An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16017 entries, 14075 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 11, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 4900–4999

137 entries
  • 4900

Intracranial tumours.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1932.

Cushing’s operating technique reduced the mortality rate dramatically in intracranial surgery. This was his last published report on the statistical results of his operations on brain tumors-- essentially a summation of his life work.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4901

Intracranial aneurysms: Cerebral arterioradiography: Surgical treatment.

Trans. med.-chir. Soc. Edinb., n.s. 47, 219-34, 19321933.

The first planned intracranial operation for aneurysm.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Vascular & Endovascular
  • 4902

Techniques des diverses sympathectomies lombaires.

Presse méd., 41, 1819-22, 1933.

Lumbar sympathectomy by the antero-lateral extraperitoneal approach.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine
  • 4903

Treatment of hydrocephalus by endoscopic coagulation of the choroid plexus. Description of a new instrument and preliminary report of results.

New Engl. J. Med., 210, 1373-76, 1934.

  • 4904

The clinical aspects of visceral neurology with special reference to the surgery of the sympathetic nervous system.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1935.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Peripheral Nerves
  • 4904.1

Gefässmissbildungen und Gefässgeschwülste des Gehirns.

Leipzig: G. Thieme, 1936.

Olivecrona first successfully removed an intracranial aneurysm in 1932.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Vascular & Endovascular
  • 4905

Essai d’un traitement chirurgical de certaines psychoses.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 3 sér., 115, 385-92, 1936.

Prefrontal leucotomy (lobotomy). Translation in J. Neurosurg., 1964, 21, 1110-14. See also Egas Moniz's book Tentatives opératoires dans le traitement de certaines psychoses, Paris, 1936. His name was originally Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire; the name of Egas Moniz, a Portuguese national hero, was added at his baptism.

In 1949 Egas Moniz shared the Nobel Prize with Hess "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses."

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Psychosurgery, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 4906

Prefrontal lobotomy in agitated depression. Report of a case.

Med. Ann. Distr. Columbia 5, 326-28, 1936.

See also the book by the same authors, Psychosurgery: Intelligence, emotion, and social behavior following prefrontal lobotomy for mental disorders. Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1942. By the 1950s lobotomy was largely discredited, and replaced by psychotropic medication, such as thorazine.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Psychosurgery
  • 4907

The location of cerebral tumours by electro-encephalography.

Lancet, 2, 305-08, 1936.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4908

Eine neue Operationsmethode bei Trigeminusneuralgie: Durchschneidung des Tractus spinalis trigemini.

Zbl. Neurochir 2, 274-81, 1937.

Trigeminal tractotomy. See also Acta psychiat. neural. (Kbh.), 1938, Suppl. 17, 1-139.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4909

First surgical sections, in man, of the lemniscus lateralis (pain-temperature path) at the brain stem, for the treatment of diffused rebellious pain.

Curr. Res. Anesth 17, 143-45, 1938.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4612
  • 4909.01

Meningiomas: Their classification, regional behavior, life history, and surgical end results.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1938.

Begun in 1915, soon after Cushing's monograph on pituitary disorders, this represents 25 years of work, and is, by common consent, regarded as Cushing’s greatest clinical monograph. Reprint, 2 vols., New York, Hafner, 1962.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Brain & Spinal Tumors, NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 4909.1

A new palliative operation in cases of inoperable occlusion of the Sylvian aqueduct.

Acta chir. scand 82, 117-24, 1939.

Ventriculocisternostomy for the relief of obstructive hydrocephalus.

  • 4910

Surgical diseases of the spinal cord, membranes, and nerve roots.

New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1941.

Elsberg, American pioneer in neurosurgery, made valuable contributions to the surgery of the spinal cord. His first book on the subject appeared in 1916, and another on tumours of the cord in 1925.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine
  • 4910.1

Epilepsy and cerebral localization: A study of the mechanism, treatment and prevention of epileptic seizures.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1941.

Penfield’s most widely recognized contribution was the gradual development of cortical excision as an accepted and valuable method of treating medically refractory focal epilepsy. See also No. 4914.2.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROSURGERY › Epilepsy
  • 4911

Three types of nerve injury.

Brain, 66, 237-88, 1943.

Seddon’s classification of nerve injuries.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Nerve Injuries
  • 4912

Plasma clot and silk suture of nerves. 1. An experimental study of comparative tissue reaction.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 76, 366-74, 1943.

Plasma clot nerve suture. Preliminary communication in Science, 1942, 95, 258.

  • 4912.1

Stereotaxic apparatus for operations on the human brain.

Science, 106, 349-50, 1947.

"The first successful cranial application of stereotactic surgery in humans is credited to the team of Ernest Spiegel and Henry Wycis in the Department of Experimental Neurology at Temple University in Philadelphia (Spiegel et al. 1947). Their original frame, using a Cartesian coordinate systems and similar in design and operation to the Clarke-Horsley device, was fixed to a patient’s head by means of a plaster cast. The frame and cast were removable, allowing separate imaging and surgery sessions. Contrast radiographyventriculography and later pneumoencephalography permitted the visualization of intracranial reference points from which the location of target structures of interest could be determined. Initial applications were for psychosurgery.[7](Wikipedia article on Ernst Adolf Spiegel, accessed 3-2020)

 With M. Marks, and A. J. Lee.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSURGERY › Psychosurgery, NEUROSURGERY › Stereotactic Neurosurgery
  • 4914

Revascularization of the brain through establishment of a cervical arteriovenous fistula. Effects in children with mental retardation and convulsive disorders.

J. Pediat., 35, 317-29, 1949.

With C. F. McKhann and W. D. Belnap.

Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, NEUROLOGY › Neurodevelopmental Disorders › Mental Retardation, PEDIATRICS
  • 4914.1

Selective cortical undercutting as a means of modifying and studying frontal lobe function in man. Preliminary report of forty-three operative cases.

J. Neurosurg., 6, 65-73, 1949.

  • 4914.2

Epilepsy and the functional anatomy of the human brain.

Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1954.

This comprehensive monograph on the mechanism and surgical treatment of epileptic seizures remains Penfield’s most substantial scientific work. See also No. 4910.1.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROSURGERY › Epilepsy
  • 4914.3

Stereotactic tractotomy in the surgical treatment of mental illness.

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 28, 304-10, 1965.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSURGERY › Stereotactic Neurosurgery, PSYCHIATRY
  • 4914.4

The diagnosis of stupor and coma.

Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1966.

Rationalized the diagnosis of various levels of the unconscious state, correlating these with brain lesions.

  • 4914.5

Transphenoidal microsurgery of the normal and pathological pituitary. In: Clinical neurosurgery: Proceedings of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons…1968, 185-217.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1969.

Confirmation of Cushing’s idea that a micro-tumor causes Cushing’s syndrome. See No. 3904.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4914.6

Stereotactic limbic leucotomy: Neurophysiological aspects and operative technique.

Brit. J. Psychiat., 123, 133-40, 1973.

With A. Richardson and N. Mitchell-Heggs.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSURGERY › Stereotactic Neurosurgery
  • 4914.7

Aspects of coma after severe head injury.

Lancet, 1, 878-81, 1977.

Glasgow Coma Scale for grading brain injury following head trauma.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Head Injury, NEUROSURGERY › Head Injuries
  • 22
  • 2433
  • 3162
  • 3163
  • 3612
  • 3925
  • 4484
  • 4510
  • 4808
  • 4915
  • 5046
  • 5089
  • 5146

Тα ∑ωζομενα. The extant works of Aretaeus, the Cappadocian. Edited and translated by Francis Adams.

London: Sydenham Society, 1856.

Aretaeus left many fine descriptions of disease; in fact Garrison ranks him second only to Hippocrates in this respect. In the printed editions of this bibliography, before the present online version, the Adams edition was cited no less than 12 times for individual diseases, plus its first citation in "Collected Works" (No. 22.) This number of citations is, of course, greater than any other specific work by any other author, though the number of citations may be a reflection of idiosyncracies of the compilers rather than a proportionate measure of the significance of Aretaeus in the history of medicine. The citations are as follows:


3162. On angina, or quinsey. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 249-52, 404-07.

3163. On pleurisy. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 255-58, 410-16.

2433. On elephas, or elephantiasis. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams, 366-73, 494-98. Classic description of “elephantiasis Aretaei”, nodous leprosy.

5046. On ulcerations about the tonsils. In hiis Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 253-55. Aretaeus’s description of ulcerations about the tonsils, which he called “ulcera Syrica”, clearly referred to diphtheria, of which it was the first unmistakable description. For his treatment of the disease, see pp. 409-10 of the same work.

5089. On dysentery. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 353-57. Prior to Lösch’s discovery of E. histolytica, all forms of dysentery were differentiated only on clinical grounds.

4915. Extant works. Ed. F. Adams. Aretaeus wrote important accounts of melancholy (298-300, 473-78) and madness (301-04).

5146. On tetanus. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams,  246-49, 400-04. Aretaeus left a full account of tetanus.

4484,  On arthritis and sciatica. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams,  362-65, 492-93,

3612. On jaundice, or icterus. In his Extant works, ed F. Adams, 324-28.

4510. On paralysis. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams.

4808. On epilepsy, in his Extant works, ed F. Adams,  243, 296, 399, 468. Aretaeus was well acquainted with hemi-epilepsy from local injury in the opposite half of the brain; partly from this knowledge he formulated the “decussation in the form of the letter X” of the motor path. He first described epilepsy resulting from a depressed fracture of the skull. In his excellent description he made the first mention of the aura.

3925. On diabetes.In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 338-40, 485-86. The first accurate account of diabetes, to which Aretaeus gave its present name; he insisted on the part which thirst plays in the symptomatology. 

According to the Wikipedia article on Headache, Aretaeus also provied the first recorded classification system for headaches: "He made a distinction between three different types of headache: i) cephalalgia, by which he indicates a shortlasting, mild headache; ii) cephalea, referring to a chronic type of headache; and iii) heterocrania, a paroxysmal headache on one side of the head." 

Digital facsimile of Adams's Greek and Latin edition from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Dysentery, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tetanus, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis), Medicine: General Works, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, PSYCHIATRY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases, RHEUMATOLOGY › Arthritis
  • 1959.1
  • 4808.1
  • 4915.1

Caelii Aureliani Siccensis Tardarum passionum libri V. D. Oribasii Sardi Iuliani Caesaris archiatri Euporiston lib: III. Medicinae comperi: lib: 1. Curationum lib: 1. Trochiscoru confect: lib: 1.

Basel: Henricus Petrus, 1529.

From a clinical point of view, the two works of Caelius Aurelianus, which were translated into Latin from Greek originals by Soranus of Ephesus that were later lost, represent the high-point of Graeco-Roman medical achievement. Soranus (fl. circa 150 CE), was the chief representative of the methodic school of medicine. Besides his writings on gynecology and obstetrics that survived, Soranus left works on chronic and acute maladies—Tardae or Chronicae passiones, in five books, and Celeres or Acutae passiones in three books, which were preserved through Caelius's translations. The Latin translations show that Soranus possessed considerable practical skill in the diagnosis of both ordinary and exceptional diseases. The translations are also important for their references to the methods of earlier medical authorities.

This is first edition of Caelius's Tardarum passionum (Chronic diseases ), edited by Johannes Sichard. On the verso of the title page the editor provided a list of about 50 ancient Greek physicians referred to in Caelius's text.

Garrison described Caelius / Soranus as a 5th century neurologist who gave one of the best early descriptions of epilepsy, including its convulsive and comatose forms, and the tendency of victims of vertigo to become epileptic. Caelius also distinguished between sensory and motor impairment, and between spastic and flaccid paralysis.

The first edition of Caelius's / Soranus's other work—Acute diseases – Liber celerum vel acutarum passionum, was edited by Johann Guinter von Andernach and published in Paris at the press of Simon de Colines in 1533. Both that and Sicart's edition of 1529 were based on Latin manuscripts that have since disappeared. No other medieval codices of these texts survived.

The four works by Oribasius also edited by Sicard for this 1529 printing represent the first editions in Latin of the texts involved. Like Caelius and Soranus, Oribasius was also a major compiler. Oribasius, a pagan, was physician to the Emperor Julian (the Apostate) in the period of Late Antiquity. Digital facsimile of the 1529 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Late Antiquity, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, OTOLOGY › Vestibular System › Vertigo, PSYCHIATRY, THERAPEUTICS
  • 4916

De praestigiis daemonum.

Basel: Johannes Oporinus, 1563.

Weyer was the first European physician to take an empirical, scientific approach to the study of mental illness. At the height of the witchcraft delusion he argued that witches were mentally ill women who deserved humane treatment instead of torture and punishment. Weyer “reduced the clinical problems of psychopathology to simple terms of everyday life and everyday, human, inner experiences” (Zilboorg). English translation by John Shea as Witches, devils, and doctors in the Renaissance. Johann Weyer, De praestigiis daemonum. Foreward by John Weber. Bingham, New York: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1991.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, Renaissance Medicine
  • 4916.1

Von den Kranckheyten so die vernunfft berauben als da sein S. Veyts Thantz…

Basel: no publisher cited, 1567.

In this work on the “diseases that deprive man of his reason” Paracelsus anticipated the descriptive method in psychiatry, giving a purely medical account of the clinical manifestations of epilepsy, mania, and hysteria refuting previous theories that these diseases were caused by demonic possession or other supernatural means. He was “the first to differentiate the sexual components and the unconcious factors in the development ol hysteria” (Zilboorg). English translation by G. Zilboorg in H.E. Sigerist (ed.), Four treatises of…Paracelsus, Baltimore, 1941.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, PSYCHIATRY
  • 4916.2

De spectris…

Geneva: Anchora Crispiniana, 1570.

This work on ghosts is one of the earliest works on psychic experiences illusions, hallucinations, and delusions. The English translation, London 1572, probably gave Shakespeare some pointers on the behavior of the ghost in Hamlet.

  • 4917

The discoverie of witchcraft.

London: W. Brome, 1584.

Scot identified as mentally ill a large group of people who had hitherto been considered to be involved in witchcraft.

  • 4918

A treatise of melancholie, containing the causes thereof.

London: T. Vautrollier, 1586.

First comprehensive description of depression in English. Bright also produced the first noteworthy geometrical system of shorthand, consisting of circles, half-circles, and straight lines (Characterie, London, 1588).

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Depression
  • 4918.1

The anatomy of melancholy, what it is. With all the kindes, causes, symptomes, prognostickes, and severall cures of it.

Oxford: John Lichfield, 1621.

The first psychiatric encyclopedia, citing nearly 500 medical authors, and also a literary tour de force. Burton was prompted write this book because of his own bouts with depression. It is one of the most popular psychiatric books ever written, appearing in over 70 editions since its original publication. It was one of Sir William Osler’s favorite books.

For further information on this work see at this link.

Subjects: Encyclopedias, PSYCHIATRY › Depression
  • 1544
  • 4513
  • 4730
  • 4793
  • 4919
  • 4966

De anima brutorum

Oxford: R. Davis, 1672.

Chap. XIV is devoted to the sense of hearing; in it Willis described the “paracusis of Willis” (p. 73). English translation, 1683.

A probable description of myasthenia gravis is given in Pars. 2, Cap. IX.

In Pars 2, Cap. III is an account of lethargy, and Cap. XIII gives an account of “stupidity or foolishness”. Part 2, Cap. 1, deals with headache.

Two Oxford editions were published in 1672; the first, in quarto, in which a description of general paralysis appears on pp. 392-432, and the second, in octavo, in which it appears on pp. 278-307. In his Practice of Physick (1684) the translation of this section appears on pp. 161-78.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROLOGY › Myopathies, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, PAIN / Pain Management, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 4919.1

Treatise on madness.

London: J. Whiston & B. White, 1758.

Battie was among the first to teach psychiatry at the bedside. His book is the first English text book on the subject. Reprinted with J. Monro’s Remarks on Dr. Battie’s treatise on madness, London, Dawsons, 1962.

  • 4920

Observation on the nature, kinds, causes and prevention of insanity, lunacy, or madness. 2 vols.

Leicester, England: G. Ireland, 17821786.

Best historical account to the time. 2nd ed., 1806.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHIATRY › History of Psychiatry
  • 4920.1

First lines on the practice of physic. 4th ed. Vol. 3.

Edinburgh: Charles Elliot, 1784.

Cullen introduced the term “neuroses” (pp. 121-23).

  • 4920.2

Remarks and rules set by him in: Regolamento dei Regi Spedali di Santa Maria Nuova & di Bonifazio.

Florence: Gaetano Cambiagi, 1789.

Chiarugi’s regulations for the Bonifazio mental asylum mark the first appearance in print of his landmark reforms in the humane treatment of the mentally ill. Chiarugi was the first to practise the humanitarian treatment of the insane.

  • 4921

Della pazzia in genere, e in specie, trattato medico-analitico, con una centuri di osservatzioni. 3 vols.

Florence: Luigi Carlieri, 17931794.

Chiarugi was the first in Europe to abandon chains and fetters in a mental hospital. He required a case history for each patient, hygienic rooms with segregation of the sexes, no restraint beyond strait jacket and cotton strips, and regard for the patient as a person. He encouraged the patients to work and their attendants to practice kindness towards them. First edition in English: On Insanity and its Classification, translated with a foreward and Introduction by George Mora (1987).

  • 4922

Traité médico-philosophique sur l’aliénation mentale ou la manie.

Paris: Richard, Caille & Ravier, 1801.

Pinel founded the French School of Psychiatry. He was among the first to treat the insane humanely; he dispensed with chains and placed his patients under the care of specially selected physicians. Garrison considered the above book one of the foremost medical classics, giving as it did a great impetus to humanitarian treatment of the insane. English translation, Sheffield, 1806. The second French edition, Paris, Brosson, 1809 was very substantially enlarged by Pinel. 

  • 4923

Rhapsodieen über die Anwendung der psychischen Curmethode auf Geisteszerrüttungen.

Halle: Curt, 1803.

The versatile Reil, physician and physiologist, was an early advocate of humane treatment for the insane. He was instrumental in the establishment of the first journal devoted to mental disease – the Magazin für Nervenheilkunde.

  • 4924

Medical inquiries and observations upon the diseases of the mind.

Philadelphia: Kimber & Richardson, 1812.

The first American textbook on psychiatry, and, considering the state of that science in Rush’s time, one of the most noteworthy. It underwent four editions.

  • 4924.1

Illustrations of madness: exhibiting a singular case of insanity… with a description of the tortures experienced by bomb-bursting, lobster-cracking and lengthening the brain.

London: Rivingtons, 1810.

The first medical book devoted to a single case of insanity, and the first illustration of an influencing machine, commonly complained of by paranoid patients.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Paranoia
  • 4925

Tracts on Delirium tremens, on peritonitis, and on some other internal inflammatory affections, and on the gout.

London: T. Underwood, 1813.

Sutton named and described alcoholic delirium tremens, differentiating the condition from phrenitis. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Alcoholism
  • 4925.1

Description of The Retreat, an institution near York, for insane persons…

York, England: W. Alexander, 1813.

The pioneer work by an Englishman advocating humane treatment of the mentally ill. Tuke set out in this work the successful results of his experience with the “mild system of treatment” which had been instituted at The Retreat since its foundation. More than a multitude of learned tomes, this unpretentious work by a layman convinced both professionals and public alike of the value of humane treatment in psychiatric care.

  • 4926

Lehrbuch der Störungen des Seelenlebens.

Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1818.

Heinroth drew his psychology from the Bible and maintained that mental health was maintained only by piety and that sin engendered madness; for him treatment was by repentance and a return to the fold. English translation, 2 vols., Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1975.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 4928

A treatise on insanity and other disorders affecting the mind.

London: Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper, 1835.

Prichard, better known for his work in the field of anthropology (No. 159), was the first to describe moral insanity. He described a syndrome he called incoherence or senile dementia. Alzheimer (No. 4956) may have described essentially the same disorder. Reprint of Philadelphia, 1837 edition, New York, Arno Press, 1973.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders › Presenile or Senile Dementia, PSYCHIATRY
  • 4798
  • 4929

Des maladies mentales. 2 vols. and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1838.

Esquirol succeeded Pinel at the Salpêtrière, and was the first lecturer on psychiatry. After Pinel he was a founder of the French School. This is the first modern textbook on psychiatry. It is notable for its striking illustrations of the insane. Vol. 2, p. 264 contains a classic description of paresis. Esquirol regarded general paralysis as a complication of various forms of mental disorder. English translation, without the illustrations, Philadelphia, 1845.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Paralysis › General Paresis, PSYCHIATRY
  • 1739
  • 4929.01

A treatise on the medical jurisprudence of insanity.

Boston, MA: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1838.

The first authoritative and comprehensive treatise in English on forensic psychiatry. Ray became the most influential American writer on forensic psychiatry in the 19th century. He put the above work through five editions, the last of which appeared in 1871. Ray's book was deployed effectively by defense lawyer Sir Alexander Cockburn in the English trial of Daniel M'Naghten (McNaghten) in 1843. At the trial, Cockburn quoted extensively from the book which rejected traditional views of the insanity defense based on the defendant's ability to distinguish "right from wrong" in favor of a broader approach based on causation. Reprint of 1st edition with introduction and notes by W. Overholser, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ. Press, 1962. Digital facsimile of the 1st edition (1838) from Google Books at this link;  5th edition (1871) from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), PSYCHIATRY › Forensic Psychiatry
  • 4929.1

Lehrbuch der ärztlichen Seelenkunde.

Vienna: C. Gerold, 1845.

Feuchtersleben introduced the terms psychosis, psychiatrics, and psychopathology. The book includes a short history of psychiatry. English translation, Sydenham Society, 1847.

  • 4930

Die Pathologie und Therapie der psychischen Krankheiten.

Stuttgart: A. Krabbe, 1845.

Griesinger put an end to the moralistic theory of insanity as advanced by Heinroth. He was the first in Germany to abandon violence in the treatment of the insane; his book remained an authority on the subject for 30 years. English translation, London, 1867.

  • 4931

Du délire des persécutions.

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 28, 129-50, 1852.

“Lasègue’s disease” – persecution mania.

  • 4932

Mémoire sur la folie circulaire.

Bull. Acad. imp. Méd. (Paris), 19, 382-400, 18531854.

Circular (manic-depressive) insanity first described.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Bipolar Disorder
  • 4933

The treatment of the insane without mechanical restraints.

London: Smith, Elder, 1856.

As early as 1839, Conolly treated the insane without any form of restraint at Hanwell Asylum, now St. Bernard’s Hospital. Facsimile reprint with introduction by R. Hunter and I. Macalpine, London, Dawsons, 1973. Digital facsimile of the 1856 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 4933.1

Traité des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l’espèce humaine. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1857.

The main support for the theory of mental illness as regression which dominated psychiatric practice for several decades. Morel described and illustrated the nature, causes, and signs of human degeneration. He focused on physical signs but also included various intellectual and moral deviations. This led to the classification of criminals and geniuses as types of degenerates or deviates along with the insane and neurotic. Morel emphasized the hereditary factor and his work helped bring about a deemphasis on therapeutic work in the psychiatry of his time. The atlas reproduces by lithography some of the earliest photographs of the insane.

  • 4934

A manual of psychological medicine.

London: John Churchill, 1858.

Bucknill and Tuke were both distinguished neurologists, and advocates of no restraint in the institutional treatment of mental patients. Their book was for many years the standard English work on psychological medicine. Reprinted 1968.

  • 4936

Observations on an ethnic classification of idiots.

Lond. Hosp. clin. Lect. Rep., 3, 259-62, 1866.

Langdon Down suggested that the physiognomical features of certain defectives enabled them to be arranged in ethnic groups; of these he differentiated Mongolian, Ethiopian, Caucasian, and American Indian. Such an ethnic classification has been abandoned, but the term “mongolism” has been used to describe one important variety of ailment, although recently giving way to “Down’s syndrome”, for an explanation of which, see N. Howard-Jones, Med. Hist., 1979, 23, 102-04.

  • 4937

Traitement moral, hygiène et education des idiots…

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1846.

Séguin was the first to outline a complete plan for the training of mental defectives. A pupil of Itard and Esquirol, he subsequently worked in America, where he published Idiocy: and its treatment by the physiological method. New York, 1866.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurodevelopmental Disorders › Mental Retardation
  • 4938

Die Katatonie oder das Spannungsirresein, Eine klinische Form psychischer Krankheit.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1874.

In 1869 Kahlbaum suggested catatonia as a separate disease entity and in 1874 his classic monograph appeared. English translation, Baltimore, 1973. Digital facsimile of the 1874 edition from at this link.

  • 174
  • 4939

L’uomo delinquente, studiato in rapporto alla antropologia, alla medicina legale ed alle discipline carcerarie.

Milan: U. Hoepli, 1876.

Lombroso inaugurated the doctrine of a “criminal type”. His systematic studies showed that in general the criminal population exhibits a higher percentage of physical, nervous and mental anomalies than the normal population; this he attributed partly to degeneration and partly to atavism.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, Criminology & Medical Criminology, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 4940

Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie auf klinischer Grundlage.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1879.

English translation, Philadelphia, 1905.

  • 4941

Compendium der Psychiatrie.

Leipzig: A. Abel, 1883.

Later editions of this book were called Lehrbuch. The sixth edition is notable in that in it manic-depressive psychoses were first mentioned as such. Ninth edition in 1927. Kraepelin, Professor of Psychiatry successively at Dorpat, Heidelberg, and Munich, was one of the greatest of all psychiatrists and a pioneer of experimental psychiatry.

  • 4942

Psychiatrie. Klinik der Erkrankungen der Vorderhirns.

Vienna: W. Braumüller, 1884.

Meynert, Professor of Neurology at Vienna, made many contributions to the study of the cellular architecture of the brain, and is often considered the founder of cerebral cortex cytoarchitectonics. English translation, New York: G. P. Putnam, 1885. Digital facsimile of the 1884 edition from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Cytoarchitecture, NEUROLOGY
  • 4943

Les maladies de la personnalité.

Paris: Germer Baillière, 1885.

  • 4944

Psychopathia sexualis; eine klinisch-forensische Studie.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1886.

Krafft-Ebing revised the book through 12 editions. Digital facsimile of the first edition from at this link. English translation as Psychopathia sexualis, with special reference to contrary sexual instinct: A medico-legal study. Authorized translation of the seventh enlarged and revised German edition by Charles Gilbert Chaddock (Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company, 1894). Digital facsimile of the 1894 edition from Google Books at this link. (The author's full name was Richard Fridolin Joseph Freiherr Krafft von Festenberg auf Frohnberg, genannt von Ebing.)

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), PSYCHIATRY, SEXUALITY / Sexology, SEXUALITY / Sexology › Homosexuality
  • 4945

Disturbance of psychic activity in alcoholic paralysis.

Vestn. klin. Psichiat. Neurol., 4, No. 2, 1-102, 1887.

“Korsakoff’s psychosis” or syndrome – alcoholic polyneuritis with loss and falsification of memory. A second paper on the subject in Ezhened. klin. Gaz., 1889, 9, 85, 115, 136, is translated into English in Neurology, 1955, 5, 395-406.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neuropsychology › Memory, PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHOLOGY › Cognitive Disorders, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Alcoholism
  • 4946

Ueber die Einwirking fieberhafter Erkrankungen auf Psychosen.

Jb. Psychiat., 7, 94-134, 1887.

Wagner von Jauregg’s first studies of the effect of fevers upon psychotic conditions. See also No. 4806.

  • 4947

A dictionary of psychological medicine. 2 vols.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1892.

  • 4579
  • 4948

Gesammelte Abhandlungen, edited by A. Westphal. 2 vols.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1892.

Westphal was Professor of Psychiatry at Berlin; at this time was common for physicians to practice both psychiatry and neurology. Vol. 1: psychiatry; Vol. 2: neurology.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, PSYCHIATRY
  • 4949

Grundriss der Psychiatrie in klinischen Vorlesungen.

Leipzig: G. Thieme, 18941900.

Wernicke made valuable contributions to the subject of sensory aphasia, mind-blindness, and apraxia. He correlated all psychic action with the function of speech, each perversion being interpreted as showing a minus or plus activity.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Aphasia, Agraphia, Agnosia
  • 4950

Der psychologische Versuch in der Psychiatrie.

Psychol. Arb., 1, 1-91, 1896.

  • 4951

Lehrbuch der psychopathologischen Untersuchungsmethoden.

Berlin & Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1899.

Sommer introduced new methods in psychopathological investigation.

  • 4952

Einführung in die psychiatrische Klinik.

Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1901.

Kraepelin evolved a new classification of insanity. He introduced the concepts “dementia praecox” and “manic-depressive insanity”. (Regarding the latter, see also No. 4932.)

  • 4953

Hygiene der Nerven und des Geistes im gesunden und kranken Zustande.

Stuttgart: E. H. Moritz, 1903.

English translation, New York, 1907.

  • 4954

Les obsessions et la psychasthénie.

Paris: Félix Alcan, 1903.

Janet was the first to describe psychasthenia.

  • 4955

Sopra un’ alterazione del corpo calloso osservata in soggetti alcoolisti.

Riv. Patol. nerv. ment., 8, 544-49, 1903.

Marchiafava–Bignami disease – degeneration of the corpus callosum in alcoholism.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Alcoholism
  • 4956

Ueber eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde.

Allg. Z. Psychiat., 64, 146-48, 1907.

“Alzheimer’s disease” –presenile dementia. Preliminary note in Neurol. Zbl., 1906, 25, 1134. English translation in Arch. neurol., 1969, 21, 109-110, and in K. Bick (ed.) The early story of Alzheimer’s disease, New York, Raven Press, [1987].

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders › Presenile or Senile Dementia
  • 4957

Dementia praecox Oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenien.

Leipzig & Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1911.

Bleuler introduced the concept of schizophrenia. He showed that Kraepelin’s “dementia praecox” (No. 4952) should include all the schizophrenic disorders. Translated into English by Joseph Zinkin as Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. New York: International Universities Press, 1950.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Schizophrenia
  • 4958

Mongolism. A study of the physical and mental characteristics of mongolian imbeciles. Revised by H. G. Brainerd.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1928.

  • 4959

Rauwolfia serpentina, a new Indian drug for insanity and high blood pressure.

Indian med. Wld., 2, 194-201, 1931.

Introduction of reserpine in the treatment of psychoses.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Rauvolfia serpentina, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Rauvolfia serpentina › Reserpine, PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology
  • 4960

Schizophreniebehandlung mittels Insulin-Hypoglykämie sowie hypoglykämischer Schocks.

Wien med. Wschr., 84, 1211-14, 1934.

Insulin shock therapy of schizophrenia. Sakel wrote several subsequent papers on this subject in the same journal. English version in Amer. J. Psychiat., 1937, 93, 829-41.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology, PSYCHIATRY › Schizophrenia
  • 4961

Versuche über die biologische Beeinflussung des Ablaufes der Schizophrenic. 1. Campher-und Cardiazolkrämpfe.

Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat., 152, 235-62, 1935.

Cardiazol (metrazol) convulsion therapy of schizophrenia was introduced by Meduna in 1934.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology, PSYCHIATRY › Schizophrenia
  • 4962

Un nuovo metodo di shockterapia: “L’elettroshock”. (Riassunto.)

Boll. R. Accad. Med. Roma, 64, 136-38, 1938.

Introduction of electric convulsion therapy.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, THERAPEUTICS › Medical Electricity / Electrotherapy
  • 4962.1

A clinical and genetic study of 1,280 cases of mental defect.

Spec. Rep. Ser. Med. Res. Coun. (Lond), No. 229, 1938.

In this exhaustive study Penrose showed (p. 36) the significance of maternal age in the etiology of Down syndrome.

  • 4962.2

The biology of mental defect.

London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1949.

  • 4962.3

Trente-huit cas de psychoses traitées par la cure prolongée et continue de 4560 R. P. C. R. Congr. Alien, et Neurol, de Langue Franç.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1952.

Introduction of chlorpromazine in the treatment of psychosis. Chlorpromazine was later marketed in the United States as Thorazine.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology › Chlorpromazine
  • 4962.4

The pharmacological properties of 2-methyl-2-m-propyl-1, 3-propanediol dicarbamate (Miltown), a new interneuronal blocking agent.

J. Pharmacol., 112, 413-23, 1954.

Introduction of meprobamate, later used for the treatment of anxiety. Miltown was the first widely prescribed psychotropic drug.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology
  • 4962.5

Étude des chromosomes somatiques de neuf enfants mongoliens.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 248, 1721-22, 1959.

Discovery of trisomy-21, cause of Down’s syndrome. With M. Gautier and R. Turpin.

  • 18
  • 4963
  • 568

The works of Aristotle translated into English. Edited by J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross. 12 vols.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, 19081952.

De motu animalium. De incessu animalium. In his Works, edited by J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross, 5, 698a-714b.Oxford1912. 

De Anima. In his Works… translated into English. Edited by J. A. Smith and W. D. Ross. 3, 402a-35b.Oxford1931.


Aristotle, regarded as the founder of psychology, meant by anima or psyche the living principle which characterizes living substance.


Subjects: BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › Marine Biology, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, PHYSIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, Zoology, Natural History, Ancient Greek / Roman / Egyptian
  • 4963.1

Galen: De propriorum animi cuiuslibet affectuum dignotione et curatione. De animi cuius libet peccatorum dignotione et curatione ed. W. De Boer. Corpus Medicorum Graecorum V, 4, 1, 1, pp. 1-68.

Leipzig & Berlin: B. G. Teubner, 1937.

English translation by P.W. Harkins, Galen on the passions and errors of the soul. Columbus, Ohio, 1963.

  • 4963.2

De anima et vita libri tres.

Basel: Robert Winter, 1538.

Vives anticipated Bacon and Descartes in developing an empirical psychology in which the mind was to be studied both through introspection and observation of others. From his exhaustive analysis of memory he developed a theory of association of ideas, which recognized the emotional origin of certain associations, as well as the link between associations, emotions and memory. He was also the first to describe the physiological effects of fear.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neuropsychology › Memory, PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Cognitive Disorders
  • 4964

Examen de ingenios para las ciencias.

Baeza, Spain: Juan Bautista de Montoya, 1575.

Huarte was a distinguished Spanish physician and psychologist. His Examen, which gained for him a European reputation, was the first attempt to show the connection between psychology and physiology. English translation by Richard Carew as The Examination of mens wits (London, 1594), and Lessing translated the book into German. Over the next two centuries Examen was published "in six different languages: in Spanish fifteen times, twenty-five in French, six in Italian, five in English, three in Latin and one in Dutch. In total nine translators rendered this work into other tongues, and the book was printed in twenty different European cities" (Carew translation, edited by R. G. Sumillera; see No. 8705). Digital facsimile of the 1594 English translation from the Internet Archive at this link; of the 1594 Spanish edition from the National Library of Spain at this link.

  • 4965

Des passions de l’âme.

Amsterdam, 1649.

Descartes believed the soul to be a definite entity, giving rise to thoughts, feelings, and acts of volition. He was one of the first to regard the brain as an organ integrating the functions of mind and body. English translation, London, 1650.

  • 1544
  • 4513
  • 4730
  • 4793
  • 4919
  • 4966

De anima brutorum

Oxford: R. Davis, 1672.

Chap. XIV is devoted to the sense of hearing; in it Willis described the “paracusis of Willis” (p. 73). English translation, 1683.

A probable description of myasthenia gravis is given in Pars. 2, Cap. IX.

In Pars 2, Cap. III is an account of lethargy, and Cap. XIII gives an account of “stupidity or foolishness”. Part 2, Cap. 1, deals with headache.

Two Oxford editions were published in 1672; the first, in quarto, in which a description of general paralysis appears on pp. 392-432, and the second, in octavo, in which it appears on pp. 278-307. In his Practice of Physick (1684) the translation of this section appears on pp. 161-78.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROLOGY › Myopathies, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, PAIN / Pain Management, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 4967

An essay concerning humane understanding.

London: Eliz. Holt, for Thomas Basset, 1690.

Locke, a physician, laid the foundation of modern psychology. For two centuries the principles laid down by him were unquestioned. The writing of the Essay occupied him on and off for twenty years.

  • 4968

Traité des sensations. 2 vols.

London & Paris, 1754.

Condillac considered that we perceive only what our senses supply in the form of sensations: the “real being” of things is beyond us. English translation, London, 1930.

  • 4969

Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht abgefasst.

Königsberg: F. Nicolovius, 1798.

Kant attempted a classification of mental diseases.

  • 4969.1

De l’éducation d’un homme sauvage, ou des premier développemens physiques et moraux du jeune sauvage de l’Aveyron.

Paris: Goujon fils, 1801.

A pupil of Pinel, Itard pioneered in the attempt to educate a young “wild boy” who had lived since infancy entirely apart from human contact. In adapting the methods of teaching deaf-mutes to his extraordinary pupil, Itard created a new system of pedagogy which profoundly influenced modern educational methods. He was very optimistic in the above work issued nine months after he had started working with the boy. By his second account, Rapport sur les nouveaux développemens et I’état actuel du sauvage de I’Aveyron, Paris, 1807, Itard regretfully concluded that the boy was incapable of learning speech and that some of the effects of prolonged isolation are irreversible, especially when the isolation occurs during the crucial period of early childhood. English translation of first work as An historical account of the discovery and education of a savage man, or of the first developments physical and moral, of the young savage caught in the woods near Aveyron, in the year 1798. London, 1802.

Itard's accounts became the subject of a very sensitive 1970 film by François Truffault entitled l'Enfant sauvage. Filmed in Aveyron, France, and often using Itard's language for narration, the film captured the spirit of Itard's experience.

Digital facsimile of the 1801 work from BnF Gallica at this link. Both of Itard's works were reprinted with supplementary material as Rapports et mémoires sur les sauvage de l'Aveyron l'idiotie et la surdi-mutité part Itard avec une appréciation de ces rapports par Delasiauve. Préface par Bourneville. Éloge d'Itard par Bousquet. Paris: Aux Bureaux du Progrès Médical & Félix Alcan, 1894.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Deaf-Mute Education, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 4969.2

A letter to Henry Cline, Esq. on imperfect developements (sic) of the faculties mental and moral, as well as constitutional and organic; and on on the treatment of impediments of speech.

London: Arch, Cornhill; Ridgeway, Piccadilly, 1810.

The first book on mental deficiency. Thelwall recognized that sensory deprivation could be a cause of apparent mental defect through his work with handicapped children. He established criteria for distinguishing between intellectual capability and performance. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurodevelopmental Disorders › Mental Retardation, PSYCHOLOGY, Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 4970

Medicinische Psychologie, oder Physiologie der Seele.

Leipzig: Weidmann, 1852.

Lotze was a pioneer in the investigation of unconscious and subconscious states.

  • 4972

Elemente der Psychophysik. 2 vols.

Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1860.

The first treatise on the subject. Fechner applied the laws of mathematical physics to the physiology of sensation. He discussed the functional relations of the dependence between mind and body and investigated the cutaneous and muscular senses. Translated into English by Helmut E. Adler as Elements of psychophysics. New York: Holt, Rinhart & Winston, 1966. See also No. 1464.

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, PSYCHOLOGY › Biological, PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental, PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics
  • 4973

Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse électro-physiologique de l’expression des passions applicable à la pratique des arts plastiques. Premier fascicule. [All published]. 1 volume of text plus atlas of photographs by Duchenne.

Paris: Vve. J. Renouard, 1862.

Duchenne studied the mechanism of facial expression during emotion; his atlas of photographs was the first medical book illustrated with photographs of living subjects. Darwin reproduced a number of his photographs in The expression of the emotions (No. 4975).

Subjects: IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 4974

Die Schnelligkeit psychischer Prozesse.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 657-81, 1868.

Donders was the first to measure the reaction-time of a psychical process.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Biological, PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental, PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics
  • 4975

The expression of the emotions in man and animals.

London: John Murray, 1872.

Darwin examined the causes, physiological and psychological, of all the fundamental emotions in man and animals. He concluded that “the chief expressive actions exhibited by man and by the lower animals are now innate or inherited”, and that most of the movements of expression must have been gradually acquired. This is the only book by Darwin illustrated with photographs. It reproduces a number of photographs from Duchenne (No. 4973), and other photographs by Oscar Gustav Reijlander. Reprinted, New York, 1955. See P. Ekman (ed.): Darwin and facial expression: A century of research in review. New York, 1973.

Subjects: EVOLUTION, IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , PSYCHOLOGY
  • 4976

Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie. 2 pts.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 18731874.

Wundt made experimental investigations of normal individual reactions, reflex responses, and general behavior, and interpreted them in terms of neural mechanisms. He was the founder of experimental psychology, and his book remains the most important on the subject.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Biological, PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental
  • 4976.1

L’Automatisme psychologique.

Paris: Félix Alcan, 1889.

Janet argued that “hysterical symptoms are due to subconscious fixed ideas that have been isolated and usually forgotten. Split off from consciousness – ‘dissociated’ – they embody painful experiences, but become autonomous by virtue of their segregation from the main stream of consciousness” (E.L. Bliss, Multliple personality, allied disorders, and hypnosis, N.Y., Oxford University Press, 1986). This predated Breuer and Freud’s announcement of their virtually identical discovery (No. 4977.3) by four years.

  • 4977.2

The principles of psychology. 2 vols.

New York: Henry Holt, 1890.

The foundation of the American school of experimental psychology. Under the influence of Wundt, James viewed psychology as an experimental science based on physiology. He founded the earliest laboratory for the study of experimental psychology in America.
The Principles was printed from stereotype plates, with numerous printings all made from the original set of plates. The first impression can be distinguished by the reading “the seat of intellectual power” in Vol. I, p. 10, lines 9-10, and by the reading “object of sensation” in Vol. II, p. 101, line 20.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Biological, PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental
  • 4977.3

Über den psychischen Mechanismus hysterischer Phänomene. (Vorläufige Mittheilung.)

Neur. Centralbl., 12, 4-10, 43-47, 1893.

The preliminary announcement of the results of the collaboration that was the starting point of psychoanalysis. It described work begun several years previously. See No. 4978.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, Psychoanalysis
  • 4978
  • 4999

Studien über Hysterie.

Leipzig & Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1895.

The foundation of psychoanalysis. Using what they called the cathartic method, in which hysterical patients were made to describe the manifestations of their symptoms in detail, with or without hypnosis, Breuer and Freud were successful in providing the patients with temporary relief from symptoms. Breuer chose not to continue research on these patients. However, Freud, who had studied hypnosis with Charcot (No. 4995), as well as the psychotherapeutic methods of Liébault (Nos. 4994 & 4998) and Bernheim (No. 4995.1), used this work as the basis for development of the method of free association, and the essential psychoanalytic concepts of the unconscious, repression and transference. Abridged English translation, New York, 1909. First complete translation, London, Hogarth Press, 1956.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis, Psychoanalysis
  • 4980

Die Traumdeutung.

Leipzig & Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1900.

Freud’s greatest work, the influence of which has been felt far beyond the psychiatric and medical community. Here he refined his understanding of the operation of the unconscious, interpreted dreams on the basis of wish-fulfillment theory, discussed displacement, the extensive appearance of symbols for repressed thought in conscious thought, regression, and the erotic nature of dreams. First English translation by A. A. Brill from the third German edition (New York: Macmillan, 1913). Digital facsimile of the 1900 edition from the Internet Archive at this link; of the 1913 English translation at this link.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHOLOGY, Psychoanalysis
  • 4981

Studies in the psychology of sex. 7 vols.

Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 19001928.

 Ellis's Studies represent a lifetime of research devoted to the subject, at first in the face of bitter opposition.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY, SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 4982

Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens.

Berlin: S. Karger, 1904.

An exposition of psychoanalytic theory for a popular audience. Includes description and examples of the well-known “Freudian slip”. English translation, London, 1914.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHOLOGY, Popularization of Medicine, Psychoanalysis
  • 4983

Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie.

Leipzig: Franz Deuticke, 1905.

The work which Freud considered second in importance only to his Die Traumdeutung. Freud’s epochal theory of infantile sexuality linked the forces motivating the development of body and mind from earliest infancy. Infantile sexuality was a fact known, Freud said, to every nursemaid, yet the above work provoked and continues to provoke controversy in both scientific and popular sectors. English translation, 1910.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHIATRY › Child Psychiatry, PSYCHOLOGY, Psychoanalysis, SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 4984

Studie über Minderwertigkeit von Organen.

Berlin & Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1907.

Adler, a disciple of Freud, introduced the concept of the inferiority complex and the method of compensation needed to overcome it.

  • 4985

La mesure du développement de l’intelligence chez les jeunes enfants.

Paris: A. Coneslant, 1911.

Binet–Simon intelligence tests. As early as 1895 Binet had published a plan for studying intelligence. English translation, 1912.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Intelligence Testing
  • 4985.1

Über die nervösen Charakter.

Wiesbaden: J. F. Bergmann, 1912.

Adler seceded from Freud’s psycho-analytical group and founded the school of individual psychology. English translation of above, 1917. See also his Practice and theory of individual psychology, 1924.

  • 4985.2

Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens.

Jb. psycho-analyst. psychopath. Forsh., 3, 120-227; 4, 162-464, 1911, 1912.

Reprinted in book form, Leipzig, F. Deuticke, 1912. Jung was among the first to support Freud’s views on psychoanalysis, and was considered by Freud to be his most brilliant pupil. Jung applied psychoanalytic theory to the study of myths, developing the idea of the collective unconscious. In 1913 Jung broke away from Freud and founded the school of analytical psychology. English translation by Beatrice M. Hinkle as Psychology of the unconscious: A study of the transformations and symbolisms of the libdio. A Contribution to the history of the evolution of thought. (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1916). In 1952 Jung published a thoroughly revised version of the work, translated into English in 1956 as Symbols of Transformation, and issued as volume five of Jung's Collected Works

Digital facsimile of the 1912 edition from the Hathi Trust at this link; of the 1916 English translation at this link.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Analytical Psychology, Psychoanalysis
  • 4986

The Stanford revision and extension of the Binet–Simon scale for measuring intelligence.

Baltimore, MD: Warwick & York, 1917.

  • 4987

Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1919.

Watson was the principal exponent of behaviorist psychology. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 4988

Körperbau und Charakter.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1921.

Kretschmer has attempted to correlate body build and constitution with character and mentality.

  • 4988.1

Psychodiagnostik. 1 vol & atlas of test cards.

Bern: Bircher, 1921.

Rorschach test. 2nd ed., Bern, 1932. English translation, Bern, Huber, 1942. See the biography of Rorschach in Bull. Menninger Clin., 1954, 18, 173-219.

Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Other Diagnostic Tests
  • 4990

La médecine psychologique.

Paris: E. Flammarion, 1923.

Janet’s summary of his work with hypnosis, including one of the most detailed histories of hypnosis available. English translation, as Psychological healing, 2 vols., 1925.

  • 4990.1

Einführung in die Technik der Kinderanalyse.

Leipzig: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, 1927.

Daughter of Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud made the psychoanalysis of children her own province. This is probably the most famous classic of child analysis.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Child Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis
  • 4991

Gestalt psychology.

New York: Liveright Publishing Co., 1929.

  • 4991.1

Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine.

Paris: Hermann et Cie, 1948.

Foundation of "the science of control and communication theory, named ‘cybernetics’ by Wiener, from the Greek word ‘kubernetes’ or steersman. Automation, information feedback, regulators in engineering and biology, and bionics fall within its domain. His deep collaboration with Arturo Rosenblueth (a distinguished Mexican collaborator of Walter Cannon’s at Harvard) on this approach greatly extended its applicability to biological systems, including, very importantly, the nervous system" (Larry W. Swanson). 

Wiener's book was also the first commercially published book on electronic computing. Strangely, the first edition was published in English in Paris by Hermann, a publisher that specialized in mathematics. The first American edition issued by Wiley, later in 1948, was printed offset from the French sheets, reprinting the numerous typesetting errors present in the French publication of this English text. Though highly technical, the book caught the attention of a wide range of readers, most of whom could probably not understand the mathematics, and even though the American edition was reprinted several times to meet demand, Wiener did not correct the errors until the second edition, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1961).

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PSYCHOLOGY
  • 4992

A brief account of Mr Valentine Greatrakes, and divers of the strange cures by him lately performed. Written by himself in a letter addressed to the Honourable Robert Boyle Esq., 1666.

London: J. Starkey, 1666.

The earliest scientific account, by a practitioner, and corroborated by witnesses, of healing by the “laying-on of hands”. Greatrakes became known as “the Irish stroker” because of his method of healing by stroking the affected part. He recognized the limited types of conditions which stroking could treat, and was a sincere and well-meaning practitioner. He wrote the above work to defend himself against charges that he was a charlatan. See Peter Elmer, The miraculous conformist: Valentine Greatrakes, the body politic, and the politics of healing in Restoration Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). Full text of Greatrakes's book is available from at this link.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis, Quackery
  • 4992.1

Mémoire sur la découverte du magnétisme animal.

Geneva & Paris: P. Fr. Didot le jeune, 1779.

Mesmer promoted his system of treatment, based on his confused doctrine of a universal magnetic fluid influencing tides and men alike, with books and great personal showmanship. His treatment became such a popular health care sensation in France that it was as much a social movement as a medical practice. The ancien régime considered the leaders of the animal magnetism movement to be politically dangerous.The attention Mesmer directed toward hypnosis and suggestion in psychiatry led eventually to its scientific investigation by Braid and others. It also led to the more scientific development of suggestion in treatment, which has been termed after him “mesmerism”. Following an enquiry instituted by Louis XVI, Mesmer’s career came to an abrupt end. English translations by G. Frankau, 1948. Digital facsimile of the 1779 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Mesmerism, PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis, Quackery
  • 4992.2

Rapport des commissaires chargés par le roi, de l’examen du magnétisme animal. Edited by Antoine Laurent Lavoisier.

Paris: L’Imprimerie Royale, 1784.

Responding to Mesmer’s growing notoriety, the Medical Faculty of Paris became alarmed, and urged the King to appoint a blue-ribbon committee of inquiry. The committee included Benjamin Franklin, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Michael Joseph Majault, Jean Sylvain Bailly, Jean d'Arcet. Finding no evidence of a magnetic fluid, these scientists attributed the power of mesmerism to the “imagination” and so drove Mesmer from Paris. Lavoisier may have been the author of the report. English translation, London, 1785. Digital facsimile of the 1784 edition from BnFgallica at this link.

Subjects: Mesmerism, PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis, Quackery
  • 4992.3

Satanic agency and mesmerism reviewed. In a Letter to the Rev. H. Mc. Neile A.M. of Liverpool: In reply to a sermon preached by him in St. Jude's Church, Liverpool, on Sunday, April 10th, 1842.

Manchester: Simms & Dinham, 1842.

Braid’s scientific investigations of mesmerism convinced him that its effects did not depend on an outside force, but were natural phenomena arising from the subject’s heightened suggestibility. This 10-page pamphlet contains his first statement of these discoveries and contains the first use of the term “neuro-hypnotism”, which Braid coined to replace the unscientific “mesmerism” and “animal magnetism”.

Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis, Quackery
  • 4993

Neurypnology, or, the rationale of nervous sleep.

London: John Churchill, 1843.

Braid inaugurated modern hypnotism, the word itself being introduced by him. His theories were adopted by Broca, Charcot, Liébeault, and Bernheim; thus he founded the French School. New edition, edited with an introduction biographical and bibliographical embodying the author's later views and further evidence on the subject by Arthur Edward Waite  (London: George Redway, 1899).



Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis
  • 4994

Le sommeil et les états analogues considérés sur au point du vue de I’action du moral et de physique.

Paris: Victor Masson et Fils, 1866.

The substitution of psychotherapy for hypnotic suggestion starts with the work of Liébeault. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 4995

Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux faites à La Salpêtrière. 3 vols.

Paris: A. Delahaye, 18721887.

Charcot’s pioneering research on the application of hypnosis to the psychoneuroses brought this subject to the attention of the scientific community.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses, PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis
  • 4995.1

De la suggestion dans l’état hypnotique et dans l’état de veille.

Paris: Octave Doin, 1884.

The foundation of the Nancy school of hypnosis. Like Liébeault, Bernheim studied the scientific applications of hypnotism and substituted verbal for sensory stimuli; he interpreted hypnotism and its consequent phenomena as being the result of suggestion.

Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis
  • 4996

Der Hypnotismus und die suggestive Psychotherapie.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1888.

Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis
  • 4998

Thérapeutique suggestive.

Paris: Octave Doin, 1891.

Subjects: PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis
  • 4978
  • 4999

Studien über Hysterie.

Leipzig & Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1895.

The foundation of psychoanalysis. Using what they called the cathartic method, in which hysterical patients were made to describe the manifestations of their symptoms in detail, with or without hypnosis, Breuer and Freud were successful in providing the patients with temporary relief from symptoms. Breuer chose not to continue research on these patients. However, Freud, who had studied hypnosis with Charcot (No. 4995), as well as the psychotherapeutic methods of Liébault (Nos. 4994 & 4998) and Bernheim (No. 4995.1), used this work as the basis for development of the method of free association, and the essential psychoanalytic concepts of the unconscious, repression and transference. Abridged English translation, New York, 1909. First complete translation, London, Hogarth Press, 1956.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, PSYCHOTHERAPY › Hypnosis, Psychoanalysis