100

Saggio di osservazioni microscopiche concernenti il sistema della generazione dei Signori de Needham e Buffon. IN: Dissertazione due… pp. [2]-87.

Modena: Per gli Eredi di Bartolomeo Soliani, 1765.

Spallanzani, a believer in preformation theory, found that he could prevent contamination by microorganisms in strongly heated infusions protected from aerial contamination, but he observed that as soon as air was allowed to enter the flask, microorganisms proliferated. He was one of the first to dispute the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 308.1

The anatomy of the horse.

London: J. Purser for the author, 1766.

The first original work on equine anatomy after Ruini (No. 285). Stubbs, the great painter of animals, prepared his own dissections of horse carcasses, and personally engraved the 24 double folio plates for this work, a task that took him seven or eight years to complete. Besides the first issue of this work, copies with text leaves identical to the first edition exist with the plates printed on paper watermarked 1798, 1813, and 1815. See No. 6610.54.

Subjects: ART & Medicine & Biology, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, VETERINARY MEDICINE, ZOOLOGY › Illustration, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 2527.99
  • 5404

De variolis et morbillis commentarius.

London: G. Bowyer, 1766.

The first medical description of smallpox was written by Rhazes, about the year 910… The above work is the first edition of the Arabic text with a parallel Latin translation by the English pharmacist and scholar, John Channing, concerning whom see E. Savage-Smith, "John Channing: Eighteenth-century apothecary and arabist," Pharmacy in history, 30 (1988) 63-80. For an English translation see Medical Classics, 1939, 4, 22-84. A translation was also published by the Sydenham Society, 1848. See Nos. 2527 & 5441. In his Treatise on the smallpox and measles, Rhazes stated that survival from smallpox infection prevented an individual from ever acquiring the disease again. His explanation for why the disease does not strike the same individual twice is the first theory of acquired immunity.


  • 4302.2

Sur un enfant auquel il manquoit les deux clavicules, le sternum et les cartilages, qui dans l’état naturel l’attachent aux côtes.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci. (Paris), (1760), 47-48, 1766.

First description of cleido-cranial dysostosis.

Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Cranialfacial Disorders, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton › Congenital Diseases , PEDIATRICS, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY › Cranialfacial Surgery
  • 7365

Travels through France and Italy. Containing observations on character, customs, religion, government, police, commerce, arts, and antiquities. With a particularly description of the town, territory, and climate of Nice: to which is added a register of the weather, kept during a residence of eighteen months in that city. 2 vols.

London: R. Baldwin, 17661767.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Bioclimatology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 7808

Descrizione degl'instrumenti, delle macchine, e delle suppellettili raccolte ad uso chirurgico e medico dal P. Don Ippolito Rondinelli...

Faenza: presso l' Archi Impress. Camerale, e del S. Uf cio, 1766.

Catalogue of the private museum of surgical and medical instruments established by Father Ippolito Rondinelli in Ravenna, which Soldo described as “the first museum of medicine and surgery.” Extensively illustrasted. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , SURGERY: General
  • 10570

The Aurelian or natural history of English insects; namely, moths and butterflies.

London: For the Author, 1766.

Harris drew and engraved his own illustrations. The second edition (1778) was considerably expanded, and with four more plates than the first, for a total of 45. Some of the hand-colored copies were hand-colored by the author. "Harris began to take an active interest in entomology about the age of twelve and ... was an accurate and original observer. He was, it is believed, the first to draw attention to the importance of wing neuration [the arrangement or distribution of nerves] in the classification of lepidoptera and upon this principle he arranged the species in his published works, illustrating them in colour with a high degree of accuracy. Harris certainly contributed much to the knowledge of the science and was one of the leading entomologists of his century. He was also a miniature painter of no mean accomplishment" (Lisney p.156). Lisney identifies different states of plates in the first edition, and different issues of the second edition.

Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology › Lepidoptera, ZOOLOGY › Illustration
  • 12496

Travels through France and Italy. Containing observations on character, customs, religion, government, police commerce, arts, and antiquities. With a particular description of the town, territory, and climate of Nice: To which is added a register of the weather, kept during a residence of eighteen months in that city. 2 vols.

London: R. Baldwin, 1766.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

"After suffering the loss of his only child, 15-year-old Elizabeth, in April 1763, Smollett left England in June of that year. Together with his wife, he traveled across France to Nice. In the autumn of the next year, he visited GenoaRomeFlorence and other towns of Italy. After staying in Nice for the winter he returned to London by June 1765. Travels Through France and Italy is his account of this journey.

"Smollett describes in great detail the natural phenomena, history, social life, economics, diet and morals of the places he visited. Smollett had a lively and pertinacious curiosity, and, as his novels prove, a very quick eye. He foresaw the merits of Cannes, then a small village, as a health-resort, and the possibilities of the Corniche road.

"The writing is often characterized by spleen, acerbity and quarrelsomeness. Smollett quarrels with innkeepers, postilions and fellow travelers and holds many (though by no means all) foreigners he meets in contempt. He derides the Roman Catholic faith, dueling, petty and proud nobility, such domestic arrangements as the cicisbeo, and many other French and Italian customs.

"Laurence Sterne, who met Smollett in Italy, satirized Smollett's jaundiced attitude in the character of Smelfungus in A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, which was written in part as an answer to Smollett's book" (Wikipedia article on Travels Through France and Italy, accessed 4-2020).

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 2096

An essay concerning the cause of the endemial colic of Devonshire.

London: J. Hughs, 1767.

Baker demonstrated that the cider of Devonshire contained lead, while that made in other parts of England did not. He further showed that it was common practice in Devon to line cider presses with lead, and proved that lead poisoning was the cause of Devonshire colic. He was responsible for the abandonment of lead in the making of cider presses, and thus for the disappearance of the colic. See also his paper in Med. Trans. Coll. Phys. Lond., 1768, 1, 175-256. Facsimile reprint, 1958.

  • 2103

Ricerche fisiche sopra il veleno della vipera.

Lucca: Jacopo Giusti, 1767.

The starting point of modern investigations of serpent venoms and their antidotes. This work also includes Fontana’s description of the ciliary canal in the eye of an ox. This structure does not appear in the human eye, but certain spaces in the trabecular meshwork are often referred to as the spaces of Fontana. Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive at this link.

In 1781 Fontana issued a greatly expanded 2-volume edition in French, including vegetable poisons, and a section on "American poisons": Traité sur le vénin de la vipere, sur les poisons americains, sur le laurier-cerise et sur quelques autres poisons vegetaux. On y a joint des observations sur la structure primitive du corps animal. Différentes expériences sur la reproduction des nerfs et la description d'un nouveau canal de l'oeil. Digital facsimile of the French edition from the Internet Archive at this link. In 1787 the French edition was translated into English by Joseph Skinner in 2 vols. as Treatise on the venom of the viper, on the American poisons, and on the cherry laurel, and some other vegetable poisons. To which are annexed, observations on the primitive structure of the animal body, different experiments on the reproduction of the nerves, and a description of a new canal of the eye .... Digital facsimile of the second English edition (1795) from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, TOXICOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY › Venoms, TOXICOLOGY › Zootoxicology
  • 3249

Recherches sur les différens moyens de traiter les maladies des sinus maxillaires, et sur les avantages qu’il y a, dans certains cas, d’injecter des sinus par le nez.

J. Méd. Chir. Pharm., 27, 52-71, 157-74, 1767.

Jourdain reported a method of washing out the antrum of Highmore through the natural opening.

Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Rhinology
  • 5090

Von der Ruhr unter dem Volke im Jahr 1765.

Zürich: Fuessli & Co., 1767.

The first important monograph on bacillary dysentery. Translated into English by C. R. Hopson as A treatise on the dysentery, with a description of the epidemic dysentery that happened in Switzerland in the year 1765 (London, 1771). Digital facsimile of the 1767 edition from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link. Digital facsimile of the English translation from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Dysentery
  • 5420

The present method of inoculating for the small-pox.

London: W. Owen, 1767.

Dimsdale is notable as having inoculated Catherine of Russia and her son. For this he received a fee of £10,000 and a life pension. His reputation and the exalted rank of his patient helped in popularizing the measure in England. Dimsdale used material from the inoculated site of another patient.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Variolation or Inoculation
  • 6156

Practical directions, shewing a method of preserving the perinaeum in birth, and delivering the placenta without violence.

London: D. Wilson & G. Nicol, 1767.

Harvie, Smellie’s successor, advocated external expression of the placenta instead of traction on the cord, anticipating Credé in this connection by almost a century (see No. 6183). Reprinted in H. Thoms: Classic contributions to obstetrics and gynecology, 1935, pp.131-38.

  • 5196

De gonorrhoea virulenta.

Edinburgh: Balfour, Auld & Smellie, 1767.

Balfour is said to have been the first to re-affirm the duality of gonorrhoea and syphilis.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Gonorrhoea & Trichomonas Infection
  • 6324

An essay on the diseases most fatal to infants.

London: T. Cadell, 1767.

One of the best pediatric works of the period. Armstrong is noteworthy as the founder of the first children’s dispensary in Europe, the Dispensary for Sick Children, London, in 1769.

  • 7679

Hortus Europae americanus, or, A collection of 85 curious trees and shrubs: the produce of North America, adapted to the climates and soils of Great-Britain, Ireland, and most parts of Europe, &c together with their blossoms, fruits and seeds, observations on their culture, growth, constitution and virtues, with directions how to collect, pack up and secure them in their passage.

London: Printed for J. Millan, 1767.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link. First published as Hortus Britanno-Americanus (1763).

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Dendrology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , NATURAL HISTORY
  • 10386

Traité sur les maladies des gens de mer.

Paris: Lacombe, 1767.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Maritime Medicine
  • 12397

An account of the manner of inoculating for the small pox in the East Indies: With some observations on the practice and mode of treating that disease in those parts.

London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt, 1767.

Holwell's account of smallpox variolation in India prior to Jenner has been disputed by historians. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox
  • 12880

Catalogue systématique et raisonné des curiosités de la nature et de l’art, qui composent le cabinet de M. Davila, avec figures en taille-douce. 3 vols.

Paris: Briasson, 1767.

Describes 8,096 mineral specimens from a wide range places, including a suite of specimens from Potosí, Bolivia, as well as many items from Canada, Mexico, and Paraguay. The catalog also lists 5,253 shells, 600 preserved animals, 101 plants, 3,915 fossils, 154 bezoars and calculi, 402 books, over 12,000 prints and engravings, 1,741 original artworks, 441 maps, as well as various scientific instruments and precious stones.

"Pedro Francisco Dávila, possessor of the largest collection of natural history specimens in Paris, and wishing to establish an institution in Spain to preserve it, approached King Carlos III of Spain. But political difficulties and an approaching war with England distracted the king, who declined the purchase. Because of debts incurred building the collection, creditors forced Dávila to put the accumulation up for auction in Paris. For this purpose, a detailed collection catalog was required. Dávila had already written many descriptions, but it was his introduction through Balthasar Sage to the young Romé de l'Isle that created this remarkable record of the collection. 

"Romé de l'Isle took the existing material, added considerably to the mineralogical descriptions, and put the catalog into publishable form. In this task he was assisted by Abbé Duguat who helped with the mineralogical descriptions and Abbé Gua de Malves [1712-1786] who described the shells. Through their efforts, two volumes describing natural history specimens were produced, one of which was entirely devoted to minerals. In addition, a third volume written by Romé de l'Isle probably with assistance from Pierre Remy, describes the fossils, artwork and books" (The Mineralogical Record).

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 13081

The law of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries: Containing all the statutes, cases at large, arguments, resolutions, and judgments concerning them. Compiled, by desire of a great personage, for the use of such gentlemen of the faculty as are enemies to quackery, in order to point out the defects in the law, as it now Stands, relative to those professions, and To propose such expedients for remedying them as they shall think necessary, before the next session of parliament, when it is intended to apply for an act for regulating the practice of physick, and suppressing empirical nostrums.

London: Printed for W. Griffin, 1767.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences, Quackery
  • 13557

A comparative history of the increase and decrease of mankind in England, and several countries abroad, according to the different soils, situations, business of life, use of the non-naturals, &c. faithfully collected from, and attested by, above three hundred vouchers, and many of them for a long course of years, in two different Periods. To which is added a syllabus of the general States of health, air, seasons, and food for the last three hundred years; and also a meteorological discourse.

London: W. Nicoll and C. Etherington, 1767.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Mortality Statistics, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 4634

Observations on the dropsy in the brain.

Edinburgh: J. Balfour, 1768.

The first account of the clinical course of tuberculous meningitis in children. This work is notable for its fullness of detail and its accuracy. Whytt divided the disease into three stages, according to the character of the pulse, and he attributed its various manifestations to the presence of a serous exudate in the brain.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Cerebrospinal Meningitis, PEDIATRICS
  • 471

De formatione intestinorum praecipue.

Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Petropol., 12, 43-7, 403-507; 1769, 13, 478-530, 1768.

One of the acknowledged classics of embryology. Wolff’s description of the formation of the chick’s intestine by the rolling inwards of a leaf-like layer of the blastoderm was important as proving his theory of epigenesis. A German translation by J. F. Meckel was published in 1812.

  • 101

Prodromo di un opera da imprimersi sopra le riproduzione animali.

Modena: Giovanni Montanari, 1768.

In this preliminary to a larger work on regeneration which was never published, Spallanzani described regenerative capacities of remarkable complexity and repetitiveness in the land snail, salamander and toad and frog, establishing the general law that an inverse ratio obtains between the regenerative capacity and age of the individual. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. English translation as An essay on animal reproductions (London, 1769). Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › Regeneration, GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging
  • 534.54

Operum anatomici argumenti minorum tomus tertius, De Monstris.

Lausanne: François Grasset, 1768.

Reprints and updates Haller’s earlier essays on various malformations. This work marks the beginning of scientific teratology, placing it on a foundation of sound anatomical description.

  • 2028.51

Historie en Gedenkschriften van de Maatschappy, tot Redding von Drenkelingen, Opgerecht Binnen Amsterdam 1768.

Amsterdam: Pieter Meijer, 1768.

The first of many volumes of reports by the first society to save people drowned in the waterways of Amsterdam, established in 1767. Before 1767 anyone taken from the water was presumed dead and no attempts were made at resuscitation. News of the success of this organization spread rapidly through Europe, and similar societies were formed in other countries. French translation, Amsterdam, 1768. English translation by T. Cogan, London, 1773. See No. 2028.52.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Netherlands, Resuscitation
  • 2154

Chirurgie d’armée.

Paris: P. F. Didot le jeune, 1768.

One of the most important works on military surgery during the 18th century. Ravaton, a skilful army surgeon, was the first to employ a tin boot, suspended on four rings, for the “hanging” position of broken bones. He was also first to adopt the double-flap method in amputations.

  • 2264

An essay on diseases incidental in Europeans in hot climates.

London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt, 1768.

Lind came near to discovering the connection between malaria and mosquitoes. He is best remembered for his work on scurvy (No. 3713), but the above book is one of the more important early works on tropical medicine.

Subjects: TROPICAL Medicine
  • 2886

Lettre de M. Rougnon à M. Lorry, touchant les causes de la mort de feu Monsieur Charles, ancien capitaine de cavalerie, arrivé à Besançon le 23 février 1768.

Besançon: J. F. Charmet, 1768.

Osler, Allbutt, and several other authorities believe this to be the description of an authentic case of angina, thus preceding Heberden’s classic account. Other eminent authorities consider the patient to have suffered from pulmonary emphysema. This little book of 55 pages is extremely rare; the whereabouts of only 2 copies is known.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 4015.1

Observations on cancers.

Med. Trans. Coll. Phys. Lond.1, 64-92, 1768.

First recorded description of multiple neurofibromatosis. Akenside was better known as a poet;  he was caricatured as the republican doctor of Tobias Smollett's The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System › Neurofibromatosis, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 3674

A treatise on the disorders and deformities of the teeth and gums.

London: B. White, 1768.

Earliest English dental textbook. Berdmore was the first to mention the use of the microscope for the study of the minute structure of teeth.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, DENTISTRY › Dental Pathology
  • 4851

Opuscules de chirurgie. Pt. 1.

Paris: G. Desprez & P. A. Le Prieur, 1768.

Records, p. 161, a successful operation for temporo-sphenoidal abscess, 1752. The patient, a monk, had otorrhoea followed by a mastoid abscess, which Morand opened.

  • 4408

Some few general remarks on fractures and dislocations.

London: L. Hawes, W. Clarke, R. Collins, 1768.

The methods outlined by Pott in his classic work on fractures and dislocations were eventually adopted all over the world. He described (pp. 57-64) “Pott’s fracture” in this book, and he stressed the necessity for the immediate setting of a fracture and the need for relaxation of the muscles in order that the setting should be carried out successfully. Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1936, 1, 332-37.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 5831

Of the night-blindness or nyctalopia.

Med. Trans. Coll. Phys. Lond., 1, 60-63, 1768.

A classic description of nyctalopia. Report of a single case.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 5438

On the chickenpox.

Med. Trans. Coll. Phys. Lond., 1, 427-36, 1768.

In a paper read before the (Royal) College of Physicians on 11 August 1767, Heberden first definitely differentiated chickenpox from smallpox.

  • 9517

Specimen medicum: Exhibens synopsin reptilium emendatam cum experimentis circa venena et antidota reptilium austriacorum.

Vienna: Joan. Thomae nob. de Trattnern, 1768.

"Laurenti is considered the auctor of the class Reptilia (reptiles) through his authorship of Specimen Medicum, Exhibens Synopsin Reptilium Emendatam cum Experimentis circa Venena (1768) on the poisonous function of reptiles and amphibians. This was an important book in herpetology, defining thirty genera of reptiles; Carl Linnaeus's 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758 defined only ten genera. Specimen Medicum contains a description of the blind salamander (amphibian): Proteus anguinus, purportedly collected from cave waters in Slovenia (or possibly western Croatia); this description represented one of the first published accounts of a cave animal in the western world, although the Proteus anguinus wasn't recognized as a cave animal at the time" (Wikipedia article on Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti, accessed 9-2017). Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: TOXICOLOGY › Venoms, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology
  • 10475

La santé des gens de lettres.

Lausanne: Franç. Grasset & Comp., 1768.

Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link. Translated into English by James Kirkpatrick as An essay on the disorders of people of fashion, and a treatise on the diseases incident to literary and sedentary persons. With proper rules for preventing their fatal consequences, and instructions for their cure. (London: J. Nourse, 1769). Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.

  • 11710

Dell' azione del cuore ne' vasi sanguigni nuove osservasioni.

[No Place Identified, but] Modena: [No publisher identified], 1768.

In this response to Haller's Deux mémoires sur le mouvement du sang (1756) (No. 11607) Spallanzani outlined his own findings on the action of the heart upon the blood vessels. "Haller's microscopic observations of blood movements had been made by refracted light on midium-sized vessels in the isolated mesontery of the frog. Splallanzani, using P. Lyonet's novel dissecting apparatus, conducted his observations mostly in a darkened room with reflected light from sunbeams impinging upon exposed parts of the aquatic salamander. He systematically noted now the cardiac systolic force motivated the blood circulation. The rhythmic inequality of blood flow in the aorta and large vessels disappeared in medium and small arteries, becoming regular and uniform. The velocity diminished in the smaller vessels, but sinuosities did not retard the flow. In the smallest vessels, individual red corpuscles negoiated acute angles and folds by elastically changing shape. The blood velocity in the venous sytem increased as the caliber of the vessels enlarged. Haller responed to the many amplifications and corrections of his work by securing Spallanzati's election to the Royal Society of Sciences of Gottingen" (Dolman, DSB 12, 553).

 Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 11733

The works of Robert Whytt, M.D. Late physician to his Majesty.... Published by his son.

Edinburgh: T. Becket & London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt, 1768.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 2204

Synopsis nosologiae methodicae.

Edinburgh: [No publisher identified], 1769.

This work made Cullen’s reputation. In it he divided diseases into fevers, neurosis, cachexias and local disorders. Cullen was the foremost British clinical teacher of his time, one of the first to give clinical lectures in Great Britain. (See also No. 76.) Several English translations are available. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. Translated as Nosology: Or, a systematic arrangement of diseases, by classes, orders, genera, and species ... and outlines of the systems of Sauvages, Linnaeus, Vogel, Sagar, and Macbride (London, 1800). Digital facsimile of the 1800 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Medicine: General Works, Nosology
  • 1763

A discourse upon the duties of a physician, with some sentiments, on the usefulness and necessity of a public hospital: Delivered before the president and governors of King's College, at the commencement, held on the 16th of May, 1769. As advice to those gentlemen who then received the first medical degrees conferred by that university.

New York: A. & J. Robertson, 1769.

The first American treatise on medical ethics, and the first treatise on medical ethics published in the English language. Samuel Bard was one of the founders of King’s College, New York. Digital facsimile from the National Library of Medicine, Internet Archive, at this link.

  • 3167

Observations on the asthma and on the hooping cough.

London: T. Cadell, 1769.

Includes Millar’s original description of laryngismus stridulus (“Millar’s asthma”).

Subjects: ALLERGY › Asthma, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases
  • 3807

An account and method of cure of the bronchocele or Derby neck.

London: W. Owen, 1769.

Prosser gave the prescription of a powder containing calcined sponge, to be taken for the cure of goitre. This is probably the first recorded use of an iodine preparation in England.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 5304

Essay on the natural history of Guiana, in South America. Containing a description of many curious productions in the animal and vegetable systems of that country. Together with an account of the religion, manners, and customs of several tribes of its Indian inhabitants. Interspersed with a variety of literary and medical observations. In several letters....

London: T. Becket, 1769.

Bancroft was an English physician who lived for many years in South America. He noted the transmission of yaws by flies (p. 385 of his book). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 6380

A medical discourse, or an historical inquiry into the ancient and present state of medicine: The substance of which was delivered at opening the medical school, in the city of New York. Printed by Desire.

New York: Hugh Gaine, 1769.

The first American publication on medical history. Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: History of Medicine: General Works
  • 9148

Domestic medicine or, the family physician: Being an attempt to render the medical art more generally useful, by shewing people what Is in their own power both with respect to the prevention and cure of diseases: Chiefly calculated to recommend a proper attention to regimen and simple medicines.

Edinburgh: Printed by Balfour, Auld and Smellie, 1769.

This pioneering medical self-help book was an instant success, selling 80,000 copies in Buchan's lifetime— a huge number for that time, and was translated into all the major European languages. Digital facsimile from Harvard Library at this link.

Jean-Denis Duplanil (1740-1802) translated Buchan's work into French as Médecine domestique (Paris, 1775). This single volume French edition Duplanil gradually expanded with new material. Duplanil's fifth edition in French reached 5 vols. (Paris, 1802). Digital facsimile of the 5th edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Household or Self-Help Medicine, Hygiene, Popularization of Medicine
  • 13008

Nouvelle méthode facile et curieuse pour connoitre le pouls par les notes de la musique, par feu M.F.N. Marquet. Seconde édition, augmentée de plusieurs observations et réflexions critiques, & d'une dissertation en forme de thèse sur cette méthode; d'un mémoire sur la manière de guérir la mélancholie par la musique, & de l'éloge historique de M. Marquet. Par Pierre-Joseph Buc'hoz.

Paris & Amsterdam: P.-F. Didot, 1769.

Buc'hoz applied his father-in-laws theories of music therapy to the treatment of depression. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: Music and Medicine, PSYCHIATRY › Depression
  • 13542

Consideraciones politico-medicas sobre la salud de los navegantes, en que se exponen las causas de sus mas frecuentes enfermedades, modo de precaverlas, y curarlas. Con las conducentes instrucciones para el mejor régimen de los cirujanos de navíos, que hacen viage à la América, especialmente para los de la Real Compañia Guipuzcoana de Caracas, à fin de que con mayor acierto se conduzcan, asi en el méthodo curativo de los enfermos, como en el manejo de los botiquines de su cargo.

Madrid: Antonio Sanz, 1769.

A treatise specifically concerning the health of sailors of the Real Compañia Guipuzcoana de Caracas (Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas)-- Basque traders who had a monopoly on the Venezuelan trade. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Venezuela, Maritime Medicine