An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15423 entries, 13280 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 17, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 2800–2899

115 entries
  • 2800

An unpublished physical sign.

Lancet 2, 200-01, 1895.

“Broadbent’s sign” – recession of the intercostal spaces as a sign of adherent pericardium.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Pericardial Diseases
  • 2801

Sphygmomanomètre pour mésurer la pression du sang chez l’homme.

Arch. ital. Biol., 23, 177-97, 1895.

A sphygmomanometer for registering the blood-pressure in the finger was invented by Mosso.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Sphygmogram, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Sphygmomanometer
  • 2802

Practical aids in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion, in connection with the question as to surgical treatment.

Brit. med. J., 1, 717-21, 1896.

Pulmonary collapse at the left base in pericardial effusion – “Ewart’s sign”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Pericardial Diseases
  • 2803

Ueber chronische unter dem Bilde der Leberzirrhose verlaufende Perikarditis (perikarditische Pseudoleberzirrhose) nebst Bemerkungen über die Zuckergussleber.

Z. klin. Med., 29, 385-410, 1896.

“Pick’s disease” – pericardial pseudocirrhosis of the liver.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver
  • 2804

Un nuovo sfigmomanometro.

Gaz. med. Torino, 47, 981-96, 1001-17, 1896.

Riva-Rocci’s sphygmomanometer marked the end of the search for a simple clinical method of estimating the blood-pressure. Abridged English translation in Ruskin (No. 3160.1).



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Sphygmomanometer
  • 2804.1

A method for more fully determining the outline of the heart by means of the fluoroscope together with other uses of this instrument in medicine.

Boston med. surg. J., 135, 335-337, 1896.

Estimation of heart size by fluoroscope, first application of x rays to cardiology.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 2805

Heart disease.

London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1897.

Chapter 17 includes J. Broadbent’s classic description of adherent pericardium. See Willius & Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 712-15, for reproduction of part of this chapter.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Pericardial Diseases
  • 2806

Die angeborenen Defecte der Kammerscheidewand des Herzens.

Z. klin. Med., 32, Suppl.- Heft, 1-28, 1897.

“Riding aorta”, patent interventricular septum and right ventricular enlargement – the “Eisenmenger syndrome”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 2807

A simple and accurate form of sphygmomanometer or arterial pressure gauge contrived for clinical use.

Brit. med. J., 2, 904, 1897.

Hill and Barnard made an important modification to the Riva-Rocci sphygmomanometer when they substituted a pressure gauge in place of the mercury manometer used for pressure readings.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Sphygmogram, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Sphygmomanometer
  • 2808

Diseases of the heart and the aorta.

Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland, 1898.

Includes among many other valuable descriptions, the description of the "Gibson murmur" also called the "machinery murmur"



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • 2809

Sulla cardioptosi; primo abbozzo anatomo-clinico.

Arch. Med int. (Palermo), 1, 161-83, 1898.

Rummo drew attention to a downward displacement of the heart – “Rummo’s disease”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Myocarditis
  • 2809.1

Zur Analyse des unregelmässigen Pulses.

Z. klin. Med., 36, 181-99, 1899.

Wenckebach phenomenon”, a form of arrhythmia.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2809.2

Ueber akute interstitielle Myokarditis.

Dresden: W. Baensch, 1899.

“Fiedler’s myocarditis”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Myocarditis
  • 2810

Ueber einen neuen Blutdruckmesser (Tonometer).

Wien. med. Wschr., 49, 1412-18, 1899.

Gaertner, an Austrian physician, invented an instrument for measuring blood-pressure by means of a compressing ring applied to the finger.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 2811

Traité cliniques des maladies du coeur et de l’aorte. 3 vols.

Paris: Octave Doin, 18991903.

Third and best edition. "Huchard, physician to the Necker Hospital was a foremost teacher in Paris at the end of the 19th century, and a great authority on angina pectoris and arteriosclerosis. He was a powerful advocate for the coronary theory and assembled 185 [case reports] as published examples of angina pectoris associated with coronary disease" (Bedford 393, quote from Bedford 394).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2812

The study of the pulse.

Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland, 1902.

In his classic monograph Mackenzie included (p. 10) a description and illustration of his polygraph, with which he made simultaneous tracings of the pulse, apex beat, etc.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Polygraph, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 2813

Ueber orthodiagraphische Untersuchungen am Herzen.

Münch, med. Wschr., 49, 1-8, 1902.

Orthodiagraphy of the heart.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 2814

Sur la lésion dite sténose congénitale de l’aorte dans la région de l’isthme.

Rev. Médecine, 23, 108-26, 1903.

Distinction of infantile and adult types of coarctation of the aorta.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 2815

Ueber die syphilitischen Aortenerkrankungen.

Verh, dtsch. path. Ges., (1903), 6, 137-63, 1904.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart & Aorta, Diseases of, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2816

Zur Myocarditisfrage.

Verh, dtsch. path. Ges., 8, 46-53, 1904.

In his work on rheumatic myocarditis, Aschoff described the characteristic lesion (Aschoff body or nodule) and presented a histopathological picture of myocarditis that was to exert a great influence on the classification of the disease. Translated in Willius & Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 733-39.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Myocarditis
  • 2817

Technik der Herstellung fast orthodiagraphischer Herzphotogramme vermittelst Röntgeninstrumentarien mit kleiner Elektrizitätsquelle.

Wien, klin. Rdsch., 19, 279-82, 1905.

Introduction of teleradiography of the heart.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 2818

On methods of studying blood pressure.

Izvest. imp. voyenno-med. Akad. St. Petersburg, 11, 365, 1905.

Korotkov introduced the modern method of applying the stethoscope to the brachial artery during blood-pressure examination with Riva-Rocci’s sphygmomanometer, for the purpose of investigating the sounds made by the blood after release of the air-pressure cuff. For an English translation of the paper see Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med.,1941, 17,877-79.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Sphygmogram, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Sphygmomanometer, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Stethoscope, PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS › Auscultation
  • 2819

New methods of studying affections of the heart.

Brit. med J., 1, 519-21, 587-89, 702-05, 759-62, 812-15, 1905.

Mackenzie established the remarkable action of digitalis in auricular fibrillation.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Digitalis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 2820

Remarks on the determination of arterial blood-pressure in clinical practice.

Brit. med. J., 1, 865-70, 1905.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart & Aorta, Diseases of
  • 2821

Complete heart-block, with dissociation of the action of the auricles and ventricles.

Proc. roy. Soc. Edinb, 25, 1085-91, 19051906.

Auricular flutter in man first recognized.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2822

Paroxysmal irregularity of the heart and auricular fibrillation.

Trans. Ass. Amer. Phys., 21, 682-695, 1906.

First recognition of auricular fibrillation in man. Cushny and Edmunds had a case under their care in 1901. Hering described the condition in man in Prag. med. Wschr.,1903, 28, 377.

The Cushing & Edmunds paper was also published in Studies in Pathology written ... to celebrate the quartercentenary of Aberdeen University. Edited by W. Bulloch (Aberdeen, 1906) 95-110.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2823

[In Russian:] Estimation of blood-pressure by Korotkov’s auditory method.

Izvest. Imp. voyenno-med. Akad. St Petersburg, 13, 113-221, 319, 1906.

Kriloff made extensive observations on the sounds which Korotkov had shown to be emitted by the blood after removal of the Riva-Rocci air-pressure cuff during the blood-pressure measurement.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Auscultation and Physical Diagnosis
  • 2824

Ueber Spirochaeta pallida in der Aortenwand bei Hellerscher Aortitis.

Münch med. Wschr., 53, 778, 1906.

Treponema pallidum first discovered in the diseased aorta.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes › Treponema , CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2825

Neuerung zur Messung des systolischen und diastolischen Druckes.

Verh. Kongr. inn. Med., 24, 404-07, 1907.

Fellner suggested the use of the stethoscope in the measurement of systolic and diastolic pressure.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Auscultation and Physical Diagnosis, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Stethoscope
  • 2826

Diseases of the heart.

London: H. Frowde, 1908.

Chapter 30 of the third edition (1914) includes Mackenzie’s classic description of the clinical picture of “nodal rhythm” (auricular fibrillation). Reprinted in Willius & Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 769-93.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2827

Chronic infectious endocarditis.

Quart. J. Med., 2, 219-30, 19081909.

The tender subcutaneous nodes in subacute bacterial endocarditis (“Osler’s nodes”) were first observed by Osler in 1888, and reported in 1909. This paper is the first definite clinical description of subacute bacterial endocarditis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2828

Beitrag zur Aetiologie und pathologischen Anatomie der Myokarditis rheumatica.

Dtsch. Arch. klin. Med., 96, 493-514, 1909.

“Bracht–Wächter bodies” in the myocardium in bacterial endocarditis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2829

Infective endocarditis, with an analysis of 150 cases.

Quart. J. Med., 2, 289-324, 1909.

Classic description of subacute bacterial endocarditis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2830

Auricular fibrillation; a common clinical condition.

Brit. med. J., 2, 1528, 1909.

First description of auricular fibrillation as a cause of clinical perpetual arrhythmia. See also the paper in Heart, London, 1909-10, 1,306-72.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2831

Vorhofflimmern und Arhythmia perpetua.

Wien. klin. Wschr., 22, 839-44, 1909.

Independently of Lewis (No. 2830) these workers claimed auricular fibrillation to be the cause of perpetual arrhythmia.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2832

Zur Klinik des Elektrokardiogramms.

Z. klin. Med., 71, 157-164, 1910.

First clinical and pathological description of bundle-branch block.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography
  • 2833

Auricular flutter and fibrillation.

Heart, 2, 177-221, 1910.

Auricular flutter first described.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2834

The etiology of subacute infective endocarditis.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 140, 516-27, 1910.

Libman and Celler found Strep. endocarditis to be the most common cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2835

Zur kenntniss der Thrombose der Koronararterien des Herzens.

Z. klin. Med., 71, 116-32, 1910.

First complete description of coronary thrombosis, diagnosed before death and confirmed at necropsy. Reprinted in Klin. Med. (Mosk.), 1949, 27,No. 11, 15-25.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Thrombosis / Embolism
  • 2836

Endocarditis lenta. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Artunterscheidung der pathogenen Streptokokken.

Münch. med. Wschr., 57, 617-20, 697-99, 1910.

First to isolate Strep viridans in cases of bacterial endocarditis, Schottmüller named the condition Endocarditis lenta.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2837

Les arythmies.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1911.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2838

Glomerular lesions of subacute bacterial endocarditis.

J. exp. Med., 15, 330-47, 1912.

Baehr drew attention to the renal lesions in subacute bacterial endocarditis.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis, NEPHROLOGY
  • 2839

Clinical features of sudden obstruction of the coronary arteries.

J. Amer. med. Ass., 59, 2015-20, 1912.

Outstanding description of coronary thrombosis. Herrick was the first to describe and diagnose coronary thrombosis in a living person; he showed that sudden coronary occlusion is not necessarily fatal. Reprint in Willius & Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 817-29.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Thrombosis / Embolism
  • 2840

Electro-cardiography and its importance in the clinical examination of heart affections.

Brit. med. J., 1, 1421-23, 1479-82; 2, 65-67, 1912.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2841

A study of the endocardial lesions of subacute bacterial endocarditis.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 144, 313-27, 1912.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2842

Der Ersatz des Orthiodiagraphen durch der Teleröntgen.

Verh. dtsch. Kongr. inn. Med., 30, 266-69, 1913.

Instantaneous radiography of the heart.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 2843

Auricular flutter.

Edinburgh & London: W. Green & Son, 1914.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2844

Die unregelmässige Herztätigkeit und ihre klinische Bedeutung.

Leipzig & Berlin: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1914.

Wenckebach was the first to demonstrate (pp. 173-75) the value of quinine (“Wenckebach’s pills”) in the treatment of paroxysmal fibrillation. The same work contains a number of excellent descriptions of various forms of cardiac arrythmia. The second edition, written in co-operation with Heinrich Winterberg, was expanded to 2 vols, Leipzig, Engelmann, 1927.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cinchona Bark › Quinine
  • 2845

Roentgenology of the heart.

Amer. J. Roentgenol., 3, 513-24, 1916.

Introduction of kymography in clinical cardiology.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 2846

De la sténose mitrale avec communication interauriculaire.

Arch. Mal. Coeur, 9, 237-60, 1916.

“Lutembacher syndrome”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Valve Disease
  • 2847

Report upon soldiers returned as cases of “disordered action of the heart” (D.A.H.) or “valvular disease of the heart” (V.D.H.).

London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1917.

Medical Research Committee Special Rept. No. 8. Sir Thomas Lewis described as “effort syndrome” the condition of disordered action of the heart known as “Da Costa’s syndrome”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Valve Disease, PSYCHIATRY › Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • 2848

Ueber Vorhofflimmern beim Menschen und seine Beseitigung durch Chinidin.

Berl. klin. Wschr., 55, 450-52, 1918.

Following Wenckebach’s discovery of the efficacy of quinine in the restoration of normal rhythm in auricular fibrillation. Frey showed that quinidine was the most effective of the cinchona alkaloids in this respect.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cinchona Bark
  • 2849

Das Myxödemherz.

Münch. med. Wschr., 66, 274-75, 1919.

First attempt to restore the heart’s action by intracardiac injection.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • 2851
  • 854

The mechanism of the heartbeat: With special reference to its clinical pathology.

London : Shaw & Sons, 1911.

Sir Thomas Lewis was a pioneer in the application of electrocardiography to clinical medicine. His book was both an exhaustive treatise on the subject for its time, and a valuable bibliographical source. Second edition: The mechanism and graphic registration of the heart beat, 1920; third and last edition,1925.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2852

An electrocardiographic sign of coronary artery obstruction.

Arch. intern. Med., 26, 244-57, 1920.

First description of the typical changes in the electrocardiogram in coronary thrombosis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography
  • 2853

Verhandlungen ärtzlicher Gesellschaften und Kongressberichte.

Wien. klin. Wschr., 33, 179-80, 1920.

Saxl injected a mercurial compound (Novasurol), a powerful diuretic, for the treatment of cardiac failure.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Failure, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 2853.1

A method of analyzing the electrocardiogram.

Arch. intern. Med., 25, 283-94, 1920.

Mann developed the monocardiogram while a fourth-year medical student. This was the first vector loop and the beginning of modern vectorcardiography.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Electrocardiogram
  • 2854

Rheumatic heart disease.

Bristol: John Wright, 1924.

The first systematic textbook on rheumatic heart disease.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • 2855

A hitherto undescribed form of valvular and mural endocarditis.

Arch. intern. Med., 33, 701-37, 1924.

“Libman–Sacks disease”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Valve Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2856

Congenital cardiac disease by Maude Abbott. IN: Modern medicine: Its theory and practice, edited by Sir William Osler, assisted by Thomas McCrae. 3rd ed., 4, 612-812.

Philadelphia, 1927.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2856.1

Beiträge zur Lehre von den angeborenen Herzfehlern.

Wien. Arch. inn. Med., 15, 487-538, 1928.

Roesler described the most important roentgenologic sign of aortic coarctation.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Cardiac Radiology, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 2857

Medionecrosis aortae idiopathica (cystica).

Virchows Arch. path. Anat 273, 454-79; 276, 187-229, 1929, 1930.

Classic description of aortic medionecrosis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases
  • 2858

Die Sondierung des rechten Herzens.

Klin. Wschr., 8, 2085-87, 2287, 1929.

The first cardiac catheterization on a living person. Forssmann catheterized his own heart. In 1956 he shared the Nobel Prize with Cournand (No. 2871) and Richards (No. 2883.2) for his work on cardiac catheterization. Historical note by N. Howard-Jones, Bull. Hist. Med.,1973, 47,524-6. English translation in Callahan, Keys & Key, Classics of Cardiology, Vol. 3, 250-55.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology, CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 2859

L’artériographie des membres de l’aorte et de ses branches abdominales.

Méd. contemp. (Lisboa), 47, 93-96, 1929.

Aortography. With A. C. Lamas and J. Pereira Caldas. Also published in Bull. Soc.méd.chir. Paris, 1929, 55,587-601.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Arteriography / Angiography, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Cardiac Radiology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal
  • 2860

Bundle-branch block with short P-R interval in healthy young people prone to paroxysmal tachycardia.

Amer. Heart J., 5, 685-704, 1930.

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, the best-known of the “pre-excitation syndromes”.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2861
  • 858

The cardiac output of man in health and disease.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1932.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2862

A lecture on vaso-vagal syncope and the carotid sinus mechanism.

Brit. med. J., 1, 873-76, 1932.

Vaso-vagal syncope.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart & Aorta, Diseases of
  • 2863

The electrocardiographic diagnosis of coronary occlusion by the use of chest leads.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 183, 30-35, 1932.

Introduction of chest leads.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2864

Electrocardiograms that represent the potential variations of a single electrode.

Amer. Heart J., 9, 447-58, 1934.

Unipolar leads. With F. D. Johnston, A. G. MacLeod, and P. S. Barker.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2865

Atlas of congenital cardiac disease.

New York: American Heart Association, 1936.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2865.1

Elektrographische Diagnostik der Herzmuskelerkrankungen.

Verh. Dtsch. Ges. inn. Med., 48, 288-310, 1936.

Introduction of the vectorcardiogram.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2866

Clinical roentgenology of the cardiovascular system.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1937.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Cardiac Radiology, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 2867

Effects of induced oxygen want in patients with cardiac pain.

Amer. Heart J., 15, 187-200, 1938.

Diagnosis of cardiac pain. With A. L. Barach and H. G. Bruenn.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 2868
PRECORDIAL LEADS

Praecordial leads in electrocardiography. A joint memorandum of a committee of the Cardiac Society of Gt. Britain and Ireland and the Committee of the American Heart Association.

Brit. med. J., 1, 187, 1938.

Also in Amer. Heart J.,1938, 15,107-08, 235-39. Precordial leads are also called unipolar leads.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2869

A practical method of visualization of the chambers of the heart, the pulmonary circulation, and the great vessels in man.

J. clin. Invest., 17, 507, 1938.

Introduction of angiocardiography, which for the first time revealed the internal structure of the living heart. A fuller account by the same authors is in Amer. J. Roentgenol.,1939, 41,1-17.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Cardiac Radiology
  • 2870

Studies on the estimation of cardiac output in man, and abnormalities in cardiac function, from the heart’s recoil and the blood’s impacts; the ballistocardiogram.

Amer. J. Physiol 127, 1-28, 1939.

Introduction of the ballistocardiogram. With A. J. Rawson, H. A. Schroeder, and N. R. Joseph.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2871

Catheterization of the right auricle in man.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 46, 462-66, 1941.

First investigations with the cardiac catheter as a clinical method of investigation. For his work in this field, Cournand in 1956 shared the Nobel Prize with Forssmann (No. 2858) and Richards (No. 2883.2).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 2873

Studies on congestive heart failure. I. The importance of restriction of salt as compared to water.

Amer. Heart J., 22, 141-53, 1941.

Low-sodium diet in heart failure.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Failure
  • 2875

A simple indifferent electrocardiographic electrode of zero potential and a technique of obtaining augmented, unipolar, extremity leads.

Amer. Heart J., 23, 483-92, 1942.

Augmented unipolar leads.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2876

Electrokymograph for recording heart motion, improved type.

Amer. J. Roentgenol., 57, 409-16, 1947.

With B. R. Boone and W. E. Chamberlain.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function
  • 2877

Circulatory failure studied by means of venous catheterization.

Advanc. intern. Med., 2, 64-101, 1947.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 2878

Congenital malformations of the heart.

New York: Commonwealth Fund, 1947.

This 618-page work, which required ten years to write, was the first "definitive textbook" of congenital heart defects, a subspecialty of pediatrics that Taussig created. The second edition, published in 1960, was essentially doubled in length to about 1250 pages and extended to two volumes.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › Pediatric Cardiology, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2878.1

Ventricular fibrillation of long duration abolished by electric shock.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 135, 985-86, 1947.

The first successful defibrillation of a surgical patient, with the chest opened, and the paddles applied directly to the heart. With  H.S. Feil.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias › External Defibrillator, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY
  • 2879

Thoracic aortography. Preliminary report.

Acta radiol. (Stockh.), 29, 181-88, 1948.

With H. E. Hanson and J. Karnell.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 2880

Penicillin in subacute bacterial endocarditis. Report to the Medical Research Council on 269 patients treated in 14 centres appointed by the Penicillin Clinical Trials Committee.

Brit. med. J., 1, 1-4, 1948.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Endocarditis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 2881

Mechanism of the auricular arrythmias.

Circulation, 1, 241-45, 1950.

With E. Corday, I. C. Brill, A. L. Seller, R. W. Oblath, W. A. Flieg, and H. E. Kruger.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 2882

Congenital heart disease.

Brit. med. J., 2, 639-45, 693-98, 1950.

A new classification proposed.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 2883

Resuscitation of the heart in ventricular standstill by external electric stimulation.

New Engl. J. Med., 247, 768-71, 1952.

External cardiac pacemaker. "The medical world took notice when Zoll announced in 1952 that he had successfully kept a patient alive through numerous episodes of ventricular standstill using a bedside device that delivered electrical pulses to the heart." (Jeffrey, Machines in our hearts (2001) 37).
"There are two kinds of cardiac rhythm disturbances in patients who have cardiac arrest - the rhythm disturbance of a heart in standstill; and the rhythm disturbance of a 'fibrillating' heart, which are the commonest causes of death in acute heart attacks. The effective techniques that now help to control these disturbances are the pioneering contributions of Dr. Paul M. Zoll. Dr. Zoll demonstrated for the first time in 1952, that when a human heart stops, it can be induced, by externally applied electric stimulation, to resume beating. Dr. Zoll's later studies showed that externally applied alternating current countershocks are similarly effective in stopping ventricular fibrillation." Mary Lasker and Michael DeBakey, in "Citations" (quoted by W. Bruce Fye).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias › Pacemakers, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Pacemakers
  • 2883.01

The use of ultrasonic reflectoscope for the continuous recording the movements of heart walls.

K. Fysiogr. Sellsk. Lund. Foersh., 24, 1-19, 1954.

Echocardiography, from which the field of medical ultrasonics developed.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Echocardiography, IMAGING › Sonography (Ultrasound)
  • 2883.1

The significance of the serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase activity following acute myocardial infarction.

Circulation, 11, 871-77, 1955.

Diagnostic test for myocardial infarction.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Myocardial Infarction
  • 2883.2

The contributions of right heart catheterization to physiology and medicine, with some observations on the physiopathology of pulmonary heart disease.

Amer. Heart J., 54, 161-71, 1957.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 2883.21

Ultrasonic Doppler method for the inspection of cardiac functions.

J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 29, 1181-85, 1957.

Demonstration of the Doppler shift in the frequency of ultrasound backscattered by moving cardiac structures.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Echocardiography › Doppler Echocardiography, IMAGING › Sonography (Ultrasound)
  • 2883.3

A bipolar myocardial electrode for complete heart block.

J. Lancet, 79, 506-8, 1959.

With N. A. Roth, D. Bernardez, and J. L. Noble.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 2883.4

Closed-chest cardiac massage.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 173, 1064-67, 1960.

Kouwenhoeven and colleagues developed adequate cardiac massage without thoracotomy. Kouwenhoeven has been called "the father of cardiopulmonary resuscitation."



Subjects: Resuscitation
  • 2883.5

New method for terminating cardiac arrythmias; use of synchronized capacitor discharge.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 182, 548-555, 1962.

Use of transthoracic direct current countershock of very short duration to avoid the vulnerable period in the cardiac cycle.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias › External Defibrillator
  • 2883.6

Preliminary studies of an acute coronary care area.

J. Lancet, 83, 53-55, 1963.

Hughes is credited with inventing the coronary care unit, and the "crash cart"



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, HOSPITALS
  • 2883.7

The physiological basis of cardiac arrhythmias.

Amer. J. Med., 37, 670-84, 1964.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2883.8

Catheter technique for recording His bundle activity in man.

Circulation, 39, 13-18, 1969.

Scherlag was the first person to consistently record atrial ventricular bundle ("His bundle") potentials, which served as one of the cornerstones of clinical electrophysiology.

With 5 co-authors.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiac Electrophysiology, CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 2883.9

Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter.

New Eng. J. Med., 283, 447-51, 1970.

The Swan-Ganz balloon flotation catheter, a flow-guided balloon-tipped catheter of flexible construction, which enabled “placement without associated ventricular arrhythmias, prompt and reliable passage to the pulmonary artery and passage without fluoroscopy”. With 4 co-authors.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 2884

The life of Edward, Earl of Clarendon: Lord High Chancellor of England and Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Containing, I. An Account of the chancellor's life from his birth to the restoration in 1660. II. A Continuation of the same, and of his history of the grand rebellion, from the restoration to his banishment in 1667. Written by himself. Printed from his original manuscripts, given to the University of Oxford by the Heirs of the late Earl of Clarendon. 3 vols.

Oxford: Clarendon Printing House, 1759.

From the description given by the Earl of Clarendon in his autobiography, on vol. 1, p. 16, his father, Henry Hyde, almost certainly suffered from, and died of, angina pectoris. If this is really so, it is the first recorded case. The description is reproduced in Annals of Medical History, 1922, 4, 210. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2276
  • 2734
  • 2885

De sedibus, et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis libri quinque. 2 vols.

Venice: typog. Remondiniana, 1761.

Morgagni was the founder of modern pathological anatomy. The work was completed in Morgagni’s 79th year and consists of a series of 70 letters reporting about 700 cases and necropsies. As best he could, he correlated the clinical record with the post–mortem finding. Morgagni gave the first descriptions of several pathological conditions. He was Professor of Anatomy at Padua. Selections from the above work are reproduced in Med. Classics, 1940, 4, 640-839. English translation by B. Alexander, 3 vols., London, 1769, (facsimile reprint, New York, Hafner, 1960; Mount Kisco, N.Y., Futura, 1980).

Classic descriptions of mitral stenosis (Letter III) and heart block, Stokes–Adams syndrome (vol. 1, p. 70) are reprinted in English translation in Willius & Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 177-82. In Volume one, p. 282 Morgagni also reported an authentic case of angina pectoris is recorded by Morgagni; he observed it in 1707.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Valve Disease, PATHOLOGY
  • 2886

Lettre de M. Rougnon à M. Lorry, touchant les causes de la mort de feu Monsieur Charles, ancien capitaine de cavalerie, arrivé à Besançon le 23 février 1768.

Besançon: J. F. Charmet, 1768.

Osler, Allbutt, and several other authorities believe this to be the description of an authentic case of angina, thus preceding Heberden’s classic account. Other eminent authorities consider the patient to have suffered from pulmonary emphysema. This little book of 55 pages is extremely rare; the whereabouts of only 2 copies is known.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2887

Some account of a disorder of the breast.

Med. Trans. Coll. Phys. Lond., 2, 59-67, 1772.

This classic description of angina pectoris is the substance of a paper read on July 21, 1768. Although descriptions of angina are to be found in the works of earlier writers, these mention only dyspnoea in their cases. The merit of Herberden’s account (in which, incidently, he used the name “angina pectoris”) lies in the fact that he was the first to include a description of the paroxysmal oppression in the thorax. Reprinted with other writings by Heberden in An Introduction to the Study of Physic, New York, 1929.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2888

An inquiry into the symptoms and causes of the syncope anginosa commonly called angina pectoris.

Bath, England: R. Cruttwell; London, Cadell & Davis, 1799.

This was a paper read before the Gloucester Medical Society in 1788, but not published until 1799. Largely confirming the earlier work of Heberden on the condition, Parry stated his conclusion that disease of the coronary arteries is the responsible factor in angina pectoris (which he called “syncope anginosa”). He was the first to observe the slowing of the heart rate folowing pressure on the carotid artery.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2738
  • 2889

Observations on some of the most frequent and important diseases of the heart.

Edinburgh: Bryce & Co, 1809.

Burns described endocarditis and reported three cases of mitral stenosis. He recognized the thrill present in the latter condition and seems to have understood the mechanism of a cardiac murmur. He also described unilateral paralysis of the diaphragm resulting from pressure on the phrenic nerve by a thoracic aneurysm. Burns was also among the first to suggest (see p. 136) that angina pectoris is an expression of coronary obstruction. Biography by J. B. Herrick, 1935.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aneurysms, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Auscultation and Physical Diagnosis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Endocarditis
  • 2890

On the use of nitrite of amyl in angina pectoris.

Lancet 2, 97-98, 1867.

Lauder Brunton was responsible for the introduction of amyl nitrite for the alleviation of angina. Reprinted in F. A. Willius & T. E. Keys: Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 561-64.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 2891

Angina pectoris vasomotoria.

Dtsch. Arch. klin. Med., 3, 309-322, 1867.

Nothnagel, himself a victim of angina, described the vasomotor form of the disease.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2892

Nitro-glycerine as a remedy for angina pectoris.

Lancet 1, 80-81, 113-15, 151-52, 225-27, 1879.

Murrell introduced trinitrin (nitroglycerin, glyceryl trinitrate) in the treatment of angina.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 2893

Klinisches über Diuretin.

Dtsch. Arch. klin. Med., 56, 209-30, 1895.

In 1895 Askanazy proposed diuretin as a remedy for anginal pain.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, PAIN / Pain Management, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 2894

Diseases of the arteries, including angina pectoris. 2 vols.

London: Macmillan, 1915.

Includes his suggestion of the aortic genesis of angina pectoris, and (vol. 2, p. 368) his mechanical theory of cardiac pain in coronary occlusion.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 2894.1

Angina pectoris: changes in electrocardiogram during paroxysm.

Lancet, 2, 457-58, 1918.

First electrocardiogram recorded (1917) from a patient with angina pectoris.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2895

Angine de poitrine guérie par la résection du sympathique cervicothoracique.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 3 sér., 84, 93-102, 1920.

Cervical sympathectomy for the treatment of angina pectoris was first carried out by Jonnesco in 1916.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2896

Paravertebrale Novokaininjektionen zur Differentialdiagnose intra-abdomineller Erkrankungen.

Zbl. Chir., 49, 1510-12, 1922.

First paravertebral injection for the treatment of angina pectoris.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2897

Angina pectoris.

London: H. Frowde, 1923.

A classic description of angina by “the beloved physician”, one of the greatest of all cardiologists. Mackenzie considered the disease to be due to cardiac failure.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 2899
  • 3033

Congestive heart failure and angina pectoris: The therapeutic effect of thyroidectomy on patients without clinical or pathologic evidence of thyroid toxicity.

Arch. intern. Med., 51, 866-77, 1933.

Thyroidectomy for congestive heart failure and angina pectoris. With D. D. Berlin.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid