An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15429 entries, 13282 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 23, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 1500–1599

132 entries
  • 1500

On the knowledge of distance given by binocular vision.

Trans. roy. Soc. Edinb., 15, 663-75, 18401844.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1501

Untersuchungen zur Kenntniss des körnigen Pigments der Wirbelthiere in physiologischer und pathologischer Hinsicht.

Zürich: Meyer u. Zeller, 1844.

Includes a description of “Bruch’s membrane” of the choroid.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1502

Die Farbenerscheinungen im Grunde des menschlichen Auges.

Heidelberg: K. Groos, 1845.

An important description of colour phenomena in the fundus oculi. This paper won for Kussmaul the Karl Friedrich Medal of the University of Heidelberg.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1503

Beitrag zur physiologischen Optik.

Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1845.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1504

On the vision of objects on and in the eye.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 64, 38-97, 1845.

An introduction to the then little-known subject of catoptrics.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, Optics
  • 1505

Lectures on the parts concerned in the operations on the eye, and on the structure of the retina.

London: Longmans, 1849.

Bowman did more than any other man to advance ophthalmic surgery in England. The above work is the first to include a sound description of the microscopical anatomy of the eye and the ciliary (“Bowman’s”) muscle. The book consists of several lectures given at the London Ophthalmic Hospital and published in the Lond. med. Gaz. in 1847. Part of it is reprinted in Med. Classics, 1940, 5, 292-336.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures
  • 1506

Zur Histologie der Netzhaut.

Z. wiss. Zool., 3, 234-37, 1851.

Discovery of visual purple.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1507

Ueber den Einfluss des Nervensystems auf die Bewegung der Iris.

Arch. physiol. Heilk., 11, 773-826, 1852.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1508

Ueber die Theorie der zusammengesetzten Farben.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 461-82; Ann. Phys. Chem., 87, 45-66, 1852.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1509

Ueber die Accommodation des Auges.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 1, 2 Abt., 1-74, 18541855.

Helmholtz determined the optical constants and explained the mechanism of accommodation, with the help of the ophthalmometer which he had invented in 1852.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1510

Ueber die Bewegung der Iris: Für Physiologen und Ärzte,

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1855.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1511

Osservazioni sul nervo ottico.

G. r. Ist. Lomb. Sci., 237-52, 1855.

Panizza was the first to attribute the vision function to the posterior cortex.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1511.1

Method att objectivera effecten av ljusintryck pa retina.

Läkaref. Förh., 1, 177-91, 1865.

Discovery of the electroretinogram, the beginning of the use of electrophysiological methods for studying visual systems.



Subjects: Electrodiagnosis, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Retinal Diseases, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1512

Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina.

Bonn: M. Cohen & Sohn, 1866.

One of the greatest of all histologists, Max Schultze is remembered by ophthalmologists for his monograph on the nerve-endings in the retina.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1513

Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. 1 vol. and atlas.

Leipzig: L. Voss, 1867.

Includes Helmholtz’s revival of the Young theory of color vision. English translation by J.P.C. Southall of 3rd German edition, 3 vols., Menasha, Wis., 1924-25.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, Optics
  • 1513.1

Die Lehre vom binokularen Sehen.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1868.

Hering’s law: that the corresponding muscles of the two eyes are always equally innervated. The book includes classic experiments and observations on eye movement control. English translation by B. Bridgeman and L. Stark (New York: Plenum, 1977).



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1514

Om retinaströmmen.

Upsala LäkFören. Förh., 6, 419-55, 18701871.

First demonstration of retinal action currents.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1515

Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne. 6 parts.

S. B. k. Akad. Wiss. (Wien), math.-nat. Cl., 3 Abt., 66, 5-24; 68, 186-201, 229-44; 1874, 69, 85-104, 179-217; 1875, 70,169-204, 18721875.

Hering’s theory of color sense. First edition in book form (Vienna, 1878). Hering expanded this work in Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (1905-11; 1920) English translation of that expanded work by Leo M. Hurvich and Dorothea Jameson as Outlines of a theory of the light sense (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964).



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics
  • 1515.1

Studien über den Flüssigkeitswechsel im Auge.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 19, Abt. II, 87-185, 1873.

Leber discovered how the ciliary body excretes intraocular fluid.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1516

Ueber die Kreuzung der Fasern im Chiasma nervorum opticorum.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 20, 2 Abt., 249-68; 25, 1 Abt., 1-56, 18741879.

Important studies on the partial decussation of optic paths.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1517

Zur Physiologie des Sehens und der Farbenempfindung.

Mber. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 2-7, 72-74, 1877.

Boll noted that visual purple is bleached on exposure to light.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1518

Ueber den feineren Bau der Chorioidea des Menschen nebst Beiträgen zur pathologischen und vergleichenden Anatomie der Aderhaut.

v. Graefes Arch. Ophthal., 22, Abt. 2, 1-100, 1876.

“Sattler’s layer” of the choroid.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1519

Ueber den Sehpurpur.

Untersuch. physiol. Inst. Univ. Heidelberg, 1, 15-103, 1878.

Kühne was Professor of Physiology at Amsterdam and Heidelberg. Among his best work is his investigation of visual purple (rhodopsin) which he was first to extract from the retina. Several other papers by him on the same subject appear in the above volume.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1520

The anatomy of the muscles, ligaments and fasciae of the orbit, including an account of the capsule of Tenon, the check ligaments of the recti, and the suspensory ligaments of the eye.

J. Anat. Physiol., (Lond.), 20, 1-25, 1885.

“Lockwood’s suspensory ligament” of the globe of the eye.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1521

Kort öfversigt af läran om lokalisationen i hjernbarken.

Upsala LäkFören. Förh. 27, 507-25, 601-12, 1888.

Discovery of the cortical visual center.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1522

Eine neue Theorie der Licht-Empfindung.

Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg., 4, 211-21, 1893.

Ladd-Franklin theory of vision.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 1523

Die Retina der Wirbelthiere…In Verbindung mit dem Verfasser zusammengestellt, übersetzt und mit Einleitung versehen von Dr. Richard Greef.

Wiesbaden: J. F. Bergmann, 1894.

Classic account of the vertebrate retina. First published in the Belgian review La Cellule, and later translated into German with extensive additions by Ramón y Cajal. Translated into English by Sylvia A. Thorpe and Mitchell Glickstein as The structure of the retina, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, [1972].



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1524

Ueber die Funktion der Netzhautstäbchen.

Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinnesorg., 9, 81-123, 1896.

 On the function of the retinal rods.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1525

Some observations on the visual purple of the retina.

Trans ophthal. Soc. U.K., 22, 300-02, 1902.

Edridge-Green first put forward his theories on the function of the retinal rods and of the visual purple about 1889. See also his Physiology of vision, 1920.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1525.1

The time relations of the photo-electric changes in the eyeball of the frog.

J. Physiol. (Camb), 29, 388-410, 1903.

First correct electroretinograms.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1525.2

Demonstration eines Instrumentes zur Erzeugung von Strahlengebilden um leuchtende Punkte.

Ber. ophthal. Ges. (1902), 290-92, 1903.

Gullstrand invented the slit-lamp, making possible the microscopic study of the living eye.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1526

Einführung in die Methoden der Dioptrik des Auges des Menschen.

Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1911.

Discovery of the intracapsular mechanism of accommodation. Gullstrand received the Nobel Prize in 1911 for his work on the dioptrics of the eye.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1527

Atlas der Spaltlampenmikroskopie des lebenden Auges.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1921.

An important work on the biomicroscopy of the eye. Second ed. greatly revised and enlarged, vol. 1-2, Springer, 1930-31; vol. 3, Stuttgart, F. Enke, 1942; vol. 3 (English translation) Zurich, 1947. Second ed. reprinted, Bonn, J. P. Wayenborgh, 1977. English trans. by F.C. Blodi, 3 vols., Bonn, J.P. Wayenborgh, 1978-81.



Subjects: Microscopy, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1528

The action of light on the eye.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 63, 378-414; 64, 279-301; 65, 273-308, 1927, 1928.

 On the electrical discharges from the vertebrate optic nerve.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1529

An introduction to the theory of perception.

Cambridge, England: University Press, 1927.


Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1530

The nature of the intra-ocular fluids.

London: G. Pulman, 1927.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1531

Text-book of ophthalmology. Vol. 1. The development, form, and function of the visual apparatus.

London: H. Kimpton, 1932.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY , OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1532

The responses of single optic nerve fibers of the vertebrate eye to illumination of the retina.

Amer. J. Physiol., 121, 400-15, 1938.

Hartline continued and extended the work initiated by Adrian and Matthews on electrical discharges from the optic nerve. See also his later papers In the same journal, 1940, 130, 690-711. For his work on visual mechanisms he shared the Nobel Prize in 1967 with Granit (No. 1534) and G. Wald (No. 1535). Reprinted with historical introduction by Hartline in F. Ratliff (ed.). Studies on excitation and inhibition in the retina, New York, [1974],



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics
  • 1533

Continuous and reproducible records of the electrical activity of the human retina.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 48, 204-7, 1941.

Electroretinography



Subjects: Electrodiagnosis, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics
  • 1533.1

The anatomy and the histology of the retina in man, ape, and monkey.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1941.

A scholarly tour-de-force with a bibliography of over 700 references.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1534

Sensory mechanisms of the retina: with an appendix on electroretinography.

London: Geoffrey Cumberlege, 1947.

An account of twenty years’ work on the electrical responses of the retina, a discussion of visual purple and visual violet, and an exposition of Granit’s hypothesis of colour vision. His researches have done much to elucidate the mechanism of visual processes. In 1967 he shared the Nobel Prize with Hartline (No. 1532) and G. Wald.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1535

The molecular basis of visual excitation.

Les Prix Nobel en Stockholm, pp. 260-80., 1967, 1968.

Wald shared the Nobel Prize in 1967 for research on the photosensitive pigments in the visual receptor apparatus.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1536

Liber introductorius anatomiae sive dissectionis corporis humani; in quo quam plurima membra, operationes, & utilitates tam ab antiquis, quam a modernis praetermissa manifestantur.

Venice: Francesco Bindoni & Maffeo Pasini, 1536.

A practical manual for dissection, showing how to carry out an anatomy from the first incision onwards. Massa based his work on his experience gained from numerous dissections that he had undertaken in the hospital of SS. Petro et Paolo in the monastery of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. In the full title of the book Masso

"promised to reveal parts, functions, and uses of the body overlooked by others, ancient and modern. In his biography of Vesalius, C. D. O'Malley found the book 'somewhat overated, making certain contributions and correcting some errors, but remaining too much under the shadow of Galen.' Later he gave a more favourable appreciation, noting Massa's introduction of the term panniculous carnosis and praising other aspects of his work - his account of the abdominal wall, intestinal canal, and appendix, his observation that the size of spleen varied in those suffering from certain ailments, the discovery of the prostate gland, his denial of the seven-celled uterus, his reference to the malleus and incus, and his statement that interventricular septum was a 'dense and hard substance without a cavity', perhaps a denial of Galen's interventircular pores and a hint towards the pulmonary circulation of the blood. At the same time, O'Malley commented unfavourably on the 'cryptic brevity' of so many of Massa's descriptions. This is a justifiable comment, but Massa's brevity was perhaps inevitable in what was, after all, a short book on how to perform an anatomy, not an account of the fabric of the body in the manner of Vesalius....For Massa, anatomy remained an adjunct to medicine. It was the groundwork for surgery, showing the correct sites for incisions and areas where especial care was needed. He noted the extreme consequences of surgical mistakes; ignorance of anatomy could cause the death of patients. it is no surprise that he digressed into surgery, dealing amongst other things, with wounds of the peritoneum and demonstrating his own method of sewing up intestines. Anatomy was also the guide to morbific processes, and many of his patients ended their courses of treatment on his anatomy table, sometimes at the request of relatives.

"The Liber introductorius is best judged in its own terms as a practical manual. It is full of hints such as the use of probes to examine cavities, and pipes, syringes, and bellows to flate organs such as the bladder, kidneys, stomach, and somb to show their capacity and explore their function. it also contains useful suggestions such as boiling the liver as a preliminary to studying its veins. The treatise amply justifies L. R. Lind's assessemtn of it as a 'remarkably clear account of the human body by a skilled dissector who was proud of his ability" (Richard Palmer, "Nicolò Massa, his family and his fortune," Med. Hist., 25 (1981) 385-410).

"It is clearly evident, that Massa anticipated the modern anatomists, describing the presence of fluid intracranially. [Massa's Chapter XXXVIII on page 84]. Because this work was original, the evidence accurate and based on autopsy observations and what is more other scientists cited his work, thus we have to recognize Massa's scientific priority for this discovery.8-9' This great anatomical discovery is widely recognized as a milestone in the development of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology" (Leszek Herbowski, "Massa versus Haller: Priority of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Discovery," Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo), 58 (2018), 225-227).

Full text translated into English by L. R. Lind, Studies in pre-Vesalian anatomy...(1975).



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 1208
  • 1537
  • 378.2

Observationes anatomicae.

Venice: M. A. Ulmum, 1561.

Observationes anatomicae, a work of 232 leaves printed in the comparatively small octavo format, with no illustrations, was the only work Fallopio published before his death from tuberculosis at age thirty-nine, and is thus the only one that can be said to be fully authentic. The remainder of Falloppio's works were edited for publication from his lecture notes, and may represent more or less than the author's original intention. Observationes was not an all-inclusive textbook of anatomy but rather a detailed critical commentary on Vesalius's De humani corporis fabrica (1543), in which Falloppio attempted to correct errors in the earlier work, and to add material that Vesalius had overlooked; for this reason, there was no need for illustrations. The large amount of new material included Falloppio's investigations of primary and secondary centers of ossification, the first clear description of primary dentition, numerous contributions to the study of the muscles (especially those of the head), and the famous account of the uterine ("Falloppian") tubes, which he correctly described as resembling small trumpets (tubae), definitely proved the existence of the seminal vesicles. He also gave to the placenta and vagina their present scientific names, provided a superior description of the auditory apparatus (including the first clear accounts of the chorda tympani and semicircular canals), and was the first to clearly distinguish the trochlear nerve of the eye. Vesalius responded positively to Falloppio's work with his posthumously published Examen on Falloppio (1564).

For further details see the entry in HistoryofInformation.com at this link.

 



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, DENTISTRY, Genito-Urinary System, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1093
  • 1139
  • 1228
  • 1538
  • 3668
  • 801

Opuscula anatomica.

Venice: V. Luchinas, 15631564.

Eustachius is credited with several anatomical discoveries, among them the tensor tympani muscle and the Eustachian tube, published in his chapter entitled De auditus organis. In the last respect, however, he was anticipated by Alcmaeon, about 500 BCE. Eustachius was the first to describe the chorda tympani as a nerve. Plate VIII illustrates the “Eustachian valve”, the valvula venae cavae in the right auricle. Eustachius recognized the thoracic duct in the horse and even detected some of its valves. His work on this structure was forgotten until Aselli’s description of the lacteals. This work includes first description of the adrenals. Several of the plates deal with the structure of the kidney.

Basing his work on the dissection of fetuses and newborn children, Eustachi was the first to study the teeth in any considerable detail. In his Libellus de dentibus attached to this work he provided an important description of the first and second dentitions and described the hard outer tissue and soft inner structure of the teeth. He also attempted an explanation of the problem of the sensitivity of the tooth’s hard structure. The Libellus has a separate title page dated 1563. It was reprinted with German translation, Wien, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1951. It was translated into English by Joan H. Thomas and edited and introduced by David A. Chernin and Gerald Shlklar as as A little treatise on the teeth. The first authoritative book on dentistry (1563) (Canton, MA, 1999). Eustachi’s illustrations of the teeth were first published in his Tabulae anatomicae, edited by Giovanni Maria Lancisi (No. 391). For further information, including a discussion of the states of the Opuscula, see the entry at HistoryofInformation.com at this link.

Digital facsimile of the 1563 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

 

 



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Anatomy of the Heart & Circulatory System, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals, Lymphatic System, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1539
  • 464.1

Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis partium tabulae.

Nuremberg: T. Gerlatzeni, 15721573.

Coiter made several important contributions to the study of human anatomy, and was the first to elevate comparative anatomy to the rank of an independent branch of biology. His Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis partium tabulae is a collection of ten short works, among which are the first monograph on the ear (De auditus instrumento); the earliest study of the growth of the skeleton as a whole in the human fetus (Ossium tum humani foetus . . .); the first descriptions of the spinal ganglia and musculus corrugator supercilii (in Observationum anatomicarum chirurgicarumque miscellanea); and Coiter's epochal (although unillustrated) investigation of the development of the chick in ovo (De ovorum gallinaceorum generationis. . .), based upon observations made over twenty successive days. This last was the first published study of chick embryo development based upon direct observation since the three-period description (after three, ten and twenty days of incubation) given by Aristotle in his Historia animalium two thousand years before.

Coiter was one of the first physicians to draw the illustrations for his own publications, and to take credit for them in print. It is believed that Vesalius may have done some of the simpler illustrations for the Fabrica; however, none of the Fabrica images are signed, and questions concerning their authorship have led to centuries of speculation and debate. Coiter's illustrations of the adult skeleton and skull, after Vesalius, are superior in anatomical detail; and his sketches of fetal skeletons are original. English translation with parallel Latin text and biographical introductions as Opuscula Selecta Neerlandicorum de Arte Medica XVIII (Amsterdam: Sumptibus Societatis, 1955).  See No. 284.

For further details see the entry at HistoryofInformation.com at this link.

 

 



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, EMBRYOLOGY, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1540
  • 286

De vocis auditusque organis historia anatomica. 2 pts.

Ferrara: V. Baldinus, typ. Cameralis, 16001601.

Casseri, originally a servant to Fabrizio, was personally trained by his employer and eventually succeeded to Fabrizio’s chair of anatomy. Like Fabrizio, who studied the development of the chick for clues to human embryology, Casseri endeavored to explain the human larynx and ear by reference to the lower animals. He investigated the structure of the auditory and vocal organs in most of the domestic animals. The book includes a description of the larynx more accurate than that of any previous author, and is also notable for its fine copperplate engravings, masterpieces of anatomical art. The elaborate engraved title page is particularly spectacular. Translation of chap. I-VIII , The larynx, organ of voice by Malcolm H. Hast and Erling B. Holtsmark with preface and anatomical notes in Acta otol. (Stockh.),1969, Suppl. 261.

 

 



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat), OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 1541

In Galeni librum de ossibus.

Palermo, Italy: ex typog. J. B. Maringhi, 1603.

Ingrassia is by some accredited with the discovery of the stapes; he also observed the sound-conducting capacity of the teeth.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, DENTISTRY, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1542

Nova auris internae delineatio.

Venice, 1645.

An article which announces the discovery of the long process of the malleus. Folius “accurately discussed the general configuration of the middle ear, described the round and oval windows, delineated the three ossicles with the so-called fourth ossicle, the semicircular canals and cochlea” (Mettler). Also in A. Haller, Disputationes ad morborum historiam, etc. 1749, 4, 365-68.  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear
  • 1543
  • 973

Observationes anatomicae, quibus varia oris, oculorum & narium vas describuntur novique salivae, lacrymarum & muci fontes deteguntur.

Leiden: J. Chouët, 1662.

Includes the first account of the excretory duct of the parotid gland (“Stensen’s duct”), discovered by Stensen. He first reported his discovery in a letter to his teacher, Thomas Bartholin, dated April, 22, 1661. Stensen was also the first mention the ceruminous glands in this work. Facsimile reproduction, with English translation, Copenhagen, 1951.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1544
  • 4513
  • 4730
  • 4793
  • 4919
  • 4966

De anima brutorum

Oxford: R. Davis, 1672.

Chap. XIV is devoted to the sense of hearing; in it Willis described the “paracusis of Willis” (p. 73). English translation, 1683.

A probable description of myasthenia gravis is given in Pars. 2, Cap. IX.

In Pars 2, Cap. III is an account of lethargy, and Cap. XIII gives an account of “stupidity or foolishness”. Part 2, Cap. 1, deals with headache.

Two Oxford editions were published in 1672; the first, in quarto, in which a description of general paralysis appears on pp. 392-432, and the second, in octavo, in which it appears on pp. 278-307. In his Practice of Physick (1684) the translation of this section appears on pp. 161-78.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROLOGY › Myopathies, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, PAIN / Pain Management, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 1545
  • 3351

Traité de l’organe de l’ouie; contenant la structure, les usages et les maladies de toutes les parties de l’oreille.

Paris: E. Michallet, 1683.

The first scientific account of the structure, function and diseases of the ear. Du Verney showed that the bony external meatus develops from the tympanic ring and that the mastoid air cells communicate with the tympanic cavity. He it was who first suggested the theory of hearing later developed by, and accredited to, Helmholtz. Du Verney also identified a temporal bone tumor, which is believed to be the earliest description of cholesteatoma. English translation, 1737. See also A bibliography of editions of Du Verney’s Traité … published between 1683 and 1750, compiled by N. Asherson, J. Laryng. Otol., 1979, Suppl. No. 2, and book-form edition, London, H. K. Lewis, 1979. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Diseases of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1545.1

De auditu liber unus.

Leiden: P. de Graaf, 1684.

An early account of the anatomy, physics and physiology of hearing, preceded by a historical summary of earlier work.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1546

De aure humana tractatus.

Bologna: typ. C. Pisarii, 1704.

Valsalva, a pupil of Malpighi and teacher of Morgagni, is best remembered for his work upon the ear, in which he described and depicted its most minute muscles and nerves. He divided the ear into “external”, “middle”, and “internal”; his method of inflating the middle ear (Valsalva’s maneuver) is still practiced. The book includes a description of “Valsalva’s dysphagia”.



Subjects: OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1547
  • 469.1

Tractatus quatuor anatomici de aure humana. Tractatus quintus anatomicus de aure humana. Cui accedit tractatus sextus de aure monstri humani.

Halle: sumtibus Orphanotrophei, 17341735.

Important tracts on the anatomy and physiology of the ear. Cassebohm’s studies of the embryonic ear far surpassed his predecessors, including Valsalva and Morgagni, and were not themselves surpassed until the work of Huschke and von Baer.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, EMBRYOLOGY, OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1548

Dissertatio medica de auditu in genere et de illo que fit per os in specie.

Gryphiswald, 1742.

Pyl was the first (page 20) to record the labyrinthine fluid and to discuss its rôle in the transmission of sound.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1549

De aquaeductibus auris humanae intemae.

Naples: ex typ. Simoniana, 1761.

Cotugno is sometimes accredited with the discovery of the “liquor Cotunnii”, the labyrinthine fluid, first noted by Pyl in 1742. He did, however, make important contributions to the knowledge on the structure and function of the ear, including the discovery of the aural aqueducts. The naso-palatine nerve and the columns in the osseous spiral lamina are named after him.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1550

De structura fenestrae rotundae auris, et de tympano secundario anatomicae observationes.

Modena: apud Soc. typog., 1772.

Scarpa’s first scientific work, a comparative anatomical investigation of the ear, in which he offered a more accurate and complete description of the osseous labyrinth and demonstrated the true function of the round window. See also No. 1553.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1551

Dissertations sur l’organe de l’ouie. 1. De l’homme. 2. Des reptiles. 3. Des poissons.

Amsterdam & Paris: Cavelier, 1778.


Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology
  • 1552

Observationes anatomicae de aure interna comparata.

Pavia: S. Bartholomaeus, 1789.


Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1553

De penitiori ossium structura commentarius.

Leipzig: J. F. Hartknoch, 1799.


Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1554

Abbildungen des menschlichen Hoerorganes

Frankfurt: a.M., Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 1806.


Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1555

Supplementa ad otojatriam. Supplementum primum de anastomosi nervorum nova in aure detecta.

Acta. reg. Soc. Med. Havnien., 5, 293-303, 1818.

Jacobson described the tympanic canal, nerve, and plexus, all of which are named after him. In 1809 he discovered “Jacobson’s organ”, as reported two years later by G. Cuvier.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1556

De aure et auditu hominis et animalium.

Leipzig: apud G. Fleischerum, 1820.


Subjects: OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1556.1

Experiments on audition.

Quart. J. Sci. Lit. Arts, 24, 67-72, 1827.

Occlusion effect on sound perception.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1557

Expériences sur les canaux semi-circulaires de l’oreille chez les oiseaux.

Ann. sci. nat., 15, 113-24, 1828.

Flourens showed that lesion of the semicircular canals produces motor incoordination and loss of equilibrium. Menière based his work (No. 3372) on Flourens’s crucial experiments.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1558

On the form and structure of the membrana tympani.

Lond. med. Gaz., 10, 120-24, 1832.

Description of the pars flaccida (“Shrapnell’s membrane”) of the tympanic membrane.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1559

Recherches sur l’organe de l’ouïe des mammifères.

Z. wiss. Zool., 3, 109-69, 1851.

Corti made important investigations on the finer anatomy of the mammalian cochlea. The “organ of Corti” in the cochlea is named after him.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1560

De auris internae formatione.

Livorno: H. Laakmann, 1851.

Description of the vestibular membrane (“Reissner’s membrane”).



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1561

Ueber die Endigungsweise des Hörnerven im Labyrinth.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 343-81, 1858.

Schultze’s great monographs on the nerve-endings of the sense organs were of prime importance in the development of the science of histology. Besides that dealing with the internal ear, he wrote others dealing with the nose and the retina. See Nos. 936, 1512.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1562

Die Lehre von der Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1863.

Helmholtz’s theory of hearing, upon which all modern theories of resonance are based. This exhaustive study of acoustics ranks as one of the greatest books on the subject and shows that Helmholtz was, besides being a great physicist and physician, an accomplished musician. English translation of 3rd edition, London, 1875.



Subjects: Music and Medicine, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1563

Die Mechanik der Gehörknöchelchen und des Trommelfells.

Pflügers Arch. ges. Physiol 1, 1-60, 1868.

Helmholtz’s study of the mechanism of the tympanum and ossicles of the middle ear did much to elucidate the phenomenon of audition. It includes a description of “Helmholtz’s ligament” of the malleus. Separate offprint, Bonn, 1869. English translation, London, 1873.



Subjects: OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1564

Ueber die physiologische Bedeutung der Bogengänge des Ohrlabyrinths.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 3, 172-92, 1870.

Goltz demonstrated the relation of vertigo and vestibular disturbance, showing that the former is a result of disease or irritation of the semicircular canals.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Vestibular System, OTOLOGY › Vestibular System › Vertigo
  • 1566

Das Gehörorgan der Wirbelthiere. 2 vols.

Stockholm: Samson & Wallin, 18811884.

The most magnificent of all comparative anatomical studies of the ear, and the most beautiful studies of the ear after those of Casseri (No.1540). Retzius described the “Retzius bodies” in the labyrinth.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1567

Die Lehren von den Funktionen der einzelnen Theile des Ohrlabyrinths.

Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1894.

Stein studied the functions of separate parts of the labyrinth. This is a translation from the Russian.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1568

Zur Physiologie des Labyrinths. 3. Mittheilung. Das Hören der labyrinthlosen Tauben.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 59, 258-75, 1894.


Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1569

Zur Physiologie des Labyrinths. 4. Mittheilung. Die Beziehungen des Grosshirns zum Tonuslabyrinth.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 60, 492-508, 1895.


Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1569.1

Note sur la variation éléctrique (courant d’action) déterminée dans le nerf acoustique par le son.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 48, 690-92, 1896.

Beauregard and Dupuy recorded the action potential in the auditory nerve of the frog.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1569.2

The labyrinth of animals. 2 vols.

London: Churchill, 19071908.

“An important and elaborate work designed to give the anatomy of the labyrinth, or inside of the ears of vertebrates, with the exception of fishes” (Casey Wood). Illustrated with stereoscopic photographs.



Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear
  • 1570

The mechanism of the cochlea. A restatement of the resonance theory of hearing.

London: Macmillan, 1924.


Subjects: OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1570.1

Über den Knall und die Theorie des Hörens.

Phys. Z., 34, 577-82, 1933.

In 1961 Békésy was awarded a Nobel Prize for his discoveries concerning the physical mechanisms of stimulation within the cochlea. English translation in Békésy, Experiments in hearing, 1960.



Subjects: OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1571

The experimental method in medical science.

New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1882.

Dalton, Professor of Physiology at the universities of Buffalo and Vermont, and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, was the first American to devote his time exclusively to that subject. He was present at the first demonstration of ether as an anaesthetic, Oct 16,1846, and was quick to see its possibilities as a means of illustrating his lectures with experiments on living animals. As a result of the opposition to vivisection he published the above book. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Medicine: General Works › Experimental Design › Vivisection / Antivivisection, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1572

Doctrines of the circulation.

Philadelphia: H. C. Lea’s Son & Co., 1884.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1573

A contribution to the history of the respiration of man.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1897.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology, PULMONOLOGY
  • 1574

Die historische Entwicklung der experimentellen Gehirn- und Rückenmarksphysiologie vor Flourens.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1897.

Unsurpassed coverage of the experimental physiology of the brain and spinal cord up to the work of Flourens. The best edition is the extensively annotated English translation as The historical development of experimental brain and spinal cord physiology before Flourens  by E. S. Clarke, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1574.1

Le système nerveux centrale structure et fonctions. Histoire critique des théories et des doctrines. 2 vols.

Paris: Carré & Naud, 1899.

Massive history of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century, limited in its historical analysis. The second volume is a survey of end of 19th century opinions on the structure and function of the nervous system.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1575

Lectures on the history of physiology.

Cambridge, England: University Press, 1901.

Reprinted 1924 and (Dover Pubs.), 1970.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1576

Some apostles of physiology.

London: Waterlow & Sons, 1902.

Well illustrated, and finely printed, but dated history, by a pupil of Ludwig. See No. 629.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1577

Reflex action. A study in the history of physiological psychology.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1930.

Reprinted, New York, Hafner, 1964.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1580

The story of the development of our ideas of chemical mediation of nerve impulses.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 188, 145-59, 1934.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1581

Geschichte der physiologischen Chemie.

Leipzig: Deuticke, 1935.

Reprinted, Hildesheim, 1970.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › History of Biochemistry, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1583

A short history of physiology. 2nd ed.

London: Staples Press, 1949.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1584

The history of muscle physiology from the natural philosophers to Albrecht von Haller.

Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1950.

Acta Historica Scientiarum Naturalium et Medicinalium, Vol. 7.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1586

The history and philosophy of knowledge of the brain and its functions: an Anglo-American symposium.

Oxford: Blackwell, 1958.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, Neurophysiology › History of Neurophysiology
  • 1586.1

The historical development of physiological thought.

New York: Hafner, 1959.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1587

The discovery of the reflexes.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588

Hormone: Die Geschichte der Hormonforschung.

Cologne: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1963.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.1

Circulation of the blood: men and ideas.

New York & Bethesda, MD: Oxford University Press, 1964, 1982.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.10

A history of biochemistry. 5 vols.

Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1972.

Forms vols. 30-34 of Comprehensive biochemistry, edited by M. Florkin and E. H. Stotz.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › History of Biochemistry, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.11

Machina carnis: the biochemistry of muscular contraction in its historical development.

Cambridge, England: University Press, 1972.

A definitive history of the development of knowledge on muscle biochemistry; valuable bibliography.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › History of Biochemistry, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About
  • 1588.12

History of physiology. Edited and translated by G. B. Risse

Huntington, NY: Krieger, 1973.

A revised and expanded translation of Geschichte der Physiologie, Berlin, 1953.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.13

The heart and the vascular system in ancient Greek medicine from Alcmaeon to Galen.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.14

The way in and the way out. François Magendie, Charles Bell and the roots of the spinal nerves. With a facsimile of Charles Bell’s annotated copy of his Idea of a new anatomy of the brain. Edited by Paul Cranefield.

Mount Kisco, NY: Futura Publishing, 1974.

An annotated bibliography of the literature documenting the history of this controversy together with reproductions of the texts of the crucial papers. See Nos. 1254-1259.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › History of Neuroanatomy, NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, Neuroanatomy, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.15

The neurosciences: Paths to discovery.

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975.

Thirty-one contributions to a symposium in honour of F. O. Schmitt. 



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.16

Translations in respiratory physiology.

Stroudsberg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1975.

English translations of 22 classic papers (some quite lengthy) with introductions by various experts.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.17

Harvey and the Oxford physiologists. A study of scientific ideas.

Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1980.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.18

A bio-bibliography for the history of the biochemical sciences since 1800.

Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1982.

An index to bio-bibliographical articles listed alphabetically by scientist. Supplement published, Philadelphia, 1985.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Chemistry / Biochemistry, BIOCHEMISTRY › History of Biochemistry, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.19

A history of neurophysiology in the 17th and 18th centuries. From concept to experiment. A history of neurophysiology in the 19th century. 2 vols.

New York: Raven Press, 19831988.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1588.2

Selected readings in the history of physiology. Second edition, revised.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1966.

These readings extend from Aristotle to contemporary writers; they give access to many classical works that might otherwise be unobtainable to students of the history of physiology. Foreign material is translated into English. First edition, 1930.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.20

Science and medicine in France. The emergence of experimental physiology, 1790-1855.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.21

The brain machine: The development of neurophysiological thought.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Translation of Le cerveau-machine: physiologie de la volonté, Paris, 1983.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.22

The history of blood gases, acids and bases.

Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1986.

The authors were prominent investigators in the field.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.23

Renal physiology: People and ideas.

Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1987.

A collective work on the history of renal physiology with thematic chapters by the editors and other prominent investigators.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › History of Nephrology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.24

Nineteenth century origins of neuroscientific concepts.

Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1987.

Detailed analysis, emphasizing first half of 19th century, with detailed bibliographies, and bibliographical notes.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.3

The history of cell respiration and cytochrome

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1966.

See No. 968.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1588.4

The human brain and spinal cord: A historical study illustrated by writings from antiquity to the twentieth century. Second edition, revised and enlarged with a new preface by Edwin Clarke.

San Francisco, CA: Norman Publishing, 1996.

Massive anthology of primary source material on neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Excellent commentaries and bibliographies.  First edition, 1968.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.5

Die Entwicklung der physiologischen Methodik von 1784 bis 1911. Eine qualitative Untersuchung.

Münster: Inst. Gesch. d. Med, 1970.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.6

Ideas of life and matter; studies in the history of general physiology 600 B.C. to A.D. 1900. 2 vols.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1969.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.7

Mind, brain and adaptation in the nineteenth century. Cerebral localization and its biological context from Gall to Ferrier.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 1588.8

Historical aspects of cerebral anatomy.

London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

A highly detailed, very technical, but well-documented study.



Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › History of Neuroanatomy
  • 1588.9

An illustrated history of brain function. Imaging the Brain from Antiquity to the Present. Second edition, revised and enlarged, with a new preface by Edwin Clarke and a new chapter surveying advances in imaging technology by Michael J. Aminoff.

San Francisco, CA: Norman Publishing, 1996.

First edition, Oxford, 1985.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › History of Neuroanatomy, NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology
  • 1589

Frontinus: De aquaeductibus. Edited by Pomponius Laetus and Johannes Sulpitius Verulanus.

Rome: Eucharius Silber, 1487.

De aquaeductibus, or De aquis urbis Romae was written about 100 CE by the Roman senator Frontinus. Its title is sometimes translated as The Aquaducts of Rome, and most recently by Rodgers as On the Water-Management of the City of Rome. The brief work provides gives a history and description of the water supply of ancient Rome, and the laws governing its use and maintenance. It was first translated into English as The Two Books on the Water Supply of the City of Rome of Sextus Julius Frontinus, Water Commissioner of the City of Rome, A.D. 97. A photographic reproduction of the sole original Latin manuscript and its reprint in Latin; also, a translation into English, and explanatory chapters by Clemens Herschel, Boston, 1899. Herschel's translation was revised by Mary B. McIlwaine, for the Loeb Classical Library edition of 1925, edited by Charles E. Bennett. The Bennett / McIlwaine translation was in turn revised by R. H. Rodgers for the latest and best edition (Cambridge: Univ. Press 2004). Both the place and publisher of the 1487 editio princeps of Frontinus (sometimes thought to be printed in 1483) are unstated but inferred by bibliographers. The edition is described bibliographically in ISTC No. if00324000. A digital facsimile is available from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek at this link. That library dates the edition between 1487 and 1490.

For further information see the entry at HistoryofInformation.com at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 1589.1

Gerontocomia.

Rome: Eucharius Silber, 1489.

The first printed book on geriatrics – a guide to proper hygiene, physical and mental, and particularly to the diet of the aged. Translated into English by L.R. Lind as Gerontocomia: on the care of the aged and Maximilianus, Elegies on old age and love. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1988. See also Nos. 363.4 and 1758.1. ISTC no. iz00026000. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.



Subjects: GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 1590

A new booke entyteled the regiment of lyfe.

London: E. Whytchurch, 1544.

Translation by John Phaer of a book by Jehan Goeurot published in 1530. Garrison states that it is a version of the Regimen Sanitatis.



Subjects: DENTISTRY, Hygiene
  • 1591

The breviary of helthe, for all manner of syckenesses and diseases the whiche may be in man, or woman doth folowe.

London: W. Middleton, 1547.

This, probably the earliest “modern” work on hygiene, throws some light on the condition of that subject in the 16th century.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), Hygiene
  • 1592

Trattato de la vita sobria.

Padua: G. Perchacino, 1558.

Garrison considered this “the best treatise on personal hygiene and the simple life in existence”. Cornaro was called the Apostle of Senescence. 

"When he was about 40, Cornaro found himself exhausted and in poor health, a condition he attributed to a hedonistic lifestyle with excessive eating, drinking, and sexual licentiousness. On the advice of doctors, he began to adhere to a calorie restriction diet specially for morbid obese/anorexia nervosa persons,[3] centered on the "quantifying principle" of restricting himself to only 350g of food daily (including bread, egg yolk, meat, and soup) and 414 mL of wine.[4] His book Discorsi della vita sobria (Discourses On the Temperate Life), which described his regimen, was extremely successful, and "was a true reconceptualization of old age. As late as the Renaissance it was largely the negative aspects of this phase of life which were emphasized ... Cornaro’s method offered the possibility for the first time not only of a long but also a worthwhile life." After his conversion to a holistic lifestyle, he remained in vigorous health well into old age.[4]

In 1550, when Cornaro was about 83, he was urged to write down his secrets of health, and its English translation, often referred to today under the title The Sure and Certain Method of Attaining a Long and Healthful Life, went through numerous editions; he wrote three follow-ups in 1553, 1558, and 1562. The first three were published at Padua in 1558. They are written, says Joseph Addison, in the early 18th century periodical The Spectator (No. 195), "with such a spirit of cheerfulness, religion and good sense, as are the natural concomitants of temperance and sobriety." Friedrich Nietzsche criticized the work for mistaking the consequence with the cause,[5] insisting that Cornaro's diet is not the cause of his long life, but rather that the cause of his long life - which Nietzsche gives as his slow metabolism - is the reason for his diet." (Wikipedia article on Luigi Cornaro, accessed 3-2020).

First translated into English by George Herbert as A treatise of temperance and sobrietie, n.p., n.d. [1634]. This was published with Leonardus Lessius, Hygiasticon: Or, The right course of preserving life and health unto extream old age together with soundnesse and integritie of the senses, judgement, and memorie. Written in Latine by Leonardus Lessius, and now done into English. [Cambridge]: Printed by Roger Daniel, printer to the Universitie of Cambridge, 1634. Digital text is available from Early English Books Online at this link



Subjects: GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging, Hygiene, NUTRITION / DIET, Obesity Research
  • 1594

A new discourse of a stale subject, called the Metamorphosis of Aiax. Written by Misacmos to his friend Philostilpnos.

London: R. Field, 1596.

Harington invented a water-closet in which the disposal of excreta was for the first time controlled by mechanical means. He published several tracts on the device, the first appearing in 1596. These were elegantly reprinted by the Chiswick Press in an edition limited to 100 copies (1814). “Ajax” is a pun on “a jakes”, an Elizabethan name for a privy. Critical, annotated edition by E. S. Donno, New York, Columbia Univ. Press, 1962.



Subjects: Hygiene, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 1595

Medicina gerocomica; or the Galenic art of preserving old men’s healths.

London: J. Isted, 1724.

The first English book devoted to gerontology. Digital facsimile of the second edition (1725) from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging
  • 1596

A description of ventilators.

London: W. Innys, 1743.

Hales devised a ventilator, by means of which fresh air could be introduced into jails, mines, hospitals, the holds of ships, etc. The invention met with immediate approval and contributed much towards health of those for whom it was employed. Hales was the inventor of artificial ventilation.



Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH, Ventilation, Health Aspects of
  • 1597

Avis au peuple sur la santé.

Lausanne: J. Zimmerli pour F. Grasset, 1761.

A tract on medicine written for the lay public; it ran through many editions and was translated into all European languages. It has been called "the greatest medical best-seller of the eighteenth century" (Singy,  "The Popularization of Medicine in the Eighteenth Century: Writing, Reading, and Rewriting Samuel Auguste Tissot's Avis au peuple sur sa santé". Journal of Modern History, 82 (2010) 769–800).

English translation in 1765. Digital facsimile of the 1761 edition from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Household or Self-Help Medicine, Hygiene, Popularization of Medicine
  • 1598

The state of the prisons in England and Wales.

Warrington, England: W. Eyres, 1777.

Howard devoted much of his life to the improvement of the conditions then prevailing in prisons. The publication of his book led to legislation abolishing abuses in prisons and providing for their proper cleaning. The Howard League for Penal Reform is one result of his charitable work. Reprint of 4th ed. (1792), Montclair, N.Y., 1973. See L. Baumgartner, "John Howard (1726-1790) hospital and prison reformer: a bibliography," Bull. Hist. Med., 1939, 7, 486-534, 595-626.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Wales, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 1599

System einer vollständigen medicinischen Polizey. 9 vols.

Mannheim: Tübingen, Wien, 17791827.

The first systematic treatise on public hygiene. Frank believed the ruler of a state should stand in the relation of a father to his children, among his duties being the safeguarding of the people’s health and the preservation of a healthy race by appropriate laws. The last two volumes were edited by G. C. G. Voigt. Portions were translated into English as A system of complete medical police: Selections from Johann Peter Frank. Edited with an introduction by Erna Lesky. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1976.).



Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH, SOCIAL MEDICINE