An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15429 entries, 13282 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 23, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 2400–2499

126 entries
  • 2400

Zur Technik der Spirochaetenuntersuchung.

Wien. klin. Wschr., 19, 1349-50, 1906.

Dark field method of diagnosis for presence of T. pallidum.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2401

A propos de l’impregnation au nitrate d’argent des spirochètes sur coupes.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 60, 67-68, 1906.

Levaditi’s method of staining T. pallidum.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2402

Eine serodiagnostische Reaktion bei Syphilis.

Dtsch. med. Wschr., Berlin, 32, 745-46, 1906.

The “Wassermann reaction”, a specific diagnostic blood test for syphilis, and a modification of the complement-fixation reaction of Bordet and Gengou. With A. Neisser and C. Bruck.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2403

Die experimentelle Chemotherapie der Spirillosen (Syphilis, Rückfallfieber, Hühnerspirillose, Frambösie).

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1910.

After many experiments on the action of synthetic drugs upon spirochetal diseases, Ehrlich and Hata in 1909 discovered Arsphenamine (Salvarsan, "the arsenic that saves", also known as “606”), an effective treatment for syphilis and trypanosomiasis. Arsphenamine was the first modern chemotherapeutic agent.

Manufactured by the German chemical company Hoechst, Salvarsan quickly became the most widely prescribed drug in the world. It was the first blockbuster drug, and remained the most effective drug for syphilis until penicillin became available in the 1940s. Digital facsimile of the German edition from the Internet Archive at this link. English translation, New York, 1912.

Ehrlich's discovery became the subject of the 1940 biographical film entitled Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet. The film was released by Warner Bros., with some controversy over the subject of syphilis in a major studio release. 



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Triatomine Bug-Borne Diseases › Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) , PARASITOLOGY › Trypanosoma, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Chemotherapeutic Agents › Arsphenamine
  • 2404

A method for the pure cultivation of pathogenic Treponema pallidum (Spirochaeta pallida).

J. exp. Med., 14, 99-108, 1911.

Pure culture of T. pallidum first obtained. Digital facsimile from digitalcommon.oshu.edu at this link.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes › Treponema , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2405

Ueber Laboratoriumsversuche und klinische Erprobung von Heilstoffen.

Chem. Ztg., 36, 637-38, 1912.

Introduction of neoarsphenamine (neosalvarsan).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 2406

Die Ausflockung kolloidalen Goldes durch Zerebrospinalflüssigkeit bei luetischenAffektiondesZentralnervensystems.

Z. Chemother., 1, 44-78, 1913.

Lange’s colloidal gold test for the diagnosis of cerebrospinal syphilis. See also Berl. klin. Wschr., 1912, 49, 897-901.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, NEUROLOGY › Neurosyphilis
  • 2407

Ueber ein neue Methode der serologischen Luesdiagnose.

Berl. klin. Wschr., 54, 613-14, 1917.

Meinicke diagnostic reaction.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2408

Zur Kritik des serologischen Luesnachweises mittels Ausflockung.

Münch. med. Wschr., 66, 440-42, 1919.

Sachs–Georgi diagnostic reaction.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2409

Über die Serodiagnostik der Syphilis mittels Ausflockung durch cholesterinierte Extrakte.

Med. Klin., 15, 139-40, 1919.

Weichardt’s reagent.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2410

A more rapid and improved method of demonstrating spirochetes in tissues (Warthin and Starry’s cover-glass method).

Amer. J. Syph., 4, 97-103, 1920.

Warthin and Starry’s method.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2411

Traitement de la syphilis par le bismuth.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 173, 338-40, 1921.

Introduction of sodium-potassium bismuth tartrate in the treatment of syphilis.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2412

A simple quantative precipitation reaction for syphilis.

Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chicago), 5, 570-78, 1922.

Kahn test.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2413

Studies in the standardization of the Wassermann reaction. XXX. A new complement-fixation test for syphilis based upon the results of studies in the standardization of technic.

Amer. J. Syph., 6, 82-110, 1922.

Kolmer test.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2414

Bismuth arsphenamine sulphate.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 89, 1500-1505, 1927.

Clinical introduction of bismarsen, synthesized by G. W. Raiziss in 1924.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2414.1

Studies in the serology of syphilis. VII. A new flocculation test for the serum diagnosis of syphilis.

J. Lab. clin. Med 17, 787-91, 1932.

Eagle flocculation test.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2415

An experimental study of mapharsen (meta-amino para-hydroxy phenyl arsine oxide) as an antisyphilitic agent.

J. Pharmacol., 50, 198-215, 1934.

Introduction of mapharsen.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 2416

Mapharsen in the treatment of syphilis. A preliminary report.

Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chicago), 32, 868-92, 1935.

Clinical use of mapharsen. With R. L. McIntosh, L. M. Wieder, H. R. Foerster, and G. A. Cooper.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2417

A new serologically active phospholipid from beef heart.

Proc. Soc,. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 48, 484-86, 1941.

Cardiolipin antigen for serological diagnosis of syphilis. For isolation and purification see J. biol. Chem., 1942, 143, 247-56.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2418

Penicillin treatment of early syphilis. A preliminary report.

Vener. Dis. Inform., 24, 355-57; also in Amer. J. publ. Hlth., 33, 1387-91, 1943, 1943.

Mahoney and colleagues introduced penicillin in treatment of syphilis. This was the report of the first four cases of patients with early stages of the disease. Digital facsimile of the version published in the the American Journal of Public Health from PubMedCentral at this link.

See John Parascandola, "John Mahoney and the introduction of penicillin to treat syphilis," Pharmacy in history, 43 (2001) 3-13.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 2418.1

A microflocculation test for syphilis using cardiolipin antigen: preliminary report.

J. vener. Dis. Inform., 27, 169-74, 1946.

V. D. Research Laboratory test (Harris test). With A. A. Rosenberg and L. M. Riedel.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2419

Immobilization of Treponema pallidum in vitro by antibody produced in syphilitic infection.

J. exp. Med., 89, 369-93, 1949.

Nelson’s treponemal immobilization test.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2419.1

Reiter protein complement fixation test for syphilis.

Publ. Hlth. Rep. (Wash.)., 72, 335-40, 1957.

See also H. Reiter, Brit. J. vener. Dis., 1960, 36, 18-20.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2419.2

A fluorescent test for treponemal antibodies.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y), 96, 477-80, 1957.

Fluorescent treponemal antibody test. With V. H. Falcone and A. Harris.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2419.3

An improved FTA test for syphilis; the absorption procedure (FTA-ABS).

Publ. Hlth. Rep. (Wash.), 79, 410-412, 1964.

Absorbed fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA-ABS) test. With W. E. Deacon and P. E. Meyer.  The text is available from the NLM PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2419.4

Haemagglutination test utilizing pathogenic Treponema pallidum for the sero-diagnosis of syphilis.

Brit. J. vener. Dis., 43, 181-5, 1967.

Treponemal hemagglutination (TPHA) test.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2420

Die ältesten Schriftseller über die Lustseuche in Deutschland, von 1495 bis 1510.

Göttingen: Dietrich, 1843.

Gives texts of German tracts on syphilis published between 1495 and 1510.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2421

Geschichte der Lustseuche. Erster Theil. Die Lustseuche im Alterthume.

Halle: J. F. Lippert, 1845.

French translation, 1847; English translation as The plague of lust, being a history of venereal disease in classical antiquity, and including: Detailed investigations into the cult of Venus, and phallic worship, brothels, the nousos thelēia (Femine disease) of the Scythians, Paederastia, and sexual perversions amongst the ancients, as contributions towards the exact interpretation of their writings. Translated from the Sixth (unabridged) German edition by An Oxford M.A. 2 vols. (Paris: Charles Carrington, 1901). Digital facsimile of the 1839 edition from the Hathi Trust at this link; of the 1901 English translation at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis, SEXUALITY / Sexology › History of Sexuality / Sexology
  • 2422

Syphilis today and among the ancients. 2 vols.

Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 18911895.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2423

Der Ursprung der Syphilis. 2 pts.

Jena: Gustav Fischer, 19011911.

Bloch was a chief modern supporter of the theory of the Columbian origin of syphilis.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2424

Aus der Frühgeschichte der Syphilis.

Leipzig: Barth, 1912.

Sudhoff believed in the pre-Columbian existence of syphilis.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis, Pre-Columbian Medicine, History of
  • 2425

Mal Franzoso in Italien in der ersten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts.

Giessen: A. Töpelmann, 1912.

Forms Heft 5 of K. Sudhoff & G. Sticker: Zur historischen Biologie der Krankheitserreger.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2426

Beiträge zur Geschichte der Syphilis: insbesondere über ihren Ursprung und ihre Pathologie in Ostasien.

Tokyo: Nankodo, 1923.

Gives, in an appendix, a list of writers on syphilis from 1495 to 1829.  Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Japan, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2427

The earliest printed literature on syphilis. Being ten tractates from the years 1495-98. By Karl Sudhoff. Adapted by Charles Singer.

Florence: R. Lier & Co, 1925.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2428

Histoire de la syphilis.

Paris: G. Doin, 1931.

Forms tome I of Traité de la syphilis, ed. by E. Jeanselme and E. Shulmann.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2429

The history and epidemiology of syphilis.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1933.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2429.1

Entstehung und Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsache. Einführung in die Lehre vom Denkstil und Denkkollektiv.

Basel: Benno Schwabe, 1935.

A very thorough history of the discovery of the Wasserman reaction, and its acceptance by the scientific community. English translation: Genesis and development of a scientific fact, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1979.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2430

Who gave the world syphilis? The Haitian myth.

New York: Froben Press, 1937.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Haiti, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2431

Syphilis in earlier days.

London: H. K. Lewis, 1940.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2432

Notable contributors to the knowledge of syphilis.

New York: Froben Press, 1944.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 2432.1

A history of syphilis.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1962.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 22
  • 2433
  • 3162
  • 3163
  • 3612
  • 3925
  • 4484
  • 4510
  • 4808
  • 4915
  • 5046
  • 5089
  • 5146

Тα ∑ωζομενα. The extant works of Aretaeus, the Cappadocian. Edited and translated by Francis Adams.

London: Sydenham Society, 1856.

Aretaeus left many fine descriptions of disease; in fact Garrison ranks him second only to Hippocrates in this respect. In the printed editions of this bibliography, before the present online version, the Adams edition was cited no less than 12 times for individual diseases, plus its first citation in "Collected Works" (No. 22.) This number of citations is, of course, greater than any other specific work by any other author, though the number of citations may be a reflection of idiosyncracies of the compilers rather than a proportionate measure of the significance of Aretaeus in the history of medicine. The citations are as follows:

 

3162. On angina, or quinsey. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 249-52, 404-07.

3163. On pleurisy. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 255-58, 410-16.

2433. On elephas, or elephantiasis. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams, 366-73, 494-98. Classic description of “elephantiasis Aretaei”, nodous leprosy.

5046. On ulcerations about the tonsils. In hiis Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 253-55. Aretaeus’s description of ulcerations about the tonsils, which he called “ulcera Syrica”, clearly referred to diphtheria, of which it was the first unmistakable description. For his treatment of the disease, see pp. 409-10 of the same work.

5089. On dysentery. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 353-57. Prior to Lösch’s discovery of E. histolytica, all forms of dysentery were differentiated only on clinical grounds.

4915. Extant works. Ed. F. Adams. Aretaeus wrote important accounts of melancholy (298-300, 473-78) and madness (301-04).

5146. On tetanus. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams,  246-49, 400-04. Aretaeus left a full account of tetanus.

4484,  On arthritis and sciatica. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams,  362-65, 492-93,

3612. On jaundice, or icterus. In his Extant works, ed F. Adams, 324-28.

4510. On paralysis. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams.

4808. On epilepsy, in his Extant works, ed F. Adams,  243, 296, 399, 468. Aretaeus was well acquainted with hemi-epilepsy from local injury in the opposite half of the brain; partly from this knowledge he formulated the “decussation in the form of the letter X” of the motor path. He first described epilepsy resulting from a depressed fracture of the skull. In his excellent description he made the first mention of the aura.

3925. On diabetes.In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 338-40, 485-86. The first accurate account of diabetes, to which Aretaeus gave its present name; he insisted on the part which thirst plays in the symptomatology. 

According to the Wikipedia article on Headache, Aretaeus also provied the first recorded classification system for headaches: "He made a distinction between three different types of headache: i) cephalalgia, by which he indicates a shortlasting, mild headache; ii) cephalea, referring to a chronic type of headache; and iii) heterocrania, a paroxysmal headache on one side of the head." 

Digital facsimile of Adams's Greek and Latin edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

 



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Dysentery, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tetanus, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis), Medicine: General Works, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, PSYCHIATRY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases, RHEUMATOLOGY › Arthritis
  • 2434

Om spedalskhed. Udgivet efter Foranstaltning af den Kongelige Norske Regjerings Department for det Indre. 1 vol. and atlas.

Bergen, Norway: trykt hos C. Grondahl, 1847.

First modern description of leprosy (“Danielssen-Boeck disease’’). Danielssen, physician to the leprosy hospital at Bergen, was the founder of scientific leprology. The extremely rare Atlas  consists of 24 plates and two pages of text. French translation, Paris, J. B. Baillière, 1848; the atlas was also reproduced in French, Rio de Janeiro, in 1946.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Norway, DERMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PATHOLOGY › Pathology Illustration
  • 2435

Notes on native remedies. No. 1. The chaulmoogra.

Indian Ann. med. Sci., 1, 646-52, 1854.

Chaulmoogra oil was first introduced into Western medicine by Mouat, having been used for many centuries previously by the Chinese



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Chaulmoogra, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2436

Indberetning til det Norske mediciniske Selskab i Christiania om en med understottelse af selskabet foretaghen reise for at anstille undersogelser angaende spedalskhedens arsager, tidels udforte sammen med forstander Hartwig.

Norsk. Mag. f Laegevidensk., 3 R., 4, 9 Heft, 1-88; Case reports, i-liii., 1874.

Hansen discovered the leprosy bacillus on 28 February 1873. He had been stimulated by the previous work of Danielssen and Boeck, and his own demonstration of the leprosy bacillus is one of the earliest observations of pathogenic bacteria. For an English translation of the paper see Brit. for. med. -chir. Rev., 1875, 55, 459-89.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium , DERMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy
  • 2436.1

Über die Ätiologie des Aussatzes.

Jber. akad. nat. Vereins Breslau, 57, 65-72., Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau), 1879.

Neisser obtained leprosy tissue from Hansen and, using aniline dyes for staining Myco. leprae, was able to demonstrate it more convincingly than Hansen.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy
  • 2436.2

Eine Lepraähnliche Erkrankung der Haut und der Lymphdrtüsen bei Wanderratten.

Zbl. Bakt., I Abt. Orig., 33, 481-7., 1903.

Murine leprosy described.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy
  • 2437

The constituents of chaulmoogra seeds.

J., chem. Soc., 85, 838-51, 1904.

Hydnocarpus wightiana or Chaulmoogra is a tree in the Achariaceae family. The oil from seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana or Chaulmoogra, a tree in the Achariaceae family, was widely used in Indian medicine and Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of leprosy and other skin diseases. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Chaulmoogra, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2438

The cultivation of the Bacillus leprae.

Indian med. Gaz., 39, 167-69, 1904.

Rost cultivated the leprosy bacillus, and he prepared leprolin, formerly used in treating leprosy.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy
  • 2439

Histotechnik der leprösen Haut.

Hamburg & Leipzig, 1910.

Unna was among the first to maintain that the lymphatics were involved in leprosy and that it was curable.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, DERMATOLOGY › Dermatopathology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy
  • 2440

On the value of a skin reaction to a suspension of leprous nodules.

Hifuka Hinyoha Zasshi, [Jap. J. Derm. Urol.], 19, 697-708, 1919.

Mitsuda (lepromin) reaction. English translation by the author in Int. J. Leprosy, 1953, 21, 347-58.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, Laboratory Medicine › Diagnostic Skin Tests
  • 2440.1

A plea for the early recognition of leprosy, with notes on diagnosis and methods.

J. Philippine med. Ass., 4, 132-40, 1924.

The scraped-incision slit-skin method for bacterial examination in leprosy.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Philippines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy
  • 1926
  • 2440.2

The action of substances allied to 4:4'-diaminodiphenylsulphone in streptococcal and other infections in mice.

Biochem. J., 32, 1101-10, 1938.

G. A. H. Buttle, T. Dewing, G. E. Foster, W. H. Gray, S. Smith, and D. Stephenson discovered the potency of dapsone (DDS).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2441

The promin treatment of leprosy. A progress report.

Publ. Hlth Rep. (Wash.), 58, 1729-41, 1943.

Promin (sodium glucosulphone) introduced in the treatment of leprosy. With R. C. Pogge, F. A. Johansen, J. F. Dinan, B. M. Prejean, and C. G. Eccles.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2442

Preliminary report on diasone in the treatment of leprosy.

Int. J. Leprosy, 12, 1-6, 1944.

Muir found diasone (a sulphone) valuable in the treatment of leprosy.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2442.1

Leprosy treated with sulphetrone in 1943.

Proc. roy. Soc. Med., 41, 309-10, 1948.

Clinical use of solapsone (sulphetrone).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2442.2

Clinical trials of diphenyl thiourea compound SU 1906 (Ciba 1509E) in the treatment of leprosy. Progress during the first year.

Leprosy Rev., 27, 94-111, 1956.

Introduction of diphenylthiourea (thiambutosine) therapy.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2442.3

Diethyl dithiolisophthalate in the treatment of leprosy (ETIP or “Etisul”); a progress report.

Leprosy Rev., 30, 61-72, 1959.

Ditophal (Etisul) in leprosy.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2442.4

Acid-fast bacilli in nasal excretions in leprosy, and results of inoculation of mice.

Amer. J. Hyg., 71, 147-57, 1960.

Transmission of leprosy to animals. See also J. exp. Med., 1960, 112, 445.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy
  • 2442.5

Experimental and clinical studies on rifampicin in treatment of leprosy.

Brit. med. J., 1, 89-92, 1970.

With J. M. H. Pearson and M. F. R. Waters.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2443

La lèpre à travers les siècles et les contrées.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1914.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy › History of Leprosy
  • 2444

Leper houses and mediaeval hospitals.

London: H. K. Lewis, 1915.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy › History of Leprosy
  • 2446

Through the leper-squint. A study of leprosy from pre-Christian times to the present day.

London: Selwyn & Blount, 1938.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy › History of Leprosy
  • 2447

Indice bibliográfico de lepra, 1560-1943. 3 vols.

São Paulo, Brazil, 19441948.

Supplements 1-5, 1952-62.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Diseases, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy › History of Leprosy, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2447.1

The fight against leprosy.

London: Elek, 1964.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy › History of Leprosy
  • 2448

Lumbricus teres, or some anatomical observations on the round worm bred in human bodies.

Phil. Trans., 13, 133-61, 1683.

Tyson gave one of the first descriptions of the anatomy of Ascaris lumbricoides.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Ascaris
  • 2448.1

Osservazioni … intomo agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi.

Florence: per P. Matini, 1684.

Redi was among the first of the parasitologists. He demonstrated the reproductive organs of Ascaris lumbricoides and also ascaris eggs. The results of his experiments appear in the above work, which also records his study and description of 108 different species.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Ascaris
  • 2448.2

De la géneration des vers dans le corps de l’homme.

Paris: d’Houry, 1700.

The first medical parasitology text– an exhaustive study of the parasites of man, the diseases associated with them and their treatment. Andry’s views were often ahead of his time. Unlike most of his contemporaries, he did not believe in the spontaneous generation of parasites but clearly stated that their seeds entered the body from outside sources and that some foods were particularly liable to contain them. English translation, London, 1701.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms, ZOOLOGY › Helminthology
  • 2449

Entozoorum, sive verminum intestinalium, historia naturalis. 2 vols.

Amsterdam, 18081810.

A system of helminthology. Rudolphi gave the name “echinococcus” to the common vesicular hydatid, describing three species.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths
  • 2450

Ueber Cestoden im allgemeinen und die des Menschen insbesondere, hauptsächlich mit Berücksichtigung ihrer Entwickelungsgeschichte, geographischen Verbreitung, Prophylaxe und Abtreibung; für Freunde der Naturwissenschaften, Aerzte, Medicinalpolizei-Beamte, Staats- und Privat-Oekonomen.

Zittau, Germany: Wilh. Pahl, 1853.

Kuchenmeister conducted research on tapeworms, trichinosis, and other parasites and wrote about it several works. In 1852, his theory that bladder-worms are juvenile tapeworms gained the attention of the medical profession. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases › Trichinosis, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms, PARASITOLOGY › Trichinella, ZOOLOGY › Helminthology
  • 2451

Traité des entozoaires et des maladies vermineuses.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1860.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms
  • 2452

Entozoa. 2 pts.

London: Groombridge & Sons, 18641869.

Cobbold was the most distinguished helminthologist of his time. He named Filaria bancrofti, Bilharzia haematobia, and several other parasites. He was a friend of Manson, several of whose papers he communicated to the Linnean Society and the Quekett Microscopical Club.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Filaria
  • 2453
  • 5344

Die menschlichen Parasiten und die von ihnen herrührenden Krankheiten. 2 vols.

Leipzig: C. F. Winter, 18621876.

Includes the first complete and accurate account of the life history and morphology of Taenia echinococcus. Leuckart proved the relationship between hydatid cysts and minute tape-worms in dogs. English translation, Edinburgh, 1886. Digital facsimile of the German edition from Google Books at this link; facsimile of the English translation at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms
  • 2454

Die thierischen Parasiten des Menschen.

Würzburg: A. Stuber, 1883.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY
  • 2455

The Filaria sanguinis hominis and certain new form of parasitic disease in India, China and warm countries.

London: H. K. Lewis, 1883.

A collection of several papers written by Manson.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Filaria, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 2456

Traité de zoologie médicale. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18861890.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Helminthology
  • 2457

Reise-Bericht über Rinderpest, Bubonenpest in Indien und Afrika, Tsetse-oder Surrakrankheit, Texasfieber, tropische Malaria, Schwarzwasserfieber.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1898.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Texas Cattle Fever, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Epizootics
  • 2458

Protozoa and disease. 4 vols.

London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 19031915.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Protozoa
  • 2459

Researches in helminthology and parasitology. With a bibliography of his contributions to science.

Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1904.

In vol. 46 of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Leidy was called the greatest descriptive naturalist in mid-19th century America.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths
  • 2460

Life history of Ascaris lumbricoides and related forms.

J. Agric. Res., 11, 395-98, 1917.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Ascaris
  • 2461

Key-catalogue of the protozoa reported for man.

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1925.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Protozoa
  • 2462

Protozoology. 2 vols.

London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1926.

Wenyon was one of the world’s foremost authorities on medical protozoology.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Protozoa, ZOOLOGY › Protistology (formerly Protozoology)
  • 2463

Landmarks in medical helminthology.

J. Helminth, 7, 101-18, 1929.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths, PARASITOLOGY › History of Parasitology
  • 2463.1

A history of parasitology.

Edinburgh: E. S. Livingstone Ltd, 1965.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › History of Parasitology
  • 2464
  • 5020

Diatribae duae medico-philosophicae, quarum prior agit de fermentatione sive de motu intestino particularum in quovis corpore, altera de febribus sive de motu earundum in sanguine animalium.

London: T. Roycroft, 1659.

Includes (De febribus, cap. X, XIV) first description of epidemic typhoid. English translation in his Practice of physick, 1684, Treatise II, 83-98, 1111-18.

Contains the earliest suggestion that fermentation is an intestinal or internal motion of particles; the analogy between putrefaction and fermentation is also noted.

 



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever, MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2464.1
  • 3669.4

An abstract of a letter…Sep. 17, 1683. Containing some microscopical observations, about animals in the scurf of the teeth.

Phil. Trans., 14, 568-74, 1684.

Records discovery of bacteria in the mouth, with the first illustrations of the basic types – what were much later called cocci (round or oval), bacilli (rod-shaped) and spiriillum (spiral) forms. Although Leeuwenhoek had observed bacteria earlier, calling them animalcules, this paper is usually considered the first memoir on what were later called bacteria. At this early date the concept of microbiome did not yet exist; however, this paper also marks the beginning of our understanding of how parts of the human body are normally populated by bacteria. Digital facsimile from the Royal Society at this link.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, DENTISTRY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › GENERAL PRINCIPLES of Infection by Microorganisms, MICROBIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome
  • 2465

Abhandlung fiber die Saamen- und Infusionsthierchen, und über die Erzeugung: nebst mikroskopischen Beobachtungen des Saamens der Thiere, und verschiedener Infusionen.

Nuremberg: A. W. Winterschmidt, 1778.

Gleichen was probably the first to attempt to stain bacteria; he used carmine and indigo.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2466

Animalcula infusoria fluviatilia et marina, quae detexit, systematice descripsit et ad vivum delineari.

Copenhagen: N. Mölleri, 1786.

Müller was the first to attempt a systematic classification of infusoria. He published several papers on the subject, the best being the above posthumous work. Muller described 8 species of the genus Vibrio (included in Infusoria).



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Vibrio , BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, MICROBIOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Protistology (formerly Protozoology)
  • 2467

Dell’arte de fare il vino.

Florence, 1787.

Fabbroni was the first to promote modern ideas on the nature of fermentation. He showed that air was not considered necessary for fermentation to take place; he was first to regard the ferment as an albumenoid substance. Pasteur considered Fabbroni’s work the beginning of modern ideas on the subject. Fabbroni’s theory of the fermentation of wine was influential throughout the 19th century. Several of the terms used by him are in use today.



Subjects: Winemaking (Oenology), Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2467.1

L’Art de conserver, pendant plusieurs années, toutes les substances animales et végétales….

Paris: Patris, 1810.

The first workable process for canning foods. In 1795 Appert began developing the process under Napoleon’s auspices as a way to maintain food on military expeditions. For strategic reasons he was not allowed to publish the secret method until 1810. Appert’s method was strictly empirical. Pasteur eventually discovered a scientific explanation for the process and refined its operation. See Nos. 2479 & 2480. Digital facsimile of Appert's work from BnF Gallica at this link. Appert's work was translated into English as The art of preserving all kinds of animal and vegetable substances for several years (London, 1811).



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 2468

Vergiftung durch verdorbene Würste.

Tüb. Blätt. Naturw. Arzneykde, 3, 1-25, 1817.

Botulism first described. Kerner published an expanded study as Neue Beobachtungen über die in Würtemberg so häufig vorfallenden tödtlichen Vergiftung durch den Genuss geräuchter Würstem, Tübingen, 1820. He published his most extensive report as Das Fettgift oder Die Fettsäure und ihre Wirkungen auf den thierischen Organismus, ein Beitrag zur Untersuchung des in Würsten giftig wirkenden Stoffes (1822). This monograph "reviewed 155 cases of poisoned patients and precisely described the autonomic dysfunctions: “The tear fluid disappears, the gullet becomes a dead and motionless tube; in all mucous cavities of the human machine the secretion of the normal mucus stands still, from the largest, the stomach, to the tear duct and the excretory ducts of the lingual glands. No saliva is secreted. No drop of wetness is felt in the mouth…”. (https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(05)78793-6/fulltext).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases › Botulism, TOXICOLOGY
  • 111
  • 2469

Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. 1 vol. and atlas of 64 hand-colored engraved plates.

Leipzig: L. Voss, 1838.

In this monumental work in folio format Ehrenberg extended Otto Friedrich Müller’s bacteriological classification. Like Müller, he made no distinction between protozoa and bacteria, classing them both as infusoria. His classification included Bacterium, which he described and named in 1828, and published in 1830, Vibrio, Spirillum and Spirochaeta. The fine hand-colored plates in this book were drawn by Ehrenberg himself. Includes (p. 80) first description of B. subtilis.

Ehrenberg's book was translated into French with the atlas in reduced  8vo format and condensed to 8 uncolored plates, as Traité pratique du microscope, et de son emploi dans l'étude des corps organisés par le docteur L. Mandl; suivi de Recherches sur l'organisation des animaux infusoires par D.-C.-G. Ehrenberg. Accompagné de quatorze planches. (Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1839). Digital facsimile of the 1839 translation from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Spirillium, BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Vibrio , BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes, BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, MICROBIOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Protistology (formerly Protozoology)
  • 2470

Histoire naturelle des zoophytes.

Paris: Lib. encyclopéd. de Roret, 1841.

Further modification of and improvements in the classification of bacteria.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2471

History of a case in which a fluid periodically ejected from the stomach contained vegetable organisms of an undescribed form.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 57, 430-43, 1842.

First description of Sarcina ventriculi, discovered by Goodsir.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Sarcina, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2472

Mémoire sur la fermentation appelée lactique.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 45, 913-16, 1857.

First demonstration of the connection between a specific fermentation and the activity of a specific living micro-organism. This paper is often considered the beginning of bacteriology as a modern science. The above work is a very much abridged “Extrait par l’auteur” of the complete text of Pasteur’s full paper which underwent roughly simultaneous publication in Mémoires de la Société des Sciences, de l’Agriculture et des Arts de Lille, 2e sér., 1858, 5, 13-26, and in Ann. de Chim. et de Phys., 3e sér., 1858, 52, 408-18.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Lactobacillus , MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2473

Nouveaux faits pour server à l’histoire de la levure lactique.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 48, 337-38, 1859.

This and the preceding entry mark Pasteur’s commencement of the study of fermentation. This paper described Pasteur’s method of cultivating micro-organisms in a medium free of organic nitrogen to produce fermentations. The method was absolutely fundamental to his work, but not developed for his initial paper on lactic fermentation. He found that the conversion of sugar to lactic acid in fermentation is due to small corpuscles, isolated or grouped.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2474

Expériences relatives aux générations dites spontanées.

C. R. Acad. sci. (Paris), 50, 303-07, 849-54; 51, 348-52, 675-78, 1860.


Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2475

Mémoire sur les corpuscles organisés qui existent dans l’atmosphère. Examen de la doctrine des générations spontanées.

Ann. Sci. nat. (Zool), 16, 5-98, 1861.

In these easily reproducible experiments, prefaced by an important historical introduction, Pasteur demonstrated beyond dispute that fermentation is caused by the action of minute living organisms, and that if these are excluded or killed fermentation does not occur. The heating process which Pasteur recommended for sterilization was the earliest form of “pasteurization”. The above paper marks the downfall of the theory of spontaneous generation. Pasteur’s researches on fermentation led him to the discovery of the bacteria and yeasts and hence to the germ theory of disease; from this all modern bacteriology and immunology have developed.



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2475.1

Animalcules infusoires vivant sans gaz oxygène libre et déterminant des fermentations.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 52, 344-47, 1861.

The discovery of strict anaerobiosis, important for general biology since it shows that oxygen gas is not a requisite for life.



Subjects: BIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2476

Nouvel exemple de fermentation determinée par des animalcules infusoires pouvant vivre sans gaz oxygène libre, et en dehors de tout contact avec l’air de l’atmosphere.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 56, 416-21, 1863.

Pasteur confirmed the fact, established by Schwann (No. 674) that putrefaction was a biological process.



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2477

Examen du rôle attribué au gaz oxygène atmosphérique dans la destruction des matières et végétales après la mort.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 56, 734-40, 1863.


Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2478

Recherches sur la putréfaction.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 56, 1189-94, 1863.

Pasteur was the first to differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic organisms. (See also Nos. 2476-77.)



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2479

Études sur le vin.

Paris: Imp. impérial, 1866.

Although Pasteur’s method of preserving wine by partial heat sterilization (“pasteurization”) turned out to be a revival of Appert’s invention (No. 2467.1), Pasteur did rescue the method from oblivion and established on the basis of rigorous scientific experiments what had been only a poorly tested and entirely empirical technique.



Subjects: Winemaking (Oenology), Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2480

Études sur le vinaigre.

Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1868.

Pasteur proved that a microorganism was essential to acetification and developed a patented method which greatly increased the efficiency of production.



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY, Winemaking (Oenology), Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2481

Études sur la maladie des vers à soie. 2 vols.

Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1870.

This work saved the French silk industry, which had been crippled by the disease pébrine. After three years of research on the problem, Pasteur was able to show that the disease known as pébrine was caused by a parasite, and that the disease known as flacherie, which authorities had thought to be a manifestation of pébrine, was in reality a bacterial disease with its own character and etiology. He developed a screening method, still used today, that employs systematic microscopic examination to separate infected silkworm eggs from healthy ones.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, PARASITOLOGY
  • 2482

Ueber Bakterien in der Pockenhaut.

Zhl. med. Wiss., 9, 609-11, 1871.

Weigert, famous as pathologist and histologist, was the first to stain bacteria. He introduced many of the best staining methods in use today. Weigert discovered bacteria in hemorrhagic smallpox. In the same paper is described how carmine will color cocci.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox , MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2483

Untersuchungen über Bacterien.

Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen, 1, Heft 2, 127-224; Heft 3, 141-207; 1876, 2, Heft 2, 249-76, 1872, 1875.

Cohn’s morphological classification of bacteria. He founded the Beiträge.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2484

A further contribution to the natural history of bacteria and the germ theory of fermentative changes.

Quart. J. micr. Sci., n.s. 13, 380-408, 1873.

Isolation of Bacterium lactis, the specific micro-organism responsible for the lactic acid fermentation of milk.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Lactobacillus , MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2485

Études sur la bière, ses maladies, causes qui les provoquent, procédé pour la rendre inaltérable; avec une théorie nouvelle de la fermentation.

Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1876.

Pasteur resumed his studies on fermentation in 1876, and in this book took into account the developments in this field since his previous publications on the subject. He described a new and perfected method of preparing pure yeast and acknowledged that a limited quantity of oxygen was important for brewing. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. English translation as Studies on fermentation. The diseases of beer, their causes and the means of preventing them.... A translation, made with the author's sanction (London, 1879). Digital facsimile of the English translation from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

 



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2486

Ueber eine Mykose bei einem neugeborenen Kinde (Bakterienfärbung mit Anilinfarben).

Jber. schles. Ges. vaterl. Cultur, (1875), 53, 229, 1876.

In this paper Weigert showed that methyl violet will reveal cocci in tissues.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, MICROBIOLOGY, PEDIATRICS › Neonatology
  • 2487

Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Anilinfärbungen und ihrer Verwendung in der mikroskopischen Technik.

Arch. mikr. Anat., 13, 263-77, 1877.

Ehrlich’s first paper on the staining of specific granulation in white blood corpuscles by means of aniline dyes. His work immensely affected subsequent technical methods of staining.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2488

Verfahrungen zur Untersuchung, zum Conserviren und Photographiren der Bacterien.

Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen, 2, 399-434, 1877.

Koch greatly improved staining methods; he laid the foundations of the technical procedures employed in bacteriology today. In the above paper he described his method of slide preparation, making films of bacteria on cover-slips and fixing them gently by heat, his methods of staining, and preserving the specimens. He also gave details of his method of photographing bacteria, and reproduced the first photomicrographs of bacteria. In some of his reproductions of photomicrographs the cilia are clearly perceptible.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2489

On the lactic fermentation and its bearings on pathology.

Trans. path. Soc. Lond., 29, 425-67, 18771878.

Lister was the first to obtain a pure culture of a bacterium (Bact. lactis).  Lister first presented the results of this research in an address to the Royal Society on December 18, 1877. Because of its historic significance the text of the lecture was almost immediately published in Lancet,II, 918-921 in the issue of December 22, 1877. His full report in the Transactions of the Pathological Society of London appeared significantly later, in 1878. In the lecture Lister actually demonstrated before his audience how to obtain a "pure culture" of an organism.
(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

"
Joseph Lister's goal was to show that a pure culture of Bacterium lactis, normally present in milk, uniquely caused the lactic acid fermentation of milk. To demonstrate this fact he devised a procedure to obtain a pure clonal population of B. lactis, a result that had not previously been achieved for any microorganism. Lister equated the process of fermentation with infectious disease and used this bacterium as a model organism, demonstrating its role in fermentation; from this result he made the inductive inference that infectious diseases of humans are the result of the growth of specific, microscopic, living organisms in the human host.... By demonstrating that a microscopic living entity smaller than a yeast cell could cause fermentation, he was able to argue ‘that other organisms may exist … smaller than the B. lactis’, and not readily visible in diseased human tissues, could be the cause of infectious disease in humans.3 This paper was a landmark for two reasons. It was the first example of the use of a bacterium as a model organism and also for the invention of a procedure, now characterized as the limiting dilution method, for isolating a specific bacterium in a pure form, providing a first case of bacterial cloning.4 (Santer, "Joseph Lister: first use of a bacterium as a 'model organism' to illustrate the cause of infectious disease of humans," Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 64, 2009) .



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Lactobacillus , MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 1932.1
  • 2490

Charbon et septicémie.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 85, 101-15, 1877.

Discovery of Vibrion septique (Cl. septicum), the first pathogenic anerobe to be found. Pasteur and Joubert were probably the first to realize the practical implications of antibiosis. They noted the antagonism between Bacillus anthracis and other bacteria in cultures.

 



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria, BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Bacillus , BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Bacillus › Bacillus anthracis, BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Clostridium, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2491

Fermentation and its bearings on the phenomena of disease.

Glasgow: W. Collins, 1877.

See No. 2495.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, Zymology (Zymurgy) (Fermentation)
  • 2492

Les bactéries.

Paris: F. Savy, 1878.

Translated into English by George M. Sternberg as The bacteria (Boston, 1880). Sternberg illustrated the American edition with 5 heliotype reproductions of his own photomicrographs.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY
  • 2492.1

De l’extension de la théorie des germes à l’étiologie de quelques maladies communes.

C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 90, 1033-44, 1880.

In this study of furunculosis (“boils”) and osteomyelitis Pasteur left the first recognizable descriptions of staphylococcus and streptococcus. The term streptococcus had been coined by Billroth in 1874; however, Pasteur did not use it here. Ogston (see No.2494) named staphylococcus in 1881.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Staphylococcus, DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, MICROBIOLOGY, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton
  • 2493

Ueber das Methylenblau und seine klinisch-bakterioskopische Verwerthung.

Z. klin. Med., 2, 710-13, 1881.

Introduction of methylene blue in bacteriological staining.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in
  • 2494

Report upon micro-organisms in surgical diseases.

Brit. med. J., 1, 369-75, 1881.

Ogston showed that micrococci are constantly present in acute and chronic abscesses. He discovered Staphylococcus aureus. Ogston named staphylococcus in his paper, "Micrococcus poisoning," J. Anat. Physiol., 1882, 16, 526-6; & 1883, 17, 24-58.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Staphylococcus, MICROBIOLOGY, SURGERY: General › Wound Healing
  • 2495

Essays on the floating-matter of the air in relation to putrefaction and infection.

London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1881.

Tyndall interested himself in atmospheric germs and dust. His experiments on sterilization by heat led him to the discovery in 1877 of fractional sterilization (Tyndallization). His work on the subject is included in the above book, in which he also described the bactericidal effects of moulds. The researches of Tyndall, even more than those of Pasteur, dealt the final blow to the doctrine of spontaneous generation; they were fundamental for the progress of bacteriology. See No. 1932.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2495.1

Zur Untersuchungen von pathogenen Organismen.

Mittheil. Kais. Gesundheitsamte, 1, 1-48, 1881.

Koch’s description of his methods of growing bacterial cultures in gelatine solutions, making films of bacteria on cover slips and fixing them by gentle heat, and staining slides differentially by aniline. These methods are the bases on which bacteriology largely rests.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2496

Ueber Erysipel.

Dtsch. Z. Chir., 16, 391-97, 1882.

Discovery of Strep pyogenes, infectious agent of scarlet fever and other streptococcal illnesses. Fehleisen cultured it from perierysipelas lesions on humans. English translation, 1886.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Streptococcus , MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2497

Sur les colorations bleue et verte des linges à pansements.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 94, 536-38, 1882.

Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. pyocyanea).



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Pseudomonas , MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2498

Sur une forme de tuberculose sans bacilles.

C. R. Soc. Biol., 7 sér., 5, 338-41, 1883.

Isolation of Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Pasteurella, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 2498.1

Sur un filtre donnant de l’eau physiologiquement pure.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 99, 247-48, 1884.

Chamberland filter, an unglazed porcelain bar with pores smaller than bacteria, enabled the earliest distinction between viruses and bacteria and led in 1898 to the re-introduction of the Latin word "virus" with the infectious agent now named tobacco mosaic virus.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, VIROLOGY
  • 2499

Ueber die isolirte Färbung der Schizomyceten in Schnitt- und Trocken-präparaten.

Fortschr. Med., 2, 185-89, 1884.

Gram’s method of staining bacteria (Gram stain). While not all bacteria may be definitively classified in this way, it is almost always the first step in the preliminary identification of a bacterial organism.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, Laboratory Medicine