An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15423 entries, 13280 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 17, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 1300–1399

122 entries
  • 1300

On the distribution of chlorides in nerve cells and fibres.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 77, 165-93, 1906.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About
  • 1300.1

On the proprio-ceptive system, especially in its reflex aspect.

Brain, 29, 467-82, 1906.

Sherrington investigated and explained the proprioceptive system.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1301

Der Bau der Spinalganglien des Menschen und der Säugetiere.

Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1908.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1302

A human experiment in nerve division.

Brain, 31, 323-450, 1908.

Head submitted to the division of his own left radial and external cutaneous nerves. His subsequent study of the loss and restoration of sensation thus brought about, led to a reclassification of the sensory pathways. Head was for many years editor of the journal Brain.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1302.1

Carbon dioxide production from nerve fibres when resting and when stimulated; a contribution to the chemical basis of irritability.

Amer. J. Physiol., 32, 107-36, 1913.

Tashiro showed that the production of the nervous impulse depends on the metabolic activity of the nerve fiber.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1303

The conduction of the nervous impulse.

London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1917.

Gotch (No. 1420.1), Adrian, and Keith Lucas made important discoveries concerning the “all-or-nothing” responses of individual nerve fibers. Their work is summarized in the above monograph. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1304

Studies in neurology. By Henry Head in conjunction with W.H.R. Rivers, James Sherren, Gordon Holmes, Theodore Thompson, George Riddoch. 2 vols.

London: H. Frowde, Hodder & Stoughton, 1920.

Reprint, with modifications and additions, of seven papers published in the journal Brain between 1905 and 1918. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1305

The compound nature of the action current of nerve as disclosed by the cathode ray oscillograph.

Amer. J. Physiol. 70, 624-66, 1924.

Nobel Prize winners, 1944, for their discoveries regarding the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibers.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1306

The theory of decrementless conduction in narcotised region of nerve.

Tokyo: Nankodo, 1924.

Kato made valuable investigations on nerve conduction. A second volume, Further studies, appeared in 1926.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1307

The impulses produced by sensory nerve-endings. Part 2. The response of a single end-organ.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 61, 151-71, 1926.

The observations of Adrian and Zotterman on the response of single sensory end-organs to a natural stimulus led them to formulate their conception of “adaptation” of receptors to stimuli.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1308

The basis of sensation. The action of the sense organs.

London: Christophers, 1928.

Adrian shared with Sherrington the Nobel Prize in 1932 for their work on the physiology of the nervous system. Reprinted, New York, Hafner, 1964.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1309

Lebensnerven und Lebenstriebe. 3te. Aufl.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1931.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1309.1

The structure of nerve fibres in cephalopods and crustacea.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 121, 319-37, 1936.

Young’s discovery of the giant nerve fibers of the squid (squid giant axonLoglio forbesi made possible the study of the electrical phenomena of the nervous impulse in the interior as well as on the surface of a nerve fiber. It led to the work of Hodgkin and Huxley (No. 1310.1).



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1310

A review of the Golgi apparatus.

Anat. Rec. 70, 413-31, 557-73; 71, 79-103, 19371938, 1938.


Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1310.1

Action potentials recorded from inside a nerve fibre.

Nature (Lond.), 144, 710-11, 1939.

Hodgkin and Huxley were the first to succeed in inserting electrodes into a living giant nerve fiber and to measure directly the action potential within it. They shared the Nobel Prize with Sir John Eccles in 1963 “for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in the excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1310.2

The ionic mechanism of postsynaptic inhibition. IN: Prix Nobel in 1963, pp. 261-83.

1963.

Eccles shared the Nobel Prize with A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley in 1963. See No. 1310.1.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses
  • 1311
  • 3165
  • 4673
  • 8104

Dr. Willis's practice of physick.

London: T. Dring, C. Harper & J. Leigh, 1684.

The only complete edition of Willis's works in English, translated by the poet Samuel Pordage. It contains the translations of all his works except his Affectionum quae dicuntur hystericae (1671). The collection includes the First Edition in English of Willis's De anima brutorum. The volume is divided into six separately paginated sections, each with its own title-leaf. Included are English versions of Willis's three great works on the brain--Cerebri anatome, Pathologiae cerebri and De anima brutorum--as well as his clinical and pharmaceutical treatises. In Treatise III, pp. 128-158 Willis’s described the intercostal and spinal nerves. He described the ganglion chain as the “intercostal nerve” and thought it came from the head.

In addition to his invaluable work in the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, Willis was the first to distinguish true diabetes mellitus, and showed that the polyuria was not due to any disease of the kidneys. He anticipated the recognition of hormones in the circulation of his suggestion that the phenomena of puberty were due to a ferment distributed through the body from the genitals. He discovered the superficial lymphatics of the lungs, distinguished acute tuberculosis from the chronic fibroid type and gave the first clinical and pathological account of emphysema.  The modern treatment of asthma really begins with Willis, who considered it to be of nervous origin. ("Of the convulsive cough and asthma," Treatise VIII, pp. 92-96; No. 3165). Willis was probably the first to report an epidemic of cerebrospinal fever" ("A description of an epidemical feaver, Treatise VIII, pp. 46-54; No. 4673). Transcription of the complete text from Early English Books Online at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 1312
  • 391

Tabulae anatomicae.

Rome: F. Gonzaga, 1714.

A romantic history attaches to this fine collection of plates, drawn by Eustachius himself and completed in 1552. They remained unprinted and forgotten in the Vatican Library until discovered in the early 18th century, and were then presented by Pope Clement XI to his physician, Giovanni Maria Lancisi. The latter published them in 1714 together with his own notes. These copperplates are more accurate than the work of Vesalius. Singer was of the opinion had they appeared in 1552 Eustachius would have ranked with Vesalius as one of the founders of modern anatomy. He discovered the Eustachian tube, the thoracic duct, the adrenals and the abducens nerve, and gave the first accurate description of the uterus. He also described the cochlea, the muscles of the throat and the origin of the optic nerves. Plate XVIII is a drawing of the sympathetic nervous system. Eustachius was the first to describe the ganglion chain, but made the mistake of tracing the origin of the cervical portion to the brain-stem. With respect to dentistry, Eustachi's illustrations of the teeth, related to his Libellus de dentibus (1563-64) were first published in this work.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1313

Mémoire dans lequel il est démontré que les nerfs intercostaux fournissent des rameaux que portent des esprits dans les yeux.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci. (Paris), (Mém.), 1-19, 1727.

By cutting the intercostal nerves in the neck, du Petit found that disturbances occurred in the eyes and face of the same side; this disproved earlier views of the cerebral origin of the intercostal nerves.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1314
  • 394

Exposition anatomique de la structure du corps humain.

Paris: G. Desprez et J. Dessesartz, 1732.

The foramen between the greater and lesser sacs of the peritoneum (described on pages 352-65), is named after Winslow. His Exposition is distinguished as being the first book on descriptive anatomy to discard physiological details and hypothetical explanations foreign to the subject. He did much to condense and systematize the anatomical knowledge of his time.

-Sect. VI deals with the nerves. Winslow designated the ganglion chain “the grand sympathetic nerve”, and the smaller branches “the lesser sympathetic”, terms which remain today. The work includes a reprint of the text of Stensen, Discours sur I’anatomie du cerveau, Paris, 1669. English translation, 2 vols., 1733-34.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1315
  • 404

Traité d’anatomie descriptive. 5 vols.

Paris: Gabon et Cie, 18011803.

Bichat was the creator of descriptive anatomy. He introduced the terms “animal” and “vegetative” system. This was his last work, unfinished at his death. Vol. 4 was prepared by Bichat's student and cousin, Mathieu-François Buisson, and vol. 5 by Philibert-Joseph Roux. Vol. 3, pp. 319-68 includes Bichat's Nerfs de la vie organique. Digital facsimiles of all 5 vols are available from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1316

Anatomia comparata nervi sympathici.

Leipzig: C. H. Reclam, 1817.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1317

De nervi sympathetici humani fabrica usu et morbis.

Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1823.

Includes description of “Lobstein’s ganglion”, an accessory ganglion of the sympathetic nerve above the diaphragm. English translation, 1831.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1318

Die Selbständigkeit des sympathischen Nervensystems durch anatomische Untersuchungen nachgewiesen.

Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1842.

These writers showed the sympathetic nervous system to consist largely of small, medullated fibers originating from the sympathetic and spinal ganglia.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1319

On the nerves of the uterus.

Phil. Trans. 136, 213-35, 1846.

Beck showed that in man the thoracic sympathetic chain receives communications from the last cervical, thoracic, and upper 1 or 2 lumbar ganglia.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1320

Influence du grand sympathique sur la sensibilité et sur la calorification.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1851), 3, 163-64, 1852.

Bernard discovered the existence of vasomotor nerves.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1321

Expérience sur les fonctions de la portion céphalique du grand sympathique.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (1852), 4, 155, 1853.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1322

Experimental researches applied to physiology and pathology.

Med. Exam. (Phila.), 8, 481-504, 1852.

By applying a galvanic current to the superior part of the divided sympathetic nerve and causing vascular contraction and a fall in temperature, Brown-Séquard inferred that section of the sympathetic paralysed and dilated the blood-vessels (pp. 489-90). See also Nos. 1325-26.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1323

Experimenteller Beweis, dass der Nervus sympathicus aus dem Rückenmark entspringt.

Med. Ztg. 21, 161, 1852.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1324

Recherches expérimentales sur le grand sympathique et spécialement sur l’influence que la section de ce nerf exerce sur la chaleur animal.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), (Mémoires), (1853), 5, 77-107, 1854.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1325

Note sur la découverte de quelques-uns des effets de la galvanisation du nerf grand sympathique au cou.

Gaz. méd. Paris, 3 sér., 9, 22-23, 1854.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1326

Sur les résultats de la section et de la galvanisation du nerf grand sympathique au cou.

Gaz. méd. Paris, 3 sér., 9, 30-32, 1854.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1327

Essays on the secretory and the excito-secretory system of nerves.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1857.

Campbell saw in the sympathetic a nervous system related to secretion and nutrition and having intimate connexion with the sensory nerves. He coined the ter “excito-secretory” to designate his theory; although this term has fallen into desuetude, the same idea was more recently advanced to explain the action of certain glands of internal secretion.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1328
  • 5903

Ueber eine Form von Ptosis.

Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk, 7, 193-98, 1869.

“Horner’s syndrome”, due to lesion of the cervical sympathetic. The same syndrome was evoked in animals by Pourfour du Petit in 1727 (see No. 1313). It is a proof that the sympathetic governs the pupillary, vasomotor, sudomotor, and pilomotor functions. It was also described by Claude Bernard, Leçons sur la physiologie et la patbologie du système nerveux, 1858, 2, 473-74, and, less impressively, by E. S. Hare, Lond. med. Gaz., 1838-39, 1, 16-18.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, OPHTHALMOLOGY
  • 1329

On the structure, distribution, and function of the nerves which innervate the visceral and vascular system.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 7, 1-80, 1886.

Gaskell established the origin of the preganglionic neurons (white rami).



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, Neurophysiology
  • 1329.1

On the local paralysis of peripheral ganglia, and on the connexion of different classes of nerve fibres with them.

Proc. roy. Soc. 46, 423-31, 1889.

Langley and Dickinson studied the effect of nicotine on nerve fibers, and were able by this means to make a thorough investigation of the distribution of nerve fibers.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, Neurophysiology
  • 1330

Ueber die Primitivfibrillen in den Ganglienzellen von Menschen und andern Wirbelthieren.

Jena Morphol. Arb. 7, 95-116, 1897.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1331

The involuntary nervous system. Part 1.

London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1916.

This book sums up the life work of Gaskell, who laid the histological foundation of the modern study of the autonomic nervous system. No more published.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, Neurophysiology
  • 1332

The autonomic nervous system.

Cambridge, England: W. Heffer, 1921.

Langley divided the autonomic nervous system into (1) the orthosympathetic, and (2) the parasympathetic; he defined it as an efferent system.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1333

Zur Histologie und Topographie der vegetativen Zentren im Rückenmark.

Z. Anat. EntwGesch. 85, 213-50, 1928.

Study of the cells of origin of the white rami.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 1336

On the action of adrenalin.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 31, Proc. Physiol. Soc., pp. xx-xxi, 1904.

The first intimation of the chemical mediation of nerve impulses was given in Elliott’s suggestion that when a sympathetic nerve impulse arrives at a smooth-muscle cell it liberates adrenaline, which acts as a chemical stimulator.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1337

Vagus inhibition of the heart in its relation to the inorganic salts of the blood.

Amer. J. Physiol., 15, 280-94, 19051906.

Howell suggested that nerve impulses act indirectly by increasing the amount of diffusible potassium compounds in the heart tissue.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1338

On the physiological action of certain cholin derivatives and new methods for detecting cholin.

Brit. Med. J, 2, 1788-91, 1906.

Discovery of the remarkable hypotensive effect of acetylcholine.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1339

The mode of action of specific substances with special reference to secretin.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 38, 314-36, 19081909.

These workers drew attention to the similarity between the effects of nerve stimulation and certain drugs, especially muscarine, on the heart.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1340

The action of certain esters and ethers of choline, and their relation to muscarine.

J. Pharmacol. 6, 147-90, 1914.

Demonstration of the inhibitory action of acetylcholine on the heart. Dale shared the Nobel Prize with Loewi (No. 1343) in 1936 for their work on the chemical mediation of nervous impulses.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1341

Acetylcholine, a new active principle of ergot.

Biochem. J. 8, 44-49, 1914.

Isolation of acetylcholine in ergot.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Ergot
  • 1342

Vasodilator reactions.

Amer. J. Physiol. 45, 197-267, 1918.

Showed that tissues are more sensitive to acetylcholine after treatment with eserine (physostigmine).



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1343

Ueber humorale Uebertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol. 189, 239-42; 193, 201-13; 203, 408-12; 204, 361-67, 629-40, 19211922, 1924.

Loewi’s important experiments firmly established the theory of chemical intermediaries in nervous reactions. He shared the Nobel Prize for physiology with Dale in 1936.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1344

Ueber humorale Uebertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 206, 123-40; 214, 678-96, 1924, 1926.

Established the presence of cholinesterase and that in vitro eserine inhibited this esterase.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1345

The presence of histamine and acetylcholine in the spleen of the ox and the horse.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 68, 97-123, 1929.

Isolation of acetylcholine from ox and horse spleen.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1346

Studies on conditions of activity in endocrine organs. xxvi. A hormone produced by sympathetic action on smooth muscle.

Amer. J. Physiol. 96, 392-412, 1931.

Cannon and Bacq suggested the name “sympathin” for a substance which they considered to be liberated into the blood stream following nerve stimulation and which acted in the same manner as sympathetic impulses. See also No. 1350.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1347

Der humorale Wirkungsmechanismus der Oculomotoriusreizung.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol. 227, 220-34, 1931.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1348

Die humorale Übertragung der Chorda tympani-Reizung.

Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak.168, 64-88, 1932.

Production of acetylcholine on stimulation of the chorda tympani nerve.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1349

The mode of action of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor nerves.

Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 23, 381-89, 1933.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1350

Studies on conditions of activity in endocrine organs, xxix. Sympathin E and sympathin I.

Amer. J. Physiol. 104, 557-74, 1933.

Adrenaline and sympathin were suggested to be unidentical substances, and Cannon and Rosenblueth proposed the terms “sympathin E” and “sympathin I”.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1351

Ueber humorale Uebertragung der Erregung von einem Neuron suf das andere.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol. 232. 432-43, 1933.

Kibjakow showed that some substance in a muscle perfusate is able to contract muscle during stimulation of nerve.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1352

The chemical transmitter at synapses in a sympathetic ganglion.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 81, 305-19, 1934.

These workers produced evidence that a chemical agent (acetylcholine) appears in the transfer of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron in sympathetic ganglia.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1353

Reactions of the normal mammalian muscle to acetylcholine and to eserine.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 87, 394-424, 1936.

 



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1354

Autonomic neuro-effector systems.

New York: Macmillan, 1937.

The authors hypothesized the existence of two sympathins, one excitatory and the other inhibitory, now known as epinephrine and norepinephrine. See Nos. 1144 & 1350.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses
  • 1354.1

A specific sympathomimetic ergone in adrenergic nerve fibres (sympathin) and its relations to adrenaline and nor-adrenaline.

Acta physiol. scand. 12, 73-97, 1946.

Noradrenaline shown to be the predominant transmitter of the effects of sympathetic nerve impulses. Shared Nobel Prize, 1970, with Katz and Axelrod.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses, Neurophysiology
  • 1354.2

The release of neural transmitter substances.

Liverpool: University Press, 1969.

Katz shared the Nobel Prize in 1970 with U. S. von Euler and J. Axelrod for his research into the nature of the processes of chemical neurotransmission.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Chemical Mediation of Nervous Impulses, Neurophysiology
  • 1354.9

Anatome medullae spinalis, et nervorum.

Amsterdam: apud Casparum Commelinum, 1666.

The first separate work on the spinal cord. Blasius “illustrated the separate origin of the anterior and posterior roots, the dorsal root ganglia and the differentiation between the gray and white matter of the spinal cord” (McHenry). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1355

Circulus anatomico-physiologicus.

Leipzig: J. F. Gleditsch, 1686.

Bohn's approach was mechanistic in that he grave predominately physical interpretations of vital processes. He experimented on the decapitated frog, declaring the reflex phenomena to be entirely material and mechanical, the general view of the time being that “vital spirits” were present in the nerve-fluid. Bohn showed that the nerves do not contain a “nerve juice”. (See p. 460 of the book.) Bohn also described the function of the heart in iatromechanical terms.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord, Neurophysiology
  • 1356

Lettres d’un médecin des hôpitaux du Roy… contient un nouveau système du cerveau, etc.

Namur, Belgium: C. G. Albert, 1710.

Theory of contralateral innervation.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1357

Erste Gründe einer Physiologie der eigentlichen thierischen Natur thierischer Körper.

Leipzig: Weidmanns Erben und Reich, 1771.

Unzer was probably the first to employ the work “reflex” in connection with sensory–motor reactions. T. Laycock translated his book into English for the Sydenham Society in 1851.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1358

Vom Baue und Leben des Gehirns. 3 vols.

Leipzig: der Dyk’schen Buchhandlung, 18191826.

Includes description of “Burdach’s column”, the posterior column of the spinal cord. This work is also “an unrivalled source of historical information on macroscopical neuroanatomy” (Meyer).



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › History of Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1359

On the reflex function of the medulla oblongata and medulla spinalis.

Phil. Trans., 123, 635-65, 1833.

“Hall showed that reflex activity could be distinguished from other types of movement, that it produced what today we call ‘muscle tone,’ that it included sneezing coughing, and vomiting, and that it could be influenced by disease. The discovery of these characteristics, and the general formulation of the reflex concept, remain Hall’s outstanding contributions… [Hall and Johannes Müller] were able to rely entirely upon their experimental findings, and, unlike their predecessors, could discount the intervention of the soul and so exclude the metaphysical miasma that had clouded much of the previous work on the subject of reflex activity” (Clarke and O’Malley, 1996, p. 347). 



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1360

Researches into the structure of the spinal cord.

Phil. Trans., 141, 607-21, 1851.

Clarke made important researches on the spinal cord. He described the nucleus dorsalis. He introduced the method of mounting sections with Canada balsam.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1361

Beiträge zur feineren Anatomie des menschlichen Rückenmarks.

Denkschr. med.-chir. Ges. Kanton Zürich, pp. 130-71, 1860.

Includes description of “Golls column” or “tract”, the posterior column of the spinal cord.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1362

Physiologische Studien über die Hemmungsmechanischen für die Reflexthätigkeit des Rückenmarks im Gehirn des Frosches.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1863.

Sechenov discovered the cerebral inhibition of spinal reflexes. He was Professor of Physiology at St. Petersburg and Moscow, and the “father of Russian physiology”.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord, Neurophysiology
  • 1363

Ueber die Erweiterung von Arterien in Folge einer Nervenerregung.

Ber. k. sachs. Ges. Wiss. Lpz. 18, 85-110, 1866.

The “Lovén reflex”, vasodilatation of an organ when its afferent nerve is stimulated.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1364

Beiträge zur Lehre von den Functionen der Nervencentren des Frosches.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1869.

Goltz made important observations on the decerebrate frog. He showed it to possess no volitional powers except after stimulation, no memory and no intelligence. His experiments on frogs deprived of their spinal cords showed them to have intelligence but lessened powers of co-ordination and adaptation.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1365

Ueber die Functionen des Lendenmarks des Hundes.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol. 8, 460-98. See No. 1364, 1874.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1366

Beitrag zur pathologischen Anatomie der Tabes dorsalis und zum Faserverlauf in menschlichen Rückenmark.

Neurol. Zbl., 4, 245-46, 1885.

“Lissauer’s tract”, the marginal tract in the spinal cord.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1367

Physiological studies of the knee-jerk.

Med. News (Phila.), 48, 169-73, 198-203, 1886.

Demonstration that the knee-jerk can be reinforced by sensory stimulation.



Subjects: Neurophysiology
  • 1368

The structure and combination of the histological elements of the central nervous system.

Bergens Museum Aarsberetning, 29-214, 1886.

Nansen, better known for his Arctic explorations, was the first to point out that the posterior root fibers divide on entering the spinal cord into ascending and descending branches. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this liink.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1368.1

Zur Geschichte der menschlichen Rückenmarkes und der Nervenwurzeln.

Abh. math.-phys. Cl. k. sächs. Ges Wiss. Leipzig, (1886), 13, 477-514, 1887.

This is generally considered the first clear statement that nerve cells in the brain might be independent units rather than forming an anastomotic network—as Gerlach, Golgi, and most others believed—although there are earlier hints of this from a variety of sources.  His’s conclusion was based on embryological observations in the spinal cord, suggesting that axons arise from nerve cell bodies (one per nerve cell), followed later by dendrites, and that any fusion of processes, if they occur at all, must be a secondary event. (Larry W. Swanson).



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, EMBRYOLOGY › Neuroembryology, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1368.2

Einige hirnanatomische Betrachtungen und Ergebnisse.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr. 18, 162-98, 1887.

Independently of His, Forel formulated the neuron theory.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1369

Ueber einige neuere Forschungen im Gebiete der Anatomie des Centralnervensystems.

Dtsch. med. Wschr. 17, 1213-18, 1244-46, 1287-89, 1331-32, 1352-56, 1891.

A statement of the neuron theory, to which Waldeyer gave the name.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1370

Der Hund ohne Grosshirn.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol. 51, 570-614, 1892.

Goltz was able to keep dogs alive for eight months after he had performed subtotal decerebration. He found them incapable of purposive movements but able to walk with adequate co-ordination. Frontal decortication caused restlessness; from his experiments Goltz concluded that the site of integration of pseudo-affective mechanisms is subcortical.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1371

Der Hund mit verkürtzen Rückenmark.

Pflüg. Arch. Ges. Physiol. 63, 362-400, 1896.

Goltz and Ewald succeeded in impregnating a bitch after its spinal cord had been severed.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1372

Atlas des menschlichen Gehirns und des Faserverlaufes.

Berlin: Karger, 1894.

Flatau’s law—“the greater the length of the fibers in the spinal cord the closer they are situated to the periphery”.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1373

Further researches on antidromic nerve-impulses.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 28, 276-99, 1902.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1374

The grouping of afferent impulses within the spinal cord.

Brain, 29, 537-741, 1906.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1375

Der rote Kern, die Haube und die Regio hypothalamica bei einigen Säugetieren und beim Menschen.

Arb. hirnanat. Inst. Zürich, 3, 51-267; 4, 103-225, 1909, 1910.

“Monakow’s bundle”, the rubrospinal tract.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1376

The automatic bladder, excessive sweating and some other reflex conditions, in gross injuries of the spinal cord.

Brain, 40, 188-263, 1917.

Classic studies on “spinal man”. Republished in book form, 1918.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1377

The reflex functions of the completely divided spinal cord in man, compared with those associated with less severe lesions.

Brain, 40, 264-402, 1917.

Riddoch described in detail the results of complete transection of the spinal cord in man. With Head (see No. 1376) he made one of the most painstaking investigations of this subject.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1377.1

The dermatomes in man.

Brain, 56, 1-39, 1933.


Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord
  • 1377.2
  • 1478

De nervis opticis nonnulisque aliis praeter communem opinionem in humano capite observatis.

Padua: apud Paulum & Antonium Meiettos, 1573.

Varolio described a new method of dissection which enabled him to observe and describe the pons for the first time. By this new method Varolio was able to make some contributions to the knowledge of the course and termination of the cranial nerves and to trace the course of the optic nerve approximately to its true termination. His name is perpetuated in the “pons varolii”.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1377.3

Institutiones anatomicae, novis recentiorum opinionibus & observationibus, quarum innumerae hactenus editae non sunt, figurisque auctae ab auctoris filio Thoma Bartholino.

Leiden: apud Franciscum Hackium, 1641.

In this revision of his father’s anatomical treatise, Thomas Bartholin included the first depiction of the fissure of Sylvius, the lateral cerebral fissure, and the only part of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres to be given a name between 1641 and end of the 18th century when Reil described the "island of Reil" (1796; No. 1387). Sylvius (Franciscus de Le Boë) made his neurological observations in 1637 but did not publish them officially until issuing his Disputationes medicarum pars prima (Amsterdam, 1663). Sylvius collaborated with Bartholin on the above work, publishing in it ten illustrations of the brain after his own drawings.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1378

Cerebri anatome: cui accessit nervorum descriptio et usus.

London: typ. J. Flesher, imp. J. Martyn & J. Allestry, , 1664.

The most complete and accurate account of the nervous system which had hitherto appeared, and the work that coined the term, “neurology". In its preparation Willis was helped by his students Richard Lower and Thomas Millington, and its illustrations are by the architect, Sir Christopher Wren, making this one of the earliest scientific collaborations in England. Willis’s classification of the cerebral nerves held the field until the time of Soemmerring. The book includes (Cap. I and plates 1, 2) the description of the “circle of Willis”, and of the eleventh cranial nerve (“nerve of Willis”). Willis recognized the sympathetic system and accepted the brain as the organ of thought. English translation by S. Pordage, 1681. The anatomy of the brain and nerves. Tercententary edition, ed. by W. Feindel, 2 vols, Montreal, 1965, reprints this translation with a complete annotated bibliography of the work. Wepfer (No. 2703) and others preceded Willis in giving a detailed and complete description of the “circle of Willis”.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1378.1

Discours sur l’anatomie du cerveau.

Paris: Robert de Ninville, 1669.

In this remarkably prescient argument for, and critique of, anatomical research into brain function Stensen opposed Descartes (No. 574) arguing that it was idle to speculate about cerebral function when so little was known about the anatomical structure of the brain. Stensen proved anatomically that the pineal gland was not the seat of the soul. Latin translation, Leiden, 1671. Reprinted in Winslow (No. 394), and translated in that work. Modern English translation, Copenhagen, 1950. Digital facsimile of the 1669 edition from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1379

Neurographia universalis.

Lyon: J. Certe, 1684.

Vieussens, professor at Montpellier, was the first to describe the centrum ovale correctly. The publication of the above work threw new light on the subject of the configuration and structure of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. With numerous large folding copperplates, it is considered the best illustrated work on the nervous system published in the 17th century. Second issue, identical except dated 1685. Both issues have the words, “editio nova” on the title page. Digital facsimile of the 1584 issue from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1379.1

The anatomy of the brain.

London: Sam. Smith, 1695.

The first book on the brain in the English language, including the first account of the circular venous sinus which Ridley names, and the first English account of a pineal tumor.  In it Ridley gives the first account of the circular venous sinus which he names. He also gives the first English account of a pineal tumour" (Russell).  The copperplates were engraved by van der Gucht from drawings by William Cowper.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 1380

Dissertatio epistolaris ad Lucam Schroeckium de glandulis conglobatis durae meningis humanae.

Rome: Francesco Buagni, 1705.

Includes a description and illustration of the Pacchionian bodies of the arachnoid tissue under the dura, producing by pressure slight depressions (“Pacchionian depressions”). See also Pacchioni’s De durae meningis fabrica et usu disquisitio anatomica (Rome: D.A. Herculis, 1701). Digital facsimile of the 1701 work from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1380.1

Cerebri examen chemicum, ex eodemqve phosphorum singularem omnia inflammabilia accendentem dissertatione academica.

Giessen: vid. J. R. Vulpii, 1719.

First account of the chemical composition of the brain. Hensing discovered the presence of phosphorus. Annotated English translation with biography and historical analysis, by D.B. Tower. New York, Raven Press, [1983].



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1381

An essay on the vital and other involuntary motions of animals.

Edinburgh: Hamilton, Balfour & Neill, 1751.

Whytt, famous Edinburgh neurophysiologist, was the first to prove that the response of the pupils to light is a reflex action (“Whytt’s reflex”). He described this reflex at length and mentioned that its afferent pathways lie in the optic nerve and the efferent pathways in the third pair.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1382
  • 4204.2
  • 4515

De ischiade nervosa commentarius.

Naples: apud Frat. Simonios, 1764.

Cotugno published a classic description of sciatica, which is useful even today. He recognized two types – arthritic and nervous; the latter has been called “Cotugno’s disease”, and his book is confined to that type. It includes the first clear description of the association of edema with proteinuria.

Valsalva in 1692 briefly mentioned the cerebrospinal fluid, but “Cotugno was the first to describe the fluid surrounding the spinal cord and to suggest tht it was in continuity with the ventricular and cerebral subarachnoid fluids. However, his concept of the cerebral and spinal fluid, which is the beginning of its modern physiology, remained in obscurity until rediscovery by Magendie some 60 years later” (Clarke & O’Malley). For more information regarding this book and a translation of the section dealing with the cerebrospinal fluid, see the article by H. R. Viets in Bull. Inst. Hist. Med., 1935, 3, 701-38. English translation, London, 1775.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1382.1

Nuova esposizione della vera struttura del cervelletto umano.

Torino: G. Briolo, 1776.

The first detailed account of the anatomy of the cerebellum, which introduced the terms, “tonsil”, “pyramid”, “lingula”, and “uvula”. Reprinted in his Encefalotomia a sia nuova diimostrazione anatomica di tutte le parti contenuto nel cranio umano .... 3 vols., Torino, 1780.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1382.2

Mémoire sur les contre-coups dans les lésions de la tête [1768].

Mémoires sur les subjets proposés pour le prix de l’Acad. Roy. de Chir. (Paris), 4 (Part 1), 368-438, 1778.

“One of the first achievements of modern brain physiology” (Neuburger). Saucerotte carried out surgical experiments on dogs which convinced him that the anterior part of the cerebrum innervated the lower limbs and the posterior the upper limbs.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1383

Dissertatio inauguralis anatomica de basi encephali et originibus nervorum cranio egredientium libri quinque.

Gottingen: apud A. Vandenhoeck vid, 1778.

The first accurate enumeration of the 12 cranial nerves, superseding that of Willis (No. 1378). Soemmerring is notable for his accuracy in anatomical illustration. This was his thesis. The same publisher issued an edition for commercial circulation the same year, deleting “Dissertatio inauguralis anatomica” from the title.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1384

De peculiari structura cerebri, nonnulisque ejus morbis.

Parma : ex. reg. typog, 1782.

Gennari was the first to demonstrate the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex when he discovered the line of Gennari, a macroscopically white band in the cerebral cortex of the occipital lobe.
This he observed on 2 February 1776 in the course of examining frozen sections of unstained human brain while in medical school. He referred to it as lineola albidior. Gennari's discovery was the first evidence that the cerebral cortex is not uniform in structure.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1385

Observations on the structure and functions of the nervous system.

Edinburgh: W. Creech, 1783.

Monro discovered the communication between the lateral ventricles of the human brain with each other and with the third ventricle, the “foramen of Monro”. Alexander secundus was the greatest of the three Monros.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1386

Adnotationum academicarum. Fasciculus tertius. III. De functionibus systematis nervosi. 3 pts.

Prague: W. Gerle, 17801784.

Prochaska introduced the idea of a “sensorium commune” in the central nervous system, a consistent and comprehensive theory of reflex action. English translation, London, Sydenham Society, 1851.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1386.1

Examen chimique du cerveau de plusieurs animaux.

Ann. Chim. (Paris), 16, 282-97, 1793.

Fourcroy, French physician and chemist, made important researches on the chemistry of the brain. He noted albumen (protein) as a principal constituent.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1387

Exercitationum anatomicarum fasciculus primus. De structura nervorum, tribus tabulis aeneis illustratus [All published].

Halle: Curtiana Venalis, 1796.

Description of the “island of Reil”. This was the first part of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres to be given a name since 1641 (No. 1377.3). See also Reil’s follow-up paper in Arch. Physiol. (Halle), 1809, 9, 136-46; Reil was the editor of this journal, the first periodical devoted to physiology.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1388

Saggio sopra la vera struttura del cervello dell’uomo e degl’animali e sopra le funzioni del sistema nervoso.

Sassari, Italy: Stamp. Privileg, 1809.

Includes description of “Rolando’s substance”, “tubercle”, and “funiculus”. Rolando described ablation experiments for brain localization similar to Flourens (No. 1391). They were largely unknown until Magendie published a French translation of them in his J. Phys. exper. path., 1823, 3, 95-113, which was reprinted by Flourens in No. 1493. Rolando was correct in allocating motor activity to the cerebral hemispheres; however his views on cerebellar function were replaced by those advanced by Flourens.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1389

Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, et du cerveau en particulier. 4 vols. and atlas.

Paris: F. Schoell, 18101819.

Introduced the theory of localization of cerebral function, although in a somewhat fantastic form. This pioneer attempt to map out the cerebral cortex according to function gave rise to the pseudo-science of phrenology. The work also contains some important additions to the knowledge of cerebral anatomy. Gall and Spurzheim ended their collaboration after the first 146pp. of Vol. 2. The remainder was written by Gall alone. The first edition was issued in two formats: (1) text and atlas all in folio and (2) text in quarto and atlas in folio. The second edition was revised by Gall, and published without the plates, but with a collection of replies to his critics as Sur les fonctions du cerveau et sur celles de chacune de ses parties. 6 vols., 8vo, Paris, l’Auteur, 1822-25. English translation of second edition, 6 vols., Boston, 1835.



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Phrenology, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1389.1

Analyse de la matière cérèbrale de l’homme et de quelques animaux.

Ann. Musèe Hist. nat. (Paris), 18, 212-239, 1811.

First complete chemical analysis of the nervous system.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1389.2
  • 928

Expériences sur le principe de la vie.

Paris: D’Hautel, 1812.

Le Gallois described the action of the vagus nerve on respiration. He showed that bilateral section of the vagus can produce fatal bronchopneumonia. The above work includes (p. 37) his location of the respiratory center in the medulla , and not in the spinal cord, as had been previously believed. “For the first time, an area of brain substance within a major subdivision of the brain and having a specific function had been defined accurately by experiment” (Clarke & Jacyna).

Le Gallois is also remembered for his reviving, after Borelli, the neurogenic theory of the heart’s action; namely that the motor power of the heart comes from the spinal cord via branches of the sympathetic nerves. Le Gallois also developed a primitive isolated heart-lung preparation in rabbits and was the first to suggest the possibility of a heart-lung machine: “If the place of the heart could be supplied by injection, and if, for the regular continuance of this injection, there could be furnished a quantity of arterial blood, whether natural or artifcially formed . . . then life might be indefnitely maintained” (quoted in Fye, “Julien Jean César Legallois,” Clinical Cardiology 18 (1995): 599-600. . Digital facsimile of the 1812 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. English translation by N. C. and J. G. Nancrede (Philadelphia, 1813) as Experiments on the principle of life, and particularly on the principle of the motions of the heart, and on the seat of this principle: including the report made to the first class of the Institute, upon the experiments relative to the motions of the heart. Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, RESPIRATION
  • 1390

Anatomical and physiological commentaries. Numbers I & II [All published].

London: T. & G. Underwood, 18221823.

Mayo discovered and described the functions of the Vth and VIIth cranial nerves on pp. 107-120 of Number I, and did much towards the clarification of the idea of reflex action. Reprinted, Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow Press, 1975.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1391

Recherches physiques sur les propriétés et les fonctions du système nerveux dans les animaux vertébrés.

Arch. gén. Med., 2, 321-70, 1823.

Flourens removed the cerebrum and cerebellum in pigeons, showing maintenance of reflexes with loss of cerebration in the former case and disturbance of equilibrium in the latter case. Thus he demonstrated that the cerebrum is the organ of thought and the cerebellum the organ controlling the co-ordination of body movements and of will-power. See Nos. 1388 & 1493. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1392

Mémoire sur un liquide qui se trouve dans le crâne et le canal vertebral de l’homme et des animaux mammifères.

J. Physiol. exp. path., 5, 27-37; 7, 1-29, 66-82, 1825, 1827.

First clear description of the cerebrospinal fluid.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1393

Osservazioni sul cervelletto.

Mem. r. Accad. Sci. Torino, 29, 163-88, 1825.

Rolando was the first to investigate the functions of the cerebellum. His name is perpetuated in the “fissure of Rolando”, so named by F. Leuret, Anatomic comparée, 1839-57, whose attention had been drawn to it previously by Rolando.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1394

Della struttura degli emisferi cerebrali.

Mem. r. Accad. Sci. Torino, 35, 103-47, 1829.


Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1395

Recherches expérimentales tendant à prouver que le cervelet préside aux actes de la station et de la progression, et non à l’instinct de la propagation.

Arch. gén. Méd., 15, 64-91; 225-47, 1827.

Bouillaud identified the anterior lobes as the speech center. Refuting Gall, he showed that the brain controls equilibration, station, and progression. Title of second paper varies. His earlier Traité clinique et physiologique de l’encéphalite ou inflammation du cerveau. Paris, 1825, includes some pathological and clinical studies on loss of articulate speech associated with lesions of the anterior lobes, and gives reasons for the localization of this function in the brain. See No. 4618.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1396

Neueste Untersuchungen aus der Nerven-und Hirnanatomie.

Ber. Versamml. dtsch. Natuif. u. Aerzte, Prag, (1838), 15, 177-80, 1837.

Description of the “flask-shaped ganglionic bodies” known as “Purkinje cells”. Reprinted in his Opera Omnia, 1939, 3, 47-9. Also published in Oken’s Isis, 1838, pp. 582-84.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1396.01

Anatomie comparée du système nerveux. 2 vols. and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18391857.

The first comprehensive systematic investigation of the mammalian brain. Leuret wrote vol. 1 without Gratiolet, who later became his collaborator, publishing vol. 2 and the atlas after Leuret’s death.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1396.1

Recherches sur la structure de la couche cortical des circonvolutions du cerveau.

Mém Acad. roy. Méd. (Paris), 8,149-83, 1840.

Baillarger demonstrated that the cortex is made up of layers and that fibers connect the cortex with the internal white matter. English translation in von Bonin, Some papers on the cerebral cortex, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1960.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1397

Recherches physiologiques et cliniques sur le liquide céphalo-rachidien ou cérébro-spinal. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: Méquignon-Marvis, 1842.

“Foramen of Magendie” described.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1398

Des granulations méningiennes. Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine.

Paris: Rignoux, 1853.

Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link. See also his paper in Ann. Sci. nat., 1853, 20, 321-33 (Zool.).



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1399

Leçons sur la physiologie et la pathologie du système nerveux. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1858.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology