An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15429 entries, 13282 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 23, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 1400–1499

124 entries
  • 1400

Remarques sur le siège de la faculté du langage articulé, suivie d’une observation d’aphémie (perte de la parole).

Bull. Soc. anat., Paris, 36, 330-57, 1861.

Broca claimed the third left frontal convolution of the brain as the center of articulate speech – a point now disputed. He was first to trephine for a cerebral abscess diagnosed by this theory of localization of function. He introduced term “aphemia” (“motor aphasia”, “Broca’s aphasia”). English translation in von Bonin. Some papers on the cerebral cortex, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1960. See No. 4619



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Aphasia, Agraphia, Agnosia, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of › Speech Disorders
  • 1401

On the cerebellum, as the centre of co-ordination of the voluntary movements.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 41, 83-88, 1861.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1401.1

Considérations sur les localisations cérébrales et en particulier sur le siège de la faculté du langage articulé.

Gaz. hebd. Méd. Chir., 10, 318-21, 348-51, 397-402, 455-58, 1863.

Auburtin did much to establish the principle of cerebral localization. He demonstrated on a patient whose frontal lobe was exposed following a gunshot wound that merely touching the uninjured lobe with a spatula would abolish speech, which would return immediately when the spatula was removed. Digital facsimile of the separate offprint version from the Hathitrust at this link.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1402

Recherches sur le système nerveux cérébro-spinal; sa structure, ses fonctions, et ses maladies. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1865.

The beginning of knowledge of thalamic function. This work contains Luys’s descriptions of the two structures which bear his name: the subthalamic nucleus and the center median of the thalamus.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1403

Der Bau der Gross-Hirnrinde und seine örtlichen Verschiedenheiten, nebst einem pathologisch-anatomischen Corollarium.

Vjschr. Psychiat., 1, 77-93, 198-217; 2, 88-113, 1867, 1868.

Meynert noticed regional variations in the histological structure of different parts of the gray matter in the cerebral hemispheres. He is credited with beginning the study of cytoarchitecture. Meynert described the fountain decussation of the tegmental tract (“Meynert’s decussation”) and several other structures in the brain. Published in book form, 1868.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Cytoarchitecture, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1404

Researches on the physiology of the cerebellum.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 57, 320-38, 1869.

Mitchell, leading American neurologist of his time, performed over 350 experiments upon the cerebellum. He emphasized its co-ordinating function, first postulated by Flourens, and he proposed his “augmentor” theory of cerebellar function.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1405

Ueber die elektrische Erregbarkeit des Grosshirns.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 300-32, 1870.

These workers showed that electrical stimulation of the frontal cortex in various experimental animals caused movements of the extremities of the opposite side of the body, thus proving the existence of a motor area in the cerebral cortex, predicted earlier in the same year by Hughlings Jackson. Translation in J. Neurosurg., 1963, 20, 905-16. Reprinted, with translation, in R. H. Wilkins, Neurosurgical Classics, New York, 1965



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1406

Experimentaluntersuchungen über das peripherische und centrale Nervensystem.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 2, 693-723, 1870.

Modern study of the functions of the thalamus began with the important investigations of Gudden. He is remembered eponymically by “Gudden’s commissure” and “Gudden’s atrophy” – specific thalamic nuclei degenerate when certain areas of the cerebral cortex are destroyed. His collected works were published in 1889. He was drowned in a lake at Starnberg by his patient Ludwig II, the mad king of Bavaria.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1406.01

Iconographie photographique des centres nerveux.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1873.

Contains 70 photographs of brain sections taken by Luys himself, with 64 lithographed schemas based on his drawings. Luys undertook this work when the evidence of his lithographs published in 1865 (No. 4012) was disputed. It is the first large-scale photographic atlas of the anatomy of the brain.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, IMAGING › Photography / Photomicrography , NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1406.1

Investigations into the functions of the human brain.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 67, 305-13, 1874.

Bartholow confirmed in man the findings of Fritsch and Hitzig (No. 1405) that electrical stimulus of the cortex on one side stimulated muscles on the other side of the body.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1407

Anatomischer Nachweis zweier Gehimcentra.

Zbl. med. Wiss., 12, 578-80, 595-99, 1874.

Discovery of the giant pyramidal cells of the motor cortex.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1408

Untersuchungen über das Gehirn.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1874.

Hitzig accurately defined the limits of the motor area in the cerebral cortex of the dog and the monkey.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1408.1

The electric currents of the brain.

Brit. med. J., 2, 278, 1875.

Caton succeeded in leading off action potentials from the brains of animals, a first step towards the development of the electroencephalograph. See also Brit. med. J., 1877, 1, Suppl. 62-75.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1408.2

Studien in der Anatomie des Nervensystems und des Bindegewebes. Erste Hälfte und zweite Hälfte, erste und zweite Abtheilung. 2 vols.

Stockholm: Samson & Wallin, 18751876.

One of the most strikingly beautiful neuroanatomies ever published, with exquisite reproductions of the color dye injection experiments. The authors confirmed the existence of the foramina of Magendie and Luschka, and studied the movement of the cerebrospinal fluid. All published. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1409

The functions of the brain.

London: Smith, Elder, 1876.

Ferrier may be said to have laid the foundations of our knowledge concerning the localization of cerebral function. His book includes his earlier work published in the West Riding Lunatic Asylum Reports. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1410

Die Leitungsbahnen im Gehirn und Rückenmark des Menschen auf Grund entwicklungsgeschichtlicher Untersuchungen dargestellt.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1876.

Flechsig mapped out the motor and sensory areas of the cerebral cortex, and named the “pyramidal tract”. See Clarke & O'Malley, The human brain and spinal cord, p. 857, and pp. 277-81.
Digital facsimile from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1411

Untersuchungen über die Haubenregion und ihre oberen Verknüpfungen im Gehirne des Menschen und einiger Säugethiere, mit Beiträgen zu den Methoden der Gehirnuntersuchung.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 7, 393-495, 1877.

Forel elucidated the subthalamic region, “campus Foreli”.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1412

On the comparative structure of the cortex cerebri.

Brain, 1, 79-96, 1878.

Lewis described the giant cells of the precentral convolution.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1413

Untersuchungen über die Localisation der Funktionen in der Grosshirnrinde des Menschen.

Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1881.

Exner identified the superficial tangential fibers of the molecular layer of the cerebral cortex, known eponymically as “Exner’s plexus”.

Exner’s book of 1881 on cortical localization contained maps based on the clinical manifestations of cerebral lesions…. Exner was among those postulating the existence of precise functional ‘centers’ with a minute parcellation of the cortex, based on the belief that the site of a lesion producing a specific functional disturbance indicated the location of that function. He is best known for siting his ‘writing center’ in the posterior part of the second frontal convolution.” (Clarke and Dewhurst).



Subjects: Cartography, Medical & Biological, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1414

Ueber die Functionen der Grosshirnrinde.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1881.

Munk made important investigations on the functions of the temporal lobes.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1415

The relation of the nervous system to the temperature of the body.

J. nerv. ment. Dis., 11, 141-52, 1884.

Ott studied the nervous regulation of body temperature. His papers on the heat-center in the brain and on the thermoinhibitory apparatus were published in the same journal, 1887, 14, 150-62, 428-38; 1888, 15, 85-104.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1415.1

A treatise on the chemical constitution of the brain.

London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1884.

Thudichum, a German emigré, discovered cephalins and myelins in brain tissue. An enlarged German edition of his book was published at Tübingen, 1901. See biography by D. L. Drabkin, 1958, which includes an annotated bibliography of Thudichum’s writings. Reprint of the original work, with historical introduction by Drabkin, 1962.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1416

Sulla fina anatomia degli organi centrali del sistema nervoso.

Milan: U. Hoepli, 1886.

Golgi’s histological studies made a clear conception of the nervous system possible for the first time. He demonstrated the existence of multipolar nerve-cells (Golgi cells) by means of his silver nitrate stain, and described the “Golgi apparatus” and “Golgi type II” nerve cells – cells with short axons ramified within the cortex. In 1906 he shared the Nobel Prize with Ramón y Cajal. First published as a series of papers in Riv. sper. Freniat., 1882-85. Chiefly known from the German translation, Untersuchungen über den feineren Bau des centralen und peripherischen Nervensystems (1894).

In 2000 Marina Bentivoglio and Larry W. Swanson translated, with an historical introduction, Golgi's paper on the mamalian hippocampus as it appeared in the 1886 work as "On the fine structure of the pes Hippocampi major (with plates XIII-XXIII)", Brain Research Bulletin 54 (2001) 461-483.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1416.1

A minute analysis (experimental) of the various movements produced by stimulating in the monkey different regions of the cortical centre for the upper limb, as defined by Professor Ferrier.

Phil. Trans. B., 178, 153-68, 1887.

Beevor, physician to the National Hospital, Queen Square, London, collaborated with Horsley in an important series of investigations of the localization of cerebral function.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1417

Leçons sur les fonctions motrices du cerveau.

Paris: Octave Doin, 1887.

François-Franck’s studies on the excitability of the cerebral cortex and the localization of function followed work in collaboration with Pitres; Charcot wrote the preface. See also No. 1423.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1418

Ueber einen Fall von chronischer progressiver Lähmung der Augenmuskeln (Ophthalmoplegia externa) nebst Beschreibung von Ganglien-zellengruppen im Bereiche des Oculomotoriuskems.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 18, 846-71, 1887.

“Westphal’s nucleus” – for accommodation – in the third cranial nerve. Called also “Edinger’s nucleus” (see the same journal, 1885, 16, 858-89).



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1419

A record of experiments upon the functions of the cerebral cortex.

Phil. Trans. B, (1888), 179, 1-45, 1889.

A detailed analysis, by means of faradic stimulation, of the motor responses of the cerebral cortex, internal capsule, and spinal cord of higher primates.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1419.1

Laboratory notes of technical methods for the nervous system.

N.Y. med. J., 1, 57-60, 1889.

Van Gieson’s acid fuchsin and picric acid stain for nerve tissue.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1420

Ueber ein abnormes Faserbündel der menschlichen Medulla oblongata.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 21, 636-40, 1890.

“Pick’s bundle” of nerve fibres in the medulla oblongata.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1420.1

On the mammalian nervous system, its functions, and their localisation determined by an electrical method.

Phil. Trans. B, 182, 267-526, 1891.

Gotch and Horsley showed that electric currents are produced in the mammalian brain, and they recorded them with the string galvanometer of the capillary electrometer. Their work led eventually to the development of the electroencephalograph.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1421

Il cervelletto. Nuovi studi di fisiologia normale e patologica.

Florence: Le Monnier, 1891.

Luciani succeeded in keeping dogs alive after total extirpation of the cerebellum, and initiated the modern study of cerebellar function. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1422

Ueber den sogenannten Granula der Nervenzellen.

Neurol. Zbl., 13, 676-85, 781-89, 810-14, 1894.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1423

Les centres moteurs corticaux chez l’homme.

Paris: Rueff & Cie, 1895.

Three papers by Charcot and Pitres in 1877, 1878, and 1883 left no doubt as to the existence of cortical motor centres in man. These were later published in book form (above).



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1424

Anatomie des centres nerveux. 2 vols.

Paris: Rueff & Cie, 18951901.

Classic summary of neuroanatomy at the end of the nineteenth century—comprehensive, beautifully illustrated, and scholarly. It is a goldmine of historical information with an outstanding bibliography.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › History of Neuroanatomy, NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 1425

The growth of the brain.

London: W. Scott, 1895.


Subjects: EMBRYOLOGY › Neuroembryology, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1426

Das Menschenhirn. Studien in der makroskopischen Morphologie. 2 vols.

Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt, 1896.

Retzius studied a large series of subprimate, simian, and human brains, and clarified some of the more difficult problems of cerebral morphology.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1427

Atlas des Gehirns. 2 pts.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): Schletter, 18971900.


Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1428

Einleitung in die vergleichende Gehirnphysiologie und vergleichende Psychologie.

Leipzig & New York: J. A. Barth, 1899, 1900.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1428.1

Estructura dela corteza cerebral olfativa del hombre y mamíferos.

Trabajos del Laboratorio de Investigations biológicas dela Universidad de Madrid, 1, 1-140, 1901.

Ramón y Cajal’s descriptions of the limbic cortex are still the most authoritative. The above work and three shorter papers in the same volume were translated by L.M. Kraft as Studies on the cerebral cortex, London, 1955.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1429

Zur anatomischen Gliederung des Cortex cerebri.

J. Psychol. Neurol. (Lpz.), 2, 160-80, 1903.


Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1430

Histological studies on the localisation of cerebral function.

Cambridge, England: University Press, 1905.

The precentral area of the cerebral cortex is known as “Campbell’s area”. Campbell and Brodmann were pioneers in the study of the architectonics of the cerebral cortex, or cerebral cytoarchitecture.
Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Cytoarchitecture, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1431

Le syndrome thalamique.

Rev. neurol., 14, 521-32, 1906.

The “thalamic syndrome”, investigations of the effect of localized thalamic injury.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1432

The integrative action of the nervous system.

New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1906.

Sherrington insisted that the essential function of the nervous system was the co-ordination of activities of the various parts of the organism. His work on the nervous system, especially his experimental studies of reflex action, had a profound influence upon modern physiology. He shared the Nobel Prize with Adrian in 1932. During his period as Professor of Physiology at Oxford (1913-36) he created what was considered to be the best school of physiology in the world. Biography by Lord Cohen, Liverpool, 1958, and Ragnar Granit, London, 1966.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1433

A new topographical survey of the human cerebral cortex, being an account of the distribution of the anatomically distinct cortical areas and their relationship to the cerebral sulci.

J. Anat. Physiol. (Lond.), 41, 237-54, 1907.

Elliot Smith, Professor of Anatomy at Cairo, Manchester, and University College, London, initiated modern studies of cerebral function with his work on the cortical pattern of the human brain. He identified 50 areas.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Cytoarchitecture, ANATOMY › Topographical Anatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1434

Beiträge zur histologischen Lokalisation der Grosshirnrinde. VI. Die Cortexgliederung des Menschen.

J. Psychol. Neurol. (Lpz.), 10, 231-46, 1908.

“Brodmann’s areas”, the occipital and pre-occipital area of the cerebral cortex.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1435

Vergleichende Lokalisationslehre der Grosshirnrinde in ihren Prinzipien dargestellt auf Grund des Zellenbaues.

Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1909.

Brodmann was a pioneer in the study of cytoarchitectonics, and this work forms the basis for localization of function in the cerebral cortex. Brodmann's "areas" are used to designate cortical function regions.

Brodmann's broad comparative-anatomic approach, his recognition that the cortex is organized anatomically along the same basic principles in all mammals, and his idea of utilizing the morphogenesis of the cortex as a basis for the classification of cortical types and for the nomenclature of layers, were instrumental in dispelling the confusion that existed before Brodmann entered the field. His work first appeared as a series of papers in J. Psychol. Neurol. (Lpz.), 1903-08. His map of the human cortex appeared in the same journal, 1907, 10, 231-46, 287-334.

Broadmann studied the brains of diverse mammalian species, and developed a division of the cerebral cortex into 52 discrete areas, of which 44 are in the human, and the remaining 8 in the non-human primate brain. English translation of the 1909 work: Brodmann's localisation in the cerebral cortex; The principles of comparative localisation in the cerebral cortex based on cytoarchitectonics. Translated with editorial notes and an introduction by Laurence J. Garey. New York: Springer, 2006.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Cytoarchitecture, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1435.1
  • 4879.1

The structure and functions of the cerebellum examined by a new method.

Brain, 31, 45-124, 1908.

Stereotactic apparatus for the accurate location of electrodes in the brain. The apparatus devised by Horsley and Clarke opened the way to stereotactic surgery of the brain.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, NEUROSURGERY › Stereotactic Neurosurgery
  • 1436

Gehirn und Sympathicus.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 129, 138-144; 135, 401-16; 143, 109-27, 1909, 1910.

First experimental studies on hypothalmic function



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, Neurophysiology
  • 1437

On the structure and functional relations of the optic thalamus.

Brain, 32, 95-186, 1909.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1438

Tetanic convulsions in frogs produced by acid fuchsin, and their relation to the problem of inhibition in the central nervous system.

J. Pharmacol., 2, 169-99, 1910.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1438.1

Sensory disturbances from cerebral lesions.

Brain, 34, 102-254, 1911.

First systematic account of the functions of the thalamus and its relationship to the cerebral cortex. Reprinted in No. 1304.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1438.2

Die Lokalisation im Grosshirn und der Abbau der Funktion durch kortikale Herde.

Wiesbaden: J. F. Bergmann, 1914.

A monumental work on cerebral localization.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1439

Studies on cerebro-spinal fluid. III. The pathways of escape from the subarachnoid spaces with particular reference to the arachnoid villi.

J. med. Res., 31, 51-91, 1914.

Weed mapped out the pathways of the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid. He described the pathways in this paper with 40 pages of text and 5 plates. This was the third of his four-part series of papers entitled Studies on cerebro-spinal fluid. Digital facsimile of part III from PubMedCentral at this link.




Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1440

The development of the cerebro-spinal spaces in pig and man.

Contr. Embryol. Carneg. Instn., 5, No. 14., Washington, DC, 1917.


Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1441

The form and functions of the central nervous system.

New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1921.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1442

Experimental researches on sensory localization in the cerebral cortex of the monkey (Macacus).

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 96, 272-91, 1924.

Dusser de Barenne demonstrated the major functional subdivisions of the sensory cortex.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1443

Reflexes in response to stretch (myotatic reflexes).

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 96, 212-42; 97, 267-83, 1924, 1925.

This investigation of the stretch reflex was of value in elucidating muscle tone and posture.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1444

Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen. 1 vol. and atlas.

Vienna: Julius Springer, 1925.

This work consisted of textbook of more than 800 pages and an atlas with 112 large-sized microphotographic plates of the cortex. The textbook contained detailed descriptions of their studies and an introduction to the history of cytoarchitectonic research. With their atlas, von Economo and Koskinas hoped to create a basis for future brain research and the localization of brain functions since they assumed that cytoarchitectonic differences reflect functional differences. They used letters to categorize the architecture, e.g., "F" for areas of the frontal lobe.

"The exceptionally high-resolution photographs of the human cerebral cortex presented here are a unique and lasting contribution to neuroanatomy" (Larry W. Swanson). In their chapter on the microscopic structure of the cerebral cortex, Clarke and O’Malley (1996) wrote that, “C. von Economo and G.N. Koskinas produced a monumental work on cortical areas (Die Cytoarchitektonik…), based on the work of Brodmann but identifying more than twice his number of areas [107]; it helped to dispel some of the confusion produced by the Vogt’s multiplicity of areas.” (p. 456). Abridged English translation, 1929. Complete English translation, edited, and published in large folio format, with additional appendix material and the plates reproduced full size as Atlas of cytoarchitectonics of the adult human cerbral cortex by Lazaros C. Triarhou (Basel: Karger, 2008).



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Cytoarchitecture, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1445

Lectures on conditioned reflexes. 2 vols.

New York: International Publishers, 19281941.

Besides his important work on digestion, Pavlov is remembered for his investigations upon conditioned reflexes. He is one of the greatest physiologists of all time. An English translation of another work by Pavlov, entitled Conditioned reflexes appeared in 1927. See No. 1022.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, Neurophysiology, PSYCHOLOGY › Biological
  • 1446

Über das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 87, 527-70, 1929.

First recording of human brain activity, which Berger called electroencephalography. Berger actually recorded his first EEG in 1924, but did not publish the technique until 1929. He showed that the electrical activity of the human brain could be recorded from the intact scalp.



Subjects: Electrodiagnosis, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1446.1

Brain mechanisms and intelligence: a quantitative study of injuries to the brain.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1929.

Lashley related nervous function and behavior with well-defined areas of the brain, particularly in connection with cerebral lesions.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1446.2

The hypothalamus and heat regulation.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol., (N. Y), , 29, 1069-70, 1932.

Location of the heat-regulating center in the hypothalamus.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1447

The interpretation of potential waves in the cortex.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 81, 440-71, 1934.

Confirmation of Berger’s findings (No. 1446). See also Brain, 1934, 57, 355-85.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1448

The structure and connections of the thalamus.

Brain, 55, 406-70, 1932.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1449

The topography and homologies of the hypothalamic nuclei in man.

J. Anat. (Lond.), 70, 203-14, 1936.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1450

The motor cortex in man in the light of Hughlings Jackson’s doctrines.

Brain, 59, 135-59, 1936.

In this Hughlings Jackson Lecture, Foerster published his famous cytoarchitectonic map of the human cerebral cortex.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1451

The primate thalamus.

Chicago, IL: University Press, 1938.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy › Primatology
  • 1451.1

Die funktionelle Organisation des vegetativen Nervensystems.

Basel: B. Schwabe, 1948.

Hess shared the Nobel Prize with Egas Moniz in 1949 for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a co-ordinator of the activities of the internal organs.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1452

Dissertatio de osse cribriformi, et sensu ac organo odoratus et morbis ad utrumque spectantibus, de coryza, hemorrhagia narium, polypo, sternutatione, amissione odoratus.

Wittenberg: Mevi, 1655.

“Schneider’s membrane”, the pituitary membrane of the nasal chamber and sinuses.



Subjects: OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Rhinology
  • 1453

Anatomicae disquisitiones de auditu et olfactu.

Pavia: typog. P. Galeatius, 1789.

Scarpa made important researches concerning the auditory and olfactory apparatus of fishes, birds, reptiles, and man. See L. Sellers and B. Anson, [Scarpa’s] Anatomical observations on the round window, Arch. Otolaryng., 1962, 75, 2-45.



Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, Olfaction / Smell, Anatomy & Physiology of
  • 1454

Abbildungen der menschlichen Organe des Geruches.

Frankfurt: a.M., Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 1809.


Subjects: Olfaction / Smell, Anatomy & Physiology of
  • 1455

Abbildungen der menschlichen Organe des Geschmackes und der Stimme.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1806.


Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of, Taste / Gustation, Anatomy & Physiology of
  • 1456

Ueber die phantastischen Gesichtserscheinungen.

Coblenz: J. Hölscher, 1826.

Müller’s early studies on specific nerve energies are included in the above work. Later he stated, in his Handbuch der Physiologie, Coblenz, 1840, 2, 258, his law of specific nerve energies – each nerve of special sense, however excited, gives rise to its own peculiar sensation.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1456.1

Arteriarum capitis superficialium icon nova.

Berlin: J. W. Boike, 1830.

Includes description of the “canal of Schlemm”, the circular canal at the junction of the cornea and the sclerotic.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1457
  • 3368

De pulsu, resorptione, auditu et tactu. Annotationes anatomicae et physiologicae.

Leipzig: C. F. Koehler, 1834.

Includes Weber’s law on the relationship between stimulus and sensation. English translation of De tactu, New York Academic Press, 1978. Weber's hearing test is on p.41.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing, PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1458

Ueber die Compensation der physischen Kräfte am menschlichen Stimmorgan, mit Bemerkungen über die Stimme der Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1839.


Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 1459

Der Tastsinn und das Gemeingefühl. In: Wagner’s Handwörterbuch der Physiologie, Braunschweig, 3, Abt. 2, 481-588.

1846.

English translation of Tastsinn, Academic Press, 1978.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1460

Ueber das Vorhandensein bisher unbekannter eigenghümlicher Tastkörperchen (Corpuscula tactus) in den Gefühlswärzchen dermenschlichen Haut, und über die End-Ausbreitung sensitiver Nerven.

Nachr. Georg-Augusts Univ. kgl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 17-32., 1852.

First published account of the tactile nerve endings – “Wagner’s corpuscles”.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Physiology of the Skin
  • 1461

Grundzüge der Physiologie und Systematik der Sprachlaute für Linguisten und Taubstummenlehrer.

Vienna: C. Gerold’s Sohn, 1856.


Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 1462

Anatomie und Physiologie des menschlichen Stimm- und Sprach-Organs (Anthropophonik).

Leipzig: A. Abel, 1857.


Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 1463

Beiträge zur Theorie der Sinneswahrnehmung.

Z. rat. Med., 4, 229-93; 7, 279-318, 321-96; 12, 145-262; 14, 1-77; 15, 104-79, 1858, 1859.

Sensory perception. Wundt was one of the founders of experimental psychology.



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1464

Ueber ein wichtiges psychophysisches Grundgesetz und dessen Beziehung zur Schätzung der Sterngrössen.

Abh. k. sächs. Ges. Wiss. (Lpz.), maths.-phys. Cl., (1858), 4, 455-532, 1859.

Fechner–Weber law on stimulus and sensation. See also Nos. 1457 & 4972.



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1465

Recherches sur la transmission des impressions de tact, de chatouillement, de douleur, de température et de contraction (sens musculaire) dans la moëlle épinière.

J. Physiol. (Paris), 6,124-45, 232-48, 581-646, 1863.

Among Brown-Séquard’s best work was his study of the pathways of conduction in the spinal cord.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Spinal Cord, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1466

Ueber die Haut-Sensibilitätsbezirke der einzelnen Rückenmarks-nervenpaare.

Denkschr. k. Akad. Wiss. (Wien), math.-nat. Cl., 29, 299-326, 1868.

Investigation of the cutaneous distribution of the separate pairs of spinal nerves.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 1467

De physiologie der spraakklanken.

Utrecht: C. van der Post, jr, 1870.

Donders’s most important work was performed in the field of ophthalmology, but he wrote a classic treatise on the physiology of speech. Also published in Onderzoekingen gedaan in het Physiologisch Laboratoriumder Utrechtsche Hoogeschool, 1870, 3, 354-73.



Subjects: Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of
  • 1468

Experimentelle Beiträge zur Lösung der Frage über die specifische Energieder Hautnerven

Z. Biol., 20, 141-56; 21, 145-60, 1884, 1885.

Besides his investigation of the specific energies of cutaneous nerves, Blix is remembered for his work on the thermodynamics of muscular contraction; he designed a muscle indicator diagram; he was also the first to suggest centrifugal force in the separation of red and white blood cells.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › Biophysics
  • 1469

Die spezifische Energie der Temperaturnerven.

Mh. prakt. Derm., 3, 198-208, 225-41, 1884.


Subjects: Neurophysiology
  • 1470

Neue Thatsachen über die Hautsinnesnerven.

Arch. Anat. Physiol., Physiol. Abt., Suppl. Bd., 1-110, 1885.

Goldscheider recorded important investigations on the nerves conveying the sensation of temperature and on the nerves of cutaneous sensation



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1471

Ueber die galvanischen Erscheinungen in der Haut des Menschen bei Reizungen der Sinnesorgane und bei verschiedenen Formen der psychischen Thätigkeit.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 46, 46-55, 1890.

Psycho-galvanic reflex described.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, PHYSIOLOGY › Electrophysiology
  • 1472

Physiologische Untersuchungen über das Endorgan des Nervus octavus.

Wiesbaden: J. F. Bergmann, 1892.

Ewald clarified the function of the eighth cranial nerve.



Subjects: Neurophysiology
  • 1473

Persistence of vision.

Amer. J. Sci., 3 ser. 44, 192-207, 1892.

Ferry modified Weber’s law on the relationship between stimulus and sensation. Following the work of Porter, Proc. roy. Soc. (Lond.), 1898, 63, 347; 1902, 70, 313, the term “Ferry–Porter Law” came into being.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PSYCHOLOGY › Psychophysics, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1474

Die Physiologie des Geruchs.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1895.

For his studies on olfaction and olfactometry Zwaardemaker developed the so-called “camera inodorata” (odorless chamber), or olfactometer.  His instrument to check the patency of the nasal passages is still in use.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES, PHYSIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1475

Untersuchungen über die Sinnesfunctionen der menschlichen Haut. I. Druckempfindung und Schmerz.

Abh. k. sächs. Ges. Wiss. (Lpz.), math.-phys. Cl., (1896), 23, 169-266, 1897.

In his investigations on cutaneous sensibility Frey introduced his method of testing the sensitiveness of pressure points by means of bristles mounted in a handle.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Physiology of the Skin, PSYCHOLOGY › Sensation / Perception
  • 1476

The central course of the nervus octavus and its influence on motility.

Verh. kon. Akad. Wet. (Amst), 14, 1-202, 1907.

Winkler was Professor of Neurology and Psychiatry at Amsterdam and Utrecht. He published more than 200 papers, among the most important being that on the central pathways of the eighth nerve.



Subjects: Neurophysiology
  • 1477

Ueber eine nach innen gerichtete Schützfunktion der Haut (Esophylaxie) nebst Bemerkungen über die Entstehung der Paralyse.

Dtsch. med. Wschr., 45,1233-36, 1919.

Hoffmann stressed the role of the skin as a secretory organ, producing hormone-like substances; he suggested the term “esophylaxis” for this function.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Physiology of the Skin
  • 1377.2
  • 1478

De nervis opticis nonnulisque aliis praeter communem opinionem in humano capite observatis.

Padua: apud Paulum & Antonium Meiettos, 1573.

Varolio described a new method of dissection which enabled him to observe and describe the pons for the first time. By this new method Varolio was able to make some contributions to the knowledge of the course and termination of the cranial nerves and to trace the course of the optic nerve approximately to its true termination. His name is perpetuated in the “pons varolii”.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1479

Anatomici libri II … In altero de musculis, palpebrarum atque oculorum motibus deservientibus, accurate disseritur.

Pavia: apud H. Bartholum, 1574.

First exact description of the lacrimal duct. Carcano gave the true position of the lacrimal gland and showed the route taken by the tears.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1480

Oculus, hoc est: fundamentum opticum.

Innsbruck: apud D. Agricolam, 1619.

Scheiner, a Jesuit astronomer, was a pioneer in physiological optics. He demonstrated how images fall on the human retina, noting the change in curvature of the lens during accommodation, and devised the pin-hole test (“Scheiner’s test”) to illustrate accommodation and refraction.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, Optometry › Vision Tests
  • 1481

De vasis palpebrarum novis epistola.

Helmstadt: typ. H. Mulleri, 1666.

Meibom described the conjunctival Meibomian glandsholocrine type exocrine glands along the rims of the eyelid inside the tarsal plate. They were, however, already known to Galen and were figured by Casserius in 1609.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1481.1

Nouvelle découverte touchant la veüe.

Paris: Frederic Leonard, 1668.

Discovery of the blind spot in the retina, the existence of which Mariotte deduced from his experiments investigating the fate of light rays striking the base of the optic nerve. Facsimile reprint in J. Brons, The blind spot of Mariotte…, Copenhagen & London, 1939.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1481.2

Ophthalmo-graphia; sive, oculi eiusque partium descriptio anatomica.

Cambridge, England: J. Hart, 1676.

First English treatise on the anatomy of the eye. Briggs described the papilla of the optic disc and hypothesized that vibrations caused by rays of light striking fibers of the retina were conveyed to the papilla, and thence to the optic thalami, on the model of a spider’s web.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1481.3

Nova visionis theoria.

Philosophical Collections, No. 6,167-78, 1682.

Briggs’ treatise on the physiology of vision influenced Sir Isaac Newton, who reprinted it in book form with his own introduction, London, 1685.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1482

A treatise of the diseases of the horny coat of the eye, and the various kinds of cataracts.

London: J. Clark, 1729.

“Descemet’s membrane” was first described by Duddell. Descemet described it in 1758; see No. 1484.1.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures › Cataract
  • 1483

De ligamentis ciliaribus.

Gottingen: typ. J. C. L. Schulzii, 1753.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1484

Descriptio anatomica oculi humani.

Gottingen: apud vid. A. Vandenhoeck, 1755.

The first complete study of the anatomy of the eye, including the first description of the “zonule of Zinn” and the “annulus of Zinn”.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1484.1

An sola lens crystallina cataracte sedes?

Paris: Veuve de Quillau, 1758.

“Descemet’s membrane”, the posterior membrane of the cornea; see No. 1482.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1484.2

A treatise on the eye. The manner and phenomena of vision. 2 vols.

Edinburgh: G. Hamilton & J. Balfour, 1759.

Porterfield was Professor of the Institutes and Practice of Medicine at Edinburgh from 1724-26. His book included many original observations. It was the first important British work on the anatomy and physiology of the eye



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY , OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1485

Ricerche de motu del iride.

Lucca: Giusta, 1765.

An investigation of how and why the iris contracts. See P.K. Knoefel, Felice Fontana: life and works, Trento, [1984], See also No.2103.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1486

Observations on vision.

Phil. Trans., 83, 169-81, 1793.

Thomas Young is regarded as one of the most versatile of all scientists. In the above work he showed that the act of accommodation is due to a change of curvature of the crystalline lens, whereby light rays of various lengths can be brought to a focus on the retina.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1487

On the mechanism of the eye.

Phil. Trans., 91, 23-28, 1801.

Includes the first description of astigmatism, with measurements and optical constants.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1488

On the theory of light and colours.

Phil. Trans., 92, 12-48, 1802.

Young, the “Father of physiological optics”, established the wave theory of light, explaining the phenomena of interference and dispersion.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, Optics
  • 1489

Abbildungen des menschlichen Auges.

Frankfurt: a.M., Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 1801.

Soemmerring is best remembered for his fine anatomical illustrations, of which those devoted to the human eye are a good example. In 1791 he made important observations on the macula lutea: "De foramine centrali limbo luteo cincto retinae humanae," Comment. Soc. reg. Sci. Gotting., 1795-98 (1799), 13, 3-13; on p. 4 he states that he made these observations on January 27, 1791. French translation in Demours, No. 5842.1.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1490

Observations anatomiques sur quelques parties de l’oeil et des paupières. IN: Mémoires et observations sur l’anatomie, la pathologie, et la chirurgerie, pp. 193-207.

Paris: Nyon, 1806.

Although Tenon did not discover the fibrous capsule and the interfascial space of the orbit, they are named after him.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1491

An account of a membrane in the eye, now first described.

Phil. Trans., 109, 300-07, 1819.

“Jacob’s membrane”, the layer of the retina containing the rods and cones.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1492

Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Sehens in subjectiver Hinsicht.

Prague: Fr. Vetterl von Wildenkron, 1819.

Purkynĕ’s graduation dissertation on the subjective visual phenomena earned for him the appreciation of Goethe and the chair of physiology at Breslau. Reprinted in his Opera omnia, vol. 1, pp. 1-56,1918. There were two issues of the first edition published the same year. The second edition was published in 1823.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1492.1
  • 160

Commentatio de examine physiologico organi visus et systematis cutanei.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): typis Universitatis, 1823.

Purkynĕ was first to examine the interior of the human eye and the dog eye, using only a candle and a concave spherical lens. He thus invented the ophthalmoscope three decades before Helmholtz (1851; No. 5866). Reprinted in his Opera (No. 82), 1918,1, 163-94. English trans. in John, Jan Evangelista Purkyne, Philadelphia, 1959. See Albert & Miller, Jan Purkinje and the ophthalmoscope, Amer. J. Ophth., 1973, 76, 494-99.

Purkynĕ was also the first to classify fingerprints. Reprinted in his Opera omnia (No. 82), vol. 1, pp. 163-94, 1918. English translation in John, Jan Evangelista Purkynĕ, Philadelphia, 1959.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Ophthalmoscope, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ophthalmoscopy, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1493

Recherches expérimentales sur les propriétés et les fonctions du système nerveux, dans les animaux vertébrés.

Paris: Crevot, 1824.

Experimental proof that vision depends on the integrity of the cerebral cortex. See No. 1391 for his first paper on the subject. Partial English translation in von Bonin, Some papers on the cerebral cortex, Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1960.



Subjects: Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1494

Description of a small muscle of the internal commissure of the eyelids.

Philad. J. med. phys. Sci., 8, 70-80, 1824.

Homer described the tensor tarsi (Horner’s) muscle, supplying the lacrimal apparatus. It was first described by Du Verney in 1749



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1494.1

Beobachtungen und Versuche zur Physiologie der Sinne. Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Sehens in subjectiver Hinsicht. 2 vols.

Berlin: Reimer, 1825.

“Purkynĕ phenomenon” or “Purkynĕ shift”, a change in the apparent relative luminosity of colors in a dim light (scotopic vision) compared with that in full daylight (photopic vision). Also published in Rust’s Mag. ges. Heilk., 1825, 20, 3-83, 199-276, 391-423. See V. Kruta J.E. Purkynĕ, physiologist. A short account of his contributions… with a bibliography of his works. Prague: Academia Publishing House, 1969.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1257
  • 1495

Zur vergleichenden Physiologie des Gesichtssinnes des Menschen und der Thiere.

Leipzig: C. Cnobloch, 1826.

Includes Müller’s law of specific nerve energies. For an English translation, see his Elements of physiology, transl. W. Baly, London, 1838, vol. 1, pp. 766-67. Includes (p. 73) his explanation of the color sensations produced by pressure upon the retina.



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Nerves / Nerve Impulses, Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1496

On a new membrane in the eye.

Hull, England: I. Wilson, 1832.

“Fielding’s membrane”, the tapetum of the retina.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1497

The anatomy of the human eye.

London: Longmans, 1834.

First English work on ocular anatomy.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Anatomy of the Eye & Orbit
  • 1498

Contributions to the physiology of vision.

Phil. Trans., 128, 371-94; 142, 1-17, 1838, 1852.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 1499

On the conversion of relief by inverted vision.

Trans. roy. Soc. Edinb., 15, 657-62, 18401844.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision