An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15961 entries, 13944 authors and 1935 subjects. Updated: April 29, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 4200–4299

132 entries
  • 4200

Darstellung der Niere und Harnwege im Röntgenbild durch intravenöse Einbringung eines neuen Kontraststoffes, des Uroselectans.

Klin. Wschr., 8, 2087-89, 1929.

Introduction of Uroselectan. In a following paper (pp. 2089-91), A. von Lichtenberg and M. Swick used it in human excretion urography.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4201

Excretion urography by means of the intravenous and oral administration of sodium ortho-iodohippurate: with some physiological considerations.

Surg. Gynec, Obstet., 56, 62-65, 1933.

Introduction of Hippuran.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4202

Mandelic acid in the treatment of urinary infections.

Lancet, 1, 1032-37, 1935.

Introduction of mandelic acid in the treatment of urinary infections.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4203

Permanent artificial (silicone) urethra.

J. Urol., 1950, 63, 168-72, 1950.

First implantation of silicone rubber tube to replace urethra.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4203.1

Le réservoir iléal de substitution après la cystectomie totale chez l’homme.

J. Urol. méd. chir., 57, 408-17, 1951.

Artificial bladder.

Subjects: UROLOGY
  • 4203.9

Aphorisms, Section VII, number 34. In his Works. Ed. W. H. S. JONES and E. T. WITHINGTON

London, 1927.

The first description of the association of proteinuria and chronic renal disease.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4204

Summa conservationis et curationis. Chirurgia.

Piacenza: Johannes Petrus de Ferratis, 1476.

Contains (Cap. cxl) his classic account of renal edema: De duritie in renibus, an English translation of which is in Major, Classic descriptions of disease, 3rd ed., 1945, p. 527.  ISTC no. is00032000.

Subjects: Hygiene, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Italy, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, SURGERY: General
  • 4161
  • 4204.1

Exercitationes medicae practicae circa medendi methodum.

Leiden & Amsterdam: D. Abrahamum et Adrianum à Gaesbeck, 1673.

This work contains the first clear description of proteinuria, noting precipitation of urine with heat or acetic acid. Albuminuria was first described by Dekkers (Chapter V). A translation of this chapter is in Major, Classic descriptions of disease, 3rd ed., 1945, p. 528.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 1382
  • 4204.2
  • 4515

De ischiade nervosa commentarius.

Naples: apud Frat. Simonios, 1764.

Cotugno published a classic description of sciatica, which is useful even today. He recognized two types – arthritic and nervous; the latter has been called “Cotugno’s disease”, and his book is confined to that type. It includes the first clear description of the association of edema with proteinuria.

Valsalva in 1692 briefly mentioned the cerebrospinal fluid, but “Cotugno was the first to describe the fluid surrounding the spinal cord and to suggest tht it was in continuity with the ventricular and cerebral subarachnoid fluids. However, his concept of the cerebral and spinal fluid, which is the beginning of its modern physiology, remained in obscurity until rediscovery by Magendie some 60 years later” (Clarke & O’Malley). For more information regarding this book and a translation of the section dealing with the cerebrospinal fluid, see the article by H. R. Viets in Bull. Inst. Hist. Med., 1935, 3, 701-38. English translation, London, 1775.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 4205

On the presence of the red matter and serum of blood in the urine of dropsy, which has not originated from scarlet fever.

Trans. Soc. Improve. med. chir. Knowl., 3, 194-240, 1812.

Wells was the first to notice the presence of blood and albumin in edematous urine. He also established the fact that the edema occurred in the upper parts of the body, and he described the uremic seizures to which such cases are liable.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 2285
  • 4206

Reports of medical cases, selected with a view of illustrating the symptoms and cure of diseases by a reference to morbid anatomy. 2 vols. in 3.

London: Longmans, 18271831.

Beside's Bright's classic description of chronic non-suppurative nephritis, known eponymically as “Bright’s disease”, the Reports contain numerous other outstanding contributions to general pathology, neuropathology, and nephrology. Bright differentiated renal from cardiac dropsy (edema) and was first to correlate this and the previously observed albuminuria with the nephritic changes observed at autopsy. Vol. 2, published in 2 parts, is one of the earliest and most important atlases of neuropathology. Superbly illustrated throughout with hand-colored plates. Facsimile reprint of vol. 1, London: Gower Publishers & Royal Society of Medicine, 1985. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis, NEUROLOGY › Neuropathology, PATHOLOGY, PATHOLOGY › Pathology Illustration
  • 4207

Cases and observations, illustrative of renal disease accompanied with the secretion of albuminous urine.

Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 1, 338-400; 1840, 5, 101-161, 1836.

As a result of greater experience on renal disease, Bright rounded off his work on the subject with the above paper, wherein he recorded his extended observations; by this time he had come to more definite conclusions, expecially with regard to the treatment of the condition. Bright’s papers on the subject were reprinted, London, 1937, edited by A. A. Osman.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4208

Traité des maladies des reins. 3 vols, and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 18391841.

Rayer insisted on the exhaustive analysis of the urine as an aid to the diagnosis of lesions. He classified “albuminus nephritis” into six distinct forms and distinguished these from other forms of nephritis associated with infection, gout, rheumatism, and toxins. He noticed the existence of albuminuria in diabetes mellitus and also described the existence of renal vein thrombosis. His treatise on diseases of the kidney includes a spectacular color-plate atlas in folio format. The final chapter of the second volume of Rayer's text was translated into English by Diana Berry and Stewart Cameron as The history of albuminous nephritis,  with an introduction by Campbell Mackenzie. (London, 2005). See Gabriel Richet, "From Bright's disease to modern nephrology: Pierre Rayer's inovative method of clinical investigation", Kidney International, 39 (1991) 787-792.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis, PATHOLOGY, PATHOLOGY › Pathology Illustration, RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 4209

Die Bright’sche Nierenkrankheit.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1851.

Frerichs divided the progression of renal disease into three stages: initial hyperemia, fatty infiltration and exudation, and organization leading to fibrosis and atrophy. This is one of the earliest works on kidney disease to incorporate histological appearances. However, Frerichs did not recognize the primary involvement of the glomerulus in what later became known as glomerulonephritis. See No. 4212.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4210

Case of encephaloid disease of the kidney; removal, etc.

Med. Surg. Reporter (Philad.), 7, 126-27, 1861.

Erastus Bradley Wolcott (1804-1880) was first to excise the kidney (for renal tumor). The preoperative diagnosis had been tumor of the liver. Only after the operation did the surgeons realize that they had removed the kidney. The patient lived 15 days after the operation. The operation was recorded by Stoddard.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4211

Wandernde Nieren und deren Einklemmung.

Wien. med. Wschr., 14, 563-66, 579-81, 593-95, 1864.

“Dietl’s crisis”. Dietl described the sudden severe attacks of nephralgic or gastric pain, chills, fever, nausea and vomiting, and general collapse, ascribing them to partial turning of the kidney upon its pedicle. First published in Przeglad Lekarski, 1864, 3, 225, 233, 241.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4211.1
  • 6357.53

Hydronephrosis in a boy four years old, repeatedly tapped; recovery.

Proc. Roy. Med. Chir. Soc., 5, 59-60, 1865.

Hillier performed the first therapeutic percutaneous nephrostomy for giant hydronephrosis with ureteropelvic junction obstruction in a four-year old boy.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery, Pediatric Surgery
  • 4212

Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie. I. Abt.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1870.

A classic description of glomerulonephritis (“Klebs’s disease”) is on pp. 644-48.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4213

Exstirpation einer Niere am Menschen.

Dtsch. Klin. , 22, 137-138, 1870.

First successful planned nephrectomy for urinary tract fistula. A more detailed, illustrated account of the case appears in No. 4214.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery, UROLOGY
  • 4214

Chirurgie der Nieren. Teil 1-2.

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 18711876.

Simon was Professor of Surgery at Rostock and Heidelberg. The work was projected as 3 vols., but Simon died before it was completed.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4215

On the pathology of the morbid state commonly called chronic Bright’s disease with contracted kidney (“arterio-capillary fibrosis”).

Med.-chir. Trans., 55, 273-326, 1872.

First clear description of arteriosclerotic atrophy of the kidney (“Gull–Sutton disease”), and probably the first description of hypertensive nephrosclerosis.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4215.1

Lectures on Bright’s disease: with special reference to pathology, diagnosis, and treatment.

London: Smith, Elder, 1873.

Johnson showed that fatty infiltrations of the renal tubules are reflected by the presence of fatty casts and droplets in the urine, thus introducing the concept of lipoid nephrosis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4216

The state of the arteries in Bright’s disease.

Brit. med. J., 2, 743-45, 1876.

Gowers’s important account of the changes in the retinal vessels in Bright’s disease is reproduced in Willius & Keys, Cardiac classics, 1941, pp. 605-11.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis, OPHTHALMOLOGY
  • 4216.1

Eine eigenthümliche Nierenexstirpation.

Berl. klin. Wschr., 14, 337-40, 1877.

First nephrectomy for malignant disease.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4216.2

Leçons sur les maladies du foie, des voies biliaires et des reins.

Paris: Progrés Médical & Adrien Delahaye, 1877.

Charcot defined “scarlatinous nephritis” and “amyloid kidney” as distinct pathological entities. English translation, New York, 1878.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4217

Die Bright’sche Nierenkrankung vom pathologisch-anatomischen Standpunkte.

Samml. klin. Vortr., Nr. 162-63 (Inn. Med., Nr. 55), 1411-60, 1879.

Classic study of the pathological anatomy of Bright’s disease.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4218

Die operative Behandlung der beweglichen Niere durch Fixation.

Zbl. Chir., 8, 449-52, 1881.

Hahn devised the operation of nephropexy (nephrorrhaphy) for the relief of movable kidney.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4219

Un caso di rene mobile fissato col mezzo dell’operazione cruenta.

Ann. Univ. Med. (Milano), 261, 281-86, 1882.

Important modification of Hahn’s operation of nephropexy.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4220

Die Entstehung von Nierentumoren aus Nebennierengewebe.

Verh. dtsch. Ges. Chir., 13, pt. 2, 28-38, 1884.

An important investigation of the origin of hypernephroma (“Grawitz tumor”). See also Arch. klin. Chir., 1884, 30, 824-34.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 4221

Chronic pyelitis, successfully treated by kolpo-uretero-cystotomy.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 95, 255-65, 368-76, 1888.

Bozeman treated vesical and fecal fistulae in women, dealing with the complication of pyelitis by catheterization of the ureter through a vesicovaginal opening.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery, UROLOGY
  • 4222
  • 6091

Ueber Blasenscheidenfisteloperationen und über Beckenhochlagerung bei Operationen in der Bauchhöhle.

Samml. klin. Vortr., Nr. 355 (Chir., Nr. 109), 3373-92, 1890.

Includes an account of his attempt, 1886, to cure hydronephrosis by a plastic operation – the first recorded surgical intervention for the relief of this condition.

Includes description of the “Trendelenburg position”. Reprinted with translation, in Med. Classics, 1940, 4, 936-88. The first description of Trendelenburg’s elevated pelvic position was given by one of his students, W. Meyer, in Arch. klin. Chir., 1885, 31, 494-525.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY
  • 4223

Ein Fall von Resektion des Harnleiters.

Zbl. Chir., 19, Suppl., 110-11, 1892.

First successful plastic operation for the relief of hydronephrosis.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4224

Movable kidney; with a report of twelve cases treated by nephrorrhaphy.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 105, 247-59, 417-32, 1893.

In his nephropexy operation Edebohls utilized flaps of the capsule of the kidney. He believed that decapsulation improved the renal blood supply.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4225

Operation for the relief of valve formation and stricture of the ureter in hydro- or pyo-nephrosis.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 22, 335-43, 1894.

Fenger’s operation for stenosis of the uretero-pelvic junction.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4226

A vizelet fagypontjának diagnostikus érteke. [The diagnostic value of the freezing point of urine.]

Budapesti k. orvosegy, iki évokönyve, 74-75., 1894, 1895.

Korányi established cryoscopy of the urine as a kidney function test. See also his later papers in Z. klin. Med., 1897, 33, 1-54; 1898, 34, 1-52. Previously H. Dreser had made experiments on this subject; for these see Arch. exp. Path., 1892, 29, 303-19.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Hungary, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4226.1

Sur un série de quarante opérations pratiquées sur la rein.

Rev. Chir., 16, 882-4, 1896.

First planned nephrostomy.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4227

Die Mischgeschwülste. I. Die Mischgeschwülste der Niere.

Leipzig: A. Georgi, 1899.

Embryoma of the kidney (“Wilms’s tumor”). For the history of the operation for Wilms’s tumor see B. Thomasson and M.M. Ravitch, Wilms Tumor, Urol. Surg., 1961, 11, 83-100.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 4228

Chronic nephritis affecting a movable kidney as an indication for nephropexy.

Med. News (N.Y.), 74, 481-83, 1899.

First operation on the kidneys for the relief of Bright’s disease.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis
  • 4229

The cure of chronic Bright’s disease by operation.

Med. Rec. (N. Y.), 60, 961-70, 1901.

Edebohls introduced the operation of renal decortication for the treatment of chronic nephritis.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis
  • 4229.1

Experimentelle Nierentransplantation. Vorlaüfige Mittheilung.

Wien. klin. Wschr., 15, 281-2, 1902.

Successful autotransplantation of kidneys in dogs.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 4230

Funktionelle Nierendiagnostik ohne Ureterenkatheter.

Münch. med. Wschr., 50, 2081-89, 1903.

Voelcker’s kidney-function test.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4231

Pyelographie (Roentgenographie des Nierenbeckens nach Kollargolfüllung).

Münch. med. Wschr., 53, 105-07, 1906.

Introduction of pyelography.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function, RADIOLOGY
  • 4232

Exploration des fonctions rénales.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1905.

Albarran’s polyuria test for renal inadequacy.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4233

Technique de la néphropexie.

Presse méd., 14, 253-56, 1906.

“Albarran’s operation” – nephropexy.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery
  • 4234

Ueber die entzündlichen Veränderungen der Glomeruli der menschlichen Nieren und ihre Bedeutung für die Nephritis.

Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1907.

“Focal nephritis”. Löhlein established the importance of the initial inflammatory reaction in the glomerular capillaries in glomerulonephritis. Forms part 4 of Arb. path. Inst. Leipzig.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4235

Transplantation in mass of the kidneys.

J. exp. Med., 10, 98-140, 1908.

Carrel, Nobel Prize winner in 1912, revolutionized vascular surgery. He transplanted the kidney from one animal to another, an operation later carried out successfully in man. For his earlier work on vascular anastomosis and transplantation of viscera, see No. 2909.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 4236

An experimental and clinical study of the functional activity of the kidneys by means of phenolsulphonephthalein.

J. Pharmacol., 1, 579-661, 1910.

The phenolsulphonephthalein kidney-function test.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4237

Klinische Diagnostik der degenerativen Nierenerkrankungen.

Z. klin. Med., 78, 1-52, 1913.

Munk introduced the term “lipoid nephrosis”. He found that urine in such cases contained anisotropic lipoid droplets.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4238

Die Brightsche Nierenkrankheit.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1914.

First full description of pure nephrosis, relating clinical features to morbid anatomy.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4238.1

Experimental hydronephrosis; repair following ureterocysto-neostomy in white rats with complete ureteral obstruction.

Trans. Sect. Genito-urin. Dis. Amer. med. Ass., 69, 103-17; J. Urol., 3, 147-74., 1918, 1919.

Commencement of Hinman’s classic work on treatment of hydronephrosis.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4239

Renal efficiency tests in nephritis, and the reaction of the urine.

Brit. med. J., 2, 165-67, 1919.

Alkaline tide of urine.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4240

On the testing of renal efficiency, with observations on the “urea coefficient”.

Brit. J. exp. Path., 1, 53-65, 1920.

Urea concentration test.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4241

Un nuevo procedimiento para explorar al riñón.

Rev. Asoc. méd. argent., 34, 424, 1921.

Perirenal insufflation of oxygen, for the roentgenological study of the kidney.

  • 4242

Ueber die Beseitigung giftiger Stoffe aus dem Blute durch Dialyse.

Münch. med. Wschr., 70, 1478-80, 1923.

First description of the experimental use of peritoneal dialysis in uremia.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Dialysis
  • 4243

Ueber Nierenveränderungen nach Verschüttung.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 245, 247-67., 1923.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4244

An unexplained diazo-colour-reaction in uraemic sera.

Lancet, 1, 590-91, 1924.

Diazo-color test of renal function.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4246

Studies of urea excretion.

J. clin. Invest., 6, 427-504, 19281929.

Blood urea clearance test. With J. F. Mcintosh and D. D. Van Slyke.

Subjects: Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests, NEPHROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4248

Die nicht diabetischen Glykosurien und Hyperglykämien des älteren Kindes.

Jb. Kinderheilk., 133, 257-300, 1931.

“Fanconi’s syndrome”, dysfunction of the renal tubules with hypophosphatemia, renal glycosuria, and metabolic disturbances.

Subjects: Diabetes, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4249

Über das Wesen der spezifischen Veränderungen der Niere und der Leber durch das Nephrotoxin bzw. das Hepatotoxin.

Beitr. path. Anat., 91, 82-112, 1933.

Experimental production of acute glomerulonephritis. For Masugi’s later work, see the same journal, 1933-34, 92, 429, and Klin. Wschr., 1935, 14, 373.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4250

Intercapillary lesions in the glomeruli of the kidney.

Amer. J. Path., 12, 83-98, 1936.

“Kimmelstiel–Wilson syndrome”. First description of nodular intercapillary glomerulosclerosis, the only known morphological alteration specific, or almost so, for diabetes mellitus.

Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4250.1

A new plastic operation for stricture at the uretero-pelvic junction: report of 20 operations.

J. Urol., 38, 643-72, 1937.

Foley’s operation for hydronephrosis.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Kidney Surgery, UROLOGY
  • 4250.2

Architecture of the kidney in chronic Bright’s disease.

New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1939.

A description of the morphological changes in the nephrons of diseased kidneys. Hypertrophic, atrophic and aglomerular units are described.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis
  • 4251

A practical method for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance) with an evaluation of the clinical significance of this determination.

Arch. intern. Med., 66, 306-18, 1940.

Inulin clearance test.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology › Tests for Kidney Function
  • 4252

Crush injuries with impairment of renal function.

Brit. med. J., 1, 427-32, 1941.

Bywaters and Beali encountered cases of the “crush syndrome” among victims of the London air-raids of 1940-41.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4253

The vicious circle in chronic Bright’s disease. Experimental evidence from the hypertensive rat.

Quart. J. Med., 10, 65-93, 1941.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Hypertension
  • 4254

Natural history of Bright’s disease. Clinical, histological and experimental observations.

Lancet, 1, 1-7, 34-36, 72-76, 1942.

Ellis’s classification of nephritis.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Nephritis
  • 4255

The artificial kidney: Dialyser with great area.

Acta med. scand., 117, 121-34, 1944.

The Kolff artificial kidney. With H. T. J. Berk and others. Kolff first published his discovery in a neutral country (Sweden) since in 1944 Holland was occupied by the Germans. See also No. 1976.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Dialysis
  • 4256

The treatment of acute renal failure by peritoneal irrigation.

Ann. Surg., 124, 857-78, 1946.

With H. A. Frank and A. M. Seligman.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 4256.1

Homotransplantation of the kidney in human; preliminary report.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 144, 844-5, 1950.

Report of first human patient to survive a kidney transplant. The operation was on June 17, 1950, and the patient was discharged on August 26. With four co-authors. See No. 4257.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 4256.11

The pathogenesis of acute renal failure associated with traumatic and toxic injury. Renal ischemia, nephrotoxic damage and the ischemuric episode.

J. clin. Inves., 30, 1305-1439, 1951.

Oliver’s work on the structural lesions associated with acute renal failure in which he differentiated between the two types of damage: nephrotoxic, due to toxic substances, and tubulorhexic, due to ischemia, established our present understanding of the morphological basis for this condition.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 4256.2

Nephrotomography. A preliminary report.

Amer. J. Roentgenol., 71, 213-23., 1954.

With W. Dubilier and J. C. Monteith.

  • 4256.3

Experiences with renal homotransplantation in the human. Report of nine cases.

J. clin. Invest., 34, 327-82, 1955.

With Benjamin F. Miller. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 4257

Successful homotransplantation of the human kidney between identical twins.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 160, 277-82, 1956.

This was the first successful kidney transplant. The patient, both of whose own kidneys had been removed, was alive 11 months after the transplant. With Warren R. Guild. See No. 4256.1.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 4257.1

Further developments of a coil kidney. Disposable artificial kidney.

J. Lab. clin. Med., 47, 969-77, 1956.

Disposable twin coil kidney.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Dialysis
  • 4257.2

Cannulation of blood vessels for prolonged hemodialysis.

Trans. Amer. Soc. artif. intern. Organs, 6, 104-13, 1960.

Scribner, Quinton, and Dillard made repeated dialysis possible by their development of indwelling Teflon–Silastic arteriovenous shunts. These became known as Scribner Shunts.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Dialysis
  • 4258

Cases of Fungus haematodes, with observations.

Med.-chir. Trans., 8, 272-305, 1817.

Prostatic carcinoma first reported (p. 279).

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4259

A case of enlargement from melanoid tumour of the prostate gland, in a child of five years of age.

Med.-chir. Trans., 22, 218-21, 1839.

Sarcoma of the prostate was first recorded by Stafford.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4259.1

Recherches anatomiques, pathologiques et thérapeutiques sur les maladies des organes urinaires et génitaux considerés specialement chez les hommes agés.

Paris: Bechet jeune & Labé, 1841.

Mercier emphasized the importance of the muscle fibres around the bladder neck, “Mercier’s bar”, in prostatism.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4260

The anatomy and diseases of the prostate gland.

London: Longman, 1851.

Adams was the first to distinguish between hypertrophy and carcinoma of the prostate. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4261

Di un nuovo cauterizzatore ed incisore termo-galvanico contro le iscurie da ipertrofia prostatica.

Galvani (Bologna), 2, 437-52, 1874.

Bottini’s galvano-cautery for relief of prostatic obstruction.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4262

Ueber radicale Behandlung der auf Hypertrophie der Prostata beruhenden Ischurie.

Verh. X. int. med. Congr., Berlin, 3, 7Abt., 90-97, 1890, 1891.

Bottini’s Operation for hypertrophy of the prostate.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4262.1

On supra-pubic prostatectomy, with three cases in which the operation was successfully performed for chronic prostatic hypertrophy.

Trans. clin. Soc. Lond., 21, 52-57, 1888.

McGill pioneered the operation of suprapubic prostatectomy, first performed by him in March 1887.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4263

Six successful and successive cases of prostatectomy.

J. cutan. gen.-urin. Dis., 13, 229-39, 1895.

Fuller was the first to accomplish the removal of both intra-vesical and intra-urethral enlargements of the prostate by the process of suprapubic enucleation.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4264

A clinical lecture on total extirpation of the prostate for radical cure of enlargement of that organ with four successful cases.

Brit. med. J., 2, 125-29, 1901.

Freyer claimed priority over Fuller (No. 4263) in originating the rectovesical method of prostatectomy. Although mistaken in this claim, Freyer certainly popularized the operation. Regarding the controversy, see Brit. med. J., 1907, 1, 551.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4265

Conservative perineal prostatectomy.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 41, 999-1009, 1903.

Young’s operation of perineal prostatectomy.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4265.1

Median perineal prostatectomy.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 43, 194-7, 1904.

Complete perineal prostatectomy, September 1891.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4266

Some anatomical points connected with the performance of prostatectomy. With remarks upon the operative treatment of prostatic hypertrophy.

Ann. Surg., 41, 507-19, 1905.

Watson first performed median perineal prostatectomy in 1889.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4266.1

The early diagnosis and radical cure of carcinoma of the prostate. Being a study of 40 cases and presentation of a radical operation which was carried out in four cases.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull., 16, 315-21, 1905.

First radical prostatectomy for carcinoma.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4267

A method of controlling the bleeding after suprapubic prostatectomy.

New Engl. med. Gaz., 41, 391-93, 1906.

The distensible bag for controlling hemorrhage after suprapubic prostatectomy was introduced by Briggs in 1905.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4268

Removal of neoplasms of the urinary bladder. A new method of employing high-frequency (Oudin) current through a catheterizing cystoscope.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 54, 1768-69, 1910.

Beer’s method of transurethral fulguration of bladder tumours, from which arose the operation of transurethral prostatectomy.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4269

Suprapubic intra-urethral enucleation of the prostate.

Boston med. surg. J., 164, 911-17, 1911.

Squier modified the operation of total suprapubic prostatectomy.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4270

A new procedure (punch operation) for small prostatic bars and contracture of the prostatic orifice.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 60, 253-57, 1913.

Young’s punch prostatectomy operation.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4271

Infiltration anesthesia of the internal vesical orifice for the removal of minor obstructions: presentation of a cautery punch.

J. Urol. (Baltimore), 4, 399-408, 1920.

Caulk’s cautery punch.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4272

A new method of perineal prostatectomy which insures more perfect functional results.

J. Urol. (Baltimore), 7, 339-51, 1922.

Geraghty’s modification of Young’s perineal prostatectomy.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4273

Minor surgery of the prostate gland; a new cystoscopic instrument employing a cutting current capable of operation in a water medium.

Int. J. Med. Surg., 39, 72-77, 1926.

Stern’s resectoscope.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4274

Surgical pathology of prostatic obstructions.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1931.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4275

Suprapubic prostatectomy with closure.

Aust. N.Z.J. Surg., 4, 226-44, 19341935.

Harris’s operation, first described by him on 26 March, 1927, and briefly reported in Med. J. Aust., 1927, 1, 460.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4276

Studies on prostatic cancer. I. The effect of castration, of estrogen, and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate.

Cancer Res., 1, 293-97, 1941.

Huggins was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering in 1941 that hormones could be used to control the spread of some cancers. This was the first discovery that showed that cancer could be controlled by chemicals.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4276.1

Bilateral adrenalectomy in prostatic cancer; clinical features and urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids and estrogen.

Ann. Surg., 122, 1031-41, 1945.

Adrenalectomy for carcinoma of the prostate.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4277

Retropubic prostatectomy. A new extravesical technique.

Lancet, 2, 693-96, 1945.

Retropubic prostatectomy.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Prostate
  • 4278

De lapide renum curiosum opusculum nuperrime in lucem aeditum. Eiusdem De lapide vesicae per incisionem extrahendo sequitur aureus libellus.

Venice: per Petrum de Nicolinis de Sabio, 1535.

Marianus Sanctus Barolitanus popularized the operation of lithotomy introduced by the father of Giovanni Vigo of Rapallo. This method passed on to Giovanni di Romani and from him to Marianus. It became known as the “Marian operation” and was the forerunner of the more modern lateral lithotomy. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 3573
  • 4279

Petit traité contenant une des parties principalles de chirurgie, laquelle les chirurgiens hernieres exercent.

Lyon: Antoine Vincent, 1556.

Clifford Allbutt considered Franco the best lithotomist of the 16th century. His skill in extracting the stone by the perineal route was of a high order; in 1556 he introduced the operation of suprapubic cystotomy in operating for stone, which is recorded in the above. Franco also provided the first description of an operation for strangulated hernia. Franco, in 1556, was the first to perform suprapubic cystotomy. Poor, and largely self-taught, he greatly improved the technique of herniotomy.

Subjects: SURGERY: General › Hernia, UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4279.1


Florence: Manni, 1707.

A renowned specialist and pupil of Bellini, Alghisi was probably the first to use an indwelling urethral catheter to drain urine away from the wound after lithotomy. The inclined position of the patient with the head raised during the operation was also adopted from him. Illustrated with fine copperplates.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4280

A compleat treatise of the stone and gravel.

London: R. Smith, 1710.

Groenveldt was a famous lithotomist, using the suprapubic technique. He also enjoyed a rather unsavoury reputation as a quack for his determination to promote the use of cantharides. He changed his name to Greenfield when he came to England from Holland. in 1674 or 1675. See his earlier shorter work on the same subject, Lithologia. A treatise of the stone & gravel: Their causes, signs, & symptoms, with methods for their prevention and cure. And some account Also of the manner of the collotian section. Written in Latin ... and rendred Into English ... London, 1677. Also see his more extensive and illustrated edition, Dissertatio lithologica variis observationibus et figuris illustrata. London: Typis Joannis Bringhurst, 1684

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4281

Lithotomia Douglassiana; or, an account of a new method of making the high operation, in order to extract the stone out of the bladder.

London: T. Woodward, 1720.

Douglas accused Cheselden of plagiarizing his work, although the latter had acknowledged his indebtedness to Douglas. It is possible that this was the reason which prompted Cheselden to drop the high operation in favor of lateral lithotomy.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4282

A treatise on the high operation for the stone.

London: J. Osborn, 1723.

Cheselden was surgeon to St. Thomas’s Hospital and an outstanding figure in British surgery in the first half of the 18th century. The above work describes his method of performing suprapubic lithotomy, a method which he abandoned in 1727 for the lateral operation. Includes an English translation of Rousset on suprapubic lithotomy, from his book on caesarean section (No. 6236). Rousset laid out the basic principles of the operation although he did not perform it on a living subject. Biography of Cheselden by Sir Zachary Cope, 1953.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4282.1

Traité de l’opération de la taille.

Paris: J. Vincent, 1727.

François Colot was the last and best-known member of the Colot family, itinerant lithotomists.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4283

Parallèle des différentes manières de tirer la pierre hors de la vessie.

Paris: C. Osmont, 1730.

Le Dran, famous French lithotomist, improved the operation of lithotomy. Murphy credits him for originating the lateral lithotomy usually attributed to Cheselden, whose method he discusses. Le Dran was one of Haller’s teachers.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4284

A remarkable case of a person cut for the stone in the new way, commonly called the lateral, by William Cheselden, Surgeon to Her late Majesty; communicated to Martin Folkes, Pr. R. S. by Mr. Reid, Surgeon at Chelsea, who attended the cure.

Phil. Trans., (1746), 44, 33-35, 1748.

Cheselden’s lateral lithotomy first described in this brief paper by Alexander Reid. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4285

Nouvelle méthode d'extraire la pierre de la vessie urinaire par-dessus le pubis, qu'on nomme vulgairement le haut-appareil dans l'un & l'autre sexe, sans le secours d'aucun fluide retenu ni forcé dans la vessie: suivie de l'analyse des expériences de l'Academie Royale de Chirurgie de Paris, sur l'extraction de la pierre de la vessie urinaire de l'homme, par-dessous le pubis.

Brussels & Paris: Chez d'Houry, 1779.

Frère Côme devised several new instruments for use in suprapubic lithotomy. This operation, placed in retirement when Cheselden adopted the lateral approach, was once more brought to the fore by Frère Côme.  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4286

Observationes circa mutationes quas subeunt calculi in vesica.

Budapest: sumpt. J. M. Weingand, 1784.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4287

On gouty and urinary concretions.

Phil. Trans., 87, 386-400., London, 1797.

Wollaston showed that, in addition to stones consisting of uric acid, renal calculi might also consist of calcium phosphate, magnesium, ammonium phosphate, and calcium oxalate, or a mixture of these.

Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra), UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4288

A history of the high operation for the stone, by incision above the pubis; with observations on the advantages attending it; and an account of the various methods of lithotomy, from the earliest periods to the present time.

London: Longman, 1819.

Carpue popularized suprapubic lithotomy, a procedure not often previously carried out.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4289

Sur la lithotritie ou broiement de la pierre dans la vessie.

Arch. gén. Méd., 10, 393-419., 1826.

Civiale invented a lithotriteur for crushing stones inside the bladder and was responsible for putting the operation of lithotrity upon a sound basis. His claim to have introduced the operation was opposed by Leroy d’Etoilles and other contemporaries.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4290

Lithotripsie. Mémoires sur la lithotripsie par percussion.

Paris: Bêchet, 1833.

Heurteloup designed the best lithotrite of the time. He was one of several claimants to the distinction of having introduced modern lithotrity. See Lancet, 1831-32, 2, 567-70.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4290.1

Mémoire sur une manière nouvelle de pratiquer l’opération de la pierre… Terminé et publié par J.L. Sanson et par L.J. Bégin…

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1836.

Posthumously published by Sanson, whose method of rectovesical lithotomy is considered here along with the controversial method of lithotrity. Dupuytren tried both but dropped them in favor of continuing the method of bilateral lithotomy. which he invented in 1812, and which was adopted as the normal procedure, with later modifications.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4291

Die Harnconcretionen.

Vienna: Tendler u. Comp, 1860.

Heller introduced several urine tests and wrote (above) an important work on urinary calculi.

Subjects: UROLOGY, UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4292

Lithotrity by a single operation.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 75, 117-34, 1878.

Introduction of litholapaxy at one sitting.

Subjects: UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4292.1

A case of nephro-lithotomy; or the extraction of a calculus from an undilated kidney.

Trans. clin. Soc. Lond., 14, 30-44, 18801881.

Nephrolithotomy; removal of a renal calculus by a lumbar incision.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones)
  • 4293

Roentgen rays. Photography of renal calculus.

Lancet, 2, 118, 1896.

First radiogram of renal calculus.

Subjects: IMAGING › X-ray, UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4294

Uretercatheterezés és radiographia.

Orvosi hetilap, 45, 659-62, 1901.

Géza von Illyés showed that ureteral calculi could be accurately demonstrated by x rays with the help of an indwelling opaque catheter. German translation in Dtsch. Z. Chir., 1901, 62, 132-40.

Subjects: IMAGING › X-ray, UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4295

Scratch-marks on the wax-tipped catheter as a means of determining the presence of stone in the kidney and in the ureter.

Amer. J. Obstet. Dis. Wom., 44, 441-54, 1901.

Kelly tipped the catheter with wax, so that it registered clearly any pressure from sharp stones. This became an important means of diagnosing calculi.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones), UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4296

The experimental production of stone-in-the-bladder.

Indian J. med. Res., 14, 895-99; 15, 197-205, 485-88, 801-06, 19271928.

McCarrison’s experiments showed that urinary calculi could follow a diet probably deficient in vitamin A.

Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET, UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 4296.5

L’urologie et les médecins urologues dans la médecine ancienne. Gilles de Corbeil: Sa vie- ses oeuvres- son poème des urines.

Paris: F. R. de Rudeval, 1903.

Reproduces rare documents and illustrations, with texts by Gilles de Corbeil and de Cuba. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › France, UROLOGY › History of Urology
  • 4297

History of urology. Prepared under the auspices of the American Urological Association. Editorial Committee: Edgar G. Ballenger, William A. FRontz, Homer G. Hamer, and Bransford Lewis. 2 vols

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1933.

Every aspect of the subject is covered exhaustively by the various contributors to this collective work; valuable bibliographies are included.

Subjects: UROLOGY › History of Urology
  • 4297.1

A history of bladder stone.

Oxford: Blackwell, 1970.

Subjects: UROLOGY › History of Urology
  • 4297.2

The history of urology.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1971.

A scholarly, detailed work. Part 1 is an adapted translation of E. Desnos: Histoire de l’urologie, in Encyclopédie française d’urologie, eds. A. Pousson & E. Desnos, 1914, 1, 1-294.

Subjects: UROLOGY › History of Urology
  • 4297.3

Die Geschichte der Nierenkrankheiten.

Mannheim: Boehringer, 1972.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › History of Nephrology
  • 3789
  • 4297.9
  • 4511.1

Observationum in hominis affectibus plerisque, corpori & animo, functionum laesione, dolore, aliave molestia & vitio incommodantibus, libri tres.

Basel: L. König, 1614.

First known report of a case of death from hypertrophy of the thymus, in an infant, is reported on p. 172; it is reproduced on p. 239 of J. Ruhräh’s Pediatrics of the past, New York, 1925. Platter first described flexion contracture deformity of the fingers (“Dupuytren’s contracture”) in Liber I, p. 140. On p. 13 he provided the first description of an intracranial tumor —a meningioma. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Dupuytren's Contracture, NEUROLOGY › Brain & Spinal Tumors, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Hand / Wrist, PEDIATRICS
  • 3729
  • 4297.91

De rachitide sive morbo puerili, qui vulgo The Rickets dicitur tractatus.

London: Typis Th. Roycroft, inpensis Laurentii Sadler, 1650.

Although anticipated by Whistler and others in the description of infantile rickets, Glisson’s account was the fullest that had till then appeared. He was first (Chap. 22) to describe infantile scurvy. Glisson’s book on rickets was one of the earliest instances of collaborative medical research in England, combining the observations of Glisson and seven other contributors. G.Bate and A. Regemorter are credited as co-authors. This monograph on the biomechanics of deformities included an early study of the pathologic anatomy of scoliosis. An English translation appeared in 1651.

Subjects: Biomechanics, NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Rickets, NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Scurvy, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Spine
  • 4298

Lettre écrite à Monsieur le Chevalier Guillaume de Waidegrave …contenant une dissertation physique sur la continuité de plusieurs os, à l’occasion d’une fabrique surprenante d’un tronc de squelette humain, où les vertebres, les côtes, l’os sacrum, & les os des iles, qui naturellement sont distincts & separés, ne font qu’un seul os continu & inseparable.

Paris: Jean Cusson, 1693.

First description of ankylosing spondylitis. The British Museum copy of the title page of this work has been mutilated, apparently deliberately, in two places; the author’s surname may originally have appeared as “O’Connor”, and the last part of the date has been cut away and appears as MDCXCI; other authorities give 1693 as date. The copy presented to the Royal Society of London is also mutilated to read “Connor”. Connor graduated MD in Reims in 1693. Partial translation by Baruch S. and Jean L. Blumberg, "Bernard Connor (1666-1698) and his contribution to the pathology of ankylosing spondylitis," J. Hist. Med., 1958, 13, 349-66.

(This annotation was last revised in April 2015.)

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton, RHEUMATOLOGY
  • 4299

Opera posthuma.

Amsterdam: G. Gallet, 1700.

Page 68: first description of leontiasis ossea.

Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton › Congenital Diseases