An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15426 entries, 13280 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 20, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 13500–13599

100 entries
  • 13500

Memorias biographicas dos medicos e cirurgiões Portuguezes, que no presente seculo se teem feito conhecidos por sous escriptos.

Lisboa: Na Impresnsa Nacional, 1858.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal
  • 13501

Médecine traditionnelle de l'Inde: La magie noire.

Pondichéry, India: Imprimerie Sainte Anne, 1937.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, Magic & Superstition in Medicine
  • 13502

Moeurs médicales de l'Inde et leurs rapports avec la médecine européenne.

Pondichéry, India: M. P., 1906.

Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in › History of Practice of Medicine in India
  • 13503

Medicine and medical ethics in Nazi Germany. Origins, practices, legacies. Edited by Francis R. Nicosia and Jonathan Huener.

New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2002.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Germany, Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › World War II
  • 13504

Practical observations on the use and abuse of tobacco. Greatly enlarged from the original communication on the effects of tobacco smoking, which appeared in Medical Times and Gazette, August 5, 1854.

Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1854.

Lizars was one of the first to recognize the addictive nature of tobacco and its potential damage to health. Digital facsimile of the 6th edition (1857) from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Tobacco
  • 13505

A century of parasitology: Discoveries, ideas and lessons learned by scientists who published in The Journal of Parasitology, 1914-2014. Edited by John Janovy, Jr. and Gerald W. Esch.

Hoboken, NJ & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › History of Parasitology
  • 13506

Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine.

New Eng. J. Med., 383, 2603-2615, 2020.

BNT162b2 is synonomous with the Pfizer BioNTech mRNA Covid-19 vaccine. The Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine was produced from theoretical design to finished product and distribution in less than one year. This was the first published paper on that vaccine. It was posted online on 12-10-2020, with updates on 12-16-2020. It first appeared in print on 12-31-2020.

This paper was also the first appearance in print of a paper describing a vaccine fabricated using the mRNA platform. The vaccine was initially administered under "emergency use authorization" granted by the U.S. FDA until the FDA granted full approval for this vaccine on August 23, 2021.

This vaccine delivers the mRNA needed to code for the membrane anchored S (spike) protein to the inside of the host cell inside an encapsulating hollow lipid nanoparticle. That mRNA then instructs the host cell to produce S protein molecules, which are then ferried out of the host cell, and act as the antigen/immunogen for this vaccine once outside of the cell.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Polack, Thomas, Kitchin.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), Nanotechnology in Medicine, VIROLOGY › Molecular Virology, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 13507

Efficacy and safety of the mRNA-1273 SARSCov-2 vaccine.

New Eng. J. Med., 384, 403-416, 2021.

mRNA-1273 is synonymous with the Moderna mRNA Covid-19 vaccine. The Moderna mRNA vaccine was produced from theoretical design to finished product and distribution in less than one year. This was the first published paper on that vaccine. It was first posted online on 12-30-20, updated on 1-15-21, and published in print on 2-4-2021. The vaccine was initially administered under "emergency use authorization" granted by the U.S. FDA.

This vaccine delivers the mRNA needed to code for the pre-fusion stabilized S (spike) protein to the inside of the host cell inside an encapsulating hollow lipid nanoparticle. That mRNA then instructs the host cell to produce S protein molecules which are then ferried out of the host cell and act as the antigen/immunogen for this vaccine once outside of the cell.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), Nanotechnology in Medicine, VIROLOGY › Molecular Virology, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 13508

A system of anatomical plates of the human body. By John Lizars. Text in 8vo in 12 pts., plus folio atlas with engraved title and 101 plates engraved by William Home Lizars.

Edinburgh: Printed for Daniel Lizars, 18221826.

Lizars's System of anatomical plates was by far his most successful work, going through many editions. The text of the work was originally issued in 12 parts in octavo format, which were then bound together in book form with engraved title; in later editions the text was reset in folio and bound with the plates. There are two issues of parts 2 and 3 of the text in the first edition, the earliest with imprint reading "Printed for Daniel Lizars, 61, Princes Street, Edinburgh; and S. Highley, 174, Fleet Street, London." The later issues' imprint has "Hodges and M'Arthur, Dublin" added at the end; the pagination of the two issues of these parts also varies.

The first edition of the folio atlas illustrating Lizars's System was issued in both uncolored and hand-colored versions, although the 15 plates devoted to the brain and spinal cord are colored in all copies of the first edition. Only a few copies of the first edition of the work were issued with all the plates fully colored.

William Home Lizars's fame as engraver led John James Audubon to engage Lizars to engrave the plates for the double elephant folio Birds of America; however, after Lizars had engraved the first ten plates, he recommended to Audubon that this enormous project (requiring over 76,000 elephant folio hand-colored plates for the 175 copies in the edition) be turned over to Robert Havell in London. 



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration
  • 13509

The useful native plants of Australia. (Including Tasmania).

London: Trubner and Co. & Sydney, NSW, Australia: Turner and Henderson, 1889.

Maiden, a botanist, was Curator and Secretary of The Technological, Industrial, and Sanitary Museum of New South Wales. Chapters include. 1. Human Food and Food adjuncts; 2. Forage Plants; 3. Drugs; 4. Gums, Resins, and Kinos; 5. Oils; 6. Perfumes; 7 Dyes; 8. Tans; 9. Timbers; 10. Fibres. The full title of chapter 3 is "Substances Reputed Medicinal. (Drugs)."
Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link



Subjects: BOTANY › Economic Botany, BOTANY › Medical Botany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia
  • 13510

Not just any medical school: The science, practice, and teaching of medicine at the University of Michigan 1850-1941.

Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1999.


Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Michigan
  • 13511

Periodic Disease: A probable syndrome including periodic fever, benign paroxysmal peritonitis, cyclic neutropenia and intermittent arthralgia.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 136, 239-244.

One of the earliest accounts of periodic disease and fevers, later variously categorized as Periodic fever syndrome and Reimann syndrome. With Siegal-Cattan-Mamou disease, this was renamed Familial Mediterranean fever.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Hereditary Inflammatory Disorders › Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF)
  • 13512

The history of medications for women: Materia medica woman.

Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2020.

"...includes botanical, chemical, pharmacalogical, and therapeutic details where appropriate, as well as extensive quotations from both contemporary and old, rare books. The text is complemented with the history of obstetrics and gynecology, along with short biographies and illustrations. Additionally, the author presents a unique fund of hard-to-find information in sections devoted to topics such as anesthesia and analgesia, antiseptics, antibiotics and chemotherapy, blood transfusion and Rhesus disease, eclampsia, family planning, menopause, and uterine stimulants" (publisher).



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › History of Gynecology, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About
  • 13513

Physicians and surgeons in Glasgow, 1599-1858: The history of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow.

Edinburgh: A & C Black & London: The Hambledon Press, 1999.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Scotland, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession
  • 13514

A history of human helminthology.

Wallingford, Oxford, England: CABI Publishing, 1990.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths, PARASITOLOGY › History of Parasitology
  • 13515

Cultural encyclopedia of the body. Edited by Victoria Pitts-Taylor. 2 vols.

Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008.


Subjects: ANATOMY › 21st Century, ANTHROPOLOGY › Cultural Anthropology, Encyclopedias, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY › Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 13516

Principles of psychology.

London: Longman, 1865.

"Spencer's second book, Principles of Psychology, published in 1855, explored a physiological basis for psychology, and was the fruit of his friendship with Evans and Lewes. The book was founded on the fundamental assumption that the human mind was subject to natural laws and that these could be discovered within the framework of general biology. This permitted the adoption of a developmental perspective not merely in terms of the individual (as in traditional psychology), but also of the species and the race. Through this paradigm, Spencer aimed to reconcile the associationist psychology of Mill's Logic, the notion that human mind was constructed from atomic sensations held together by the laws of the association of ideas, with the apparently more 'scientific' theory of phrenology, which located specific mental functions in specific parts of the brain.[12]

Spencer argued that both these theories were partial accounts of the truth: repeated associations of ideas were embodied in the formation of specific strands of brain tissue, and these could be passed from one generation to the next by means of the Lamarckian mechanism of use-inheritance. The Psychology, he believed, would do for the human mind what Isaac Newton had done for matter.[13] However, the book was not initially successful and the last of the 251 copies of its first edition were not sold until June 1861." (Wikipedia article on Herbert Spencer, accessed 8-2021).



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Biological
  • 13517

Hearing happiness: Deafness cures in history.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2020.


Subjects: OTOLOGY › Deafness
  • 13518

The myth of the perfect pregnancy: A history of miscarriage in America.

Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.


Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › History of Gynecology
  • 13519

Correspondence. Transmission of 2019 nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany.

New Eng. J. Med., 382, 970-971, 2020.

Posted online 1-30-20, updated 2-6-20, and published in print on March 5, 2020. First report of the "asymptomatic transmission" of Covid-19. The authors wrote, “The fact that asymptomatic persons are potential sources of 2019-nCoV infection may warrant a reassessment of transmission dynamics of the current outbreak”. Available from PubMedCentral at this link. (When originally published in print this "letter" was signed by Camilla Rothe, Roman Wölfel, Michael Hoelscher "and Others." "A complete list of authors is available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org.")

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 13520

Covid-19 and Kawasaki disease: Novel virus and novel case.

Hospital Pediatrics, 10, 537-540, 2020.

Published online 4-7-20; in print in June, 2020. First case report of what became known as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), sometimes present with Kawasaki disease. This is one of the worst complications of Covid-19 infection in children, disproportionately affecting black and hispanic children.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kawasaki Disease (MLNS), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19) › Multisystem Inflammatory Disease in Children (MIS-C), PEDIATRICS
  • 13521

The pathology of drunkeness, or the effects of alcoholic drinks with drawings of the drunkard's stomach.

Albany, NY: C. Van Benthuysen, 1841.

Including four chromolithographed plates by J. H. Hall, Albany, N.Y., this is the earliest illustrated book published in the U.S. on the pathological effects of alcoholism. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link



Subjects: PATHOLOGY › Pathology Illustration, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Alcoholism
  • 13522

The influence of caffeine on mental and motor efficiency. Columbia Contributions to Philosophy and Psychology, Vol. XX, No. 4.

New York: Science Press, 1912.

"The Coca-Cola Company, facing a lawsuit from the federal government under the Pure Food and Drug Act, approached Hollingworth (after James McKeen Cattell and several other psychologists turned them down)[4] about investigating the psychological effects of caffeine on humans. Aware of the stigma associated with applied work, as well as possible concerns about the scientific integrity of research funded by a corporation, Hollingworth included several conditions in his contract with Coca-Cola. Specifically, Hollingworth stated that Coca-Cola could not use the results of his research in its advertisements, nor could Hollingworth’s name or that of Columbia University be used in these ads. Additionally, Hollingworth was free to publish the results of his research regardless of the outcome of the study. Furthermore, to reduce any questions about the integrity of his research Hollingworth designed his three caffeine studies to include blind and double-blind conditions. The scope and methodology employed in these studies had never before been seen applied to psychological research." (Wikipedia article on Harry W. Hollingworth, accessed 8-2021).  Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Caffeine, PSYCHOLOGY › Applied , PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental
  • 13523

REGN-COV2 antibodies prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques and hamsters.

Science, 370, 1110-1115, 2020.

The authors, working at Regeneron, showed that a cocktail of two potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodes reduced virus load in the airways and diminshed viral induced pathological sequelae when given both as a prophylatic and/ or as a therapeutic entity. The cocktail also limited evidence of pneumonia in the lungs. One of the antibodies in the cocktail was specifically tailored to safeguard against mutational virus escape. Order of authorship in the original publication: Baum, Ajithdoss...Kyratsous.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Biological Medical Product (Biologic)
  • 13524

REGN-COV-2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with Covid-19.

New Eng. J. Med., 384, 238-251, 2021.

The authors showed that the Regeneron antibody cocktail has a low incidence of side effects and a profound and rapid effect on viral load, with most reduction occurring within 48 hours, even in patents with the highest viral loads, which would presumably be at higher risk of death. The neutralizing antibody titers in the trial patents were more than 1000 times the titers achievable with convalescent plasma from previously ill patients who had recovered. Order of authorship in the original publication: Weinreich, Sivapalasingam, Norton et al. Available from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Biological Medical Product (Biologic), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 13525

Lysogenicity in Escherichia coli strain K-12.

Microbial Genetics Bull., 1, 5-8, 1950.

Discovery of phage λ (lambda phage). According to estherlederberg.com, only about 100 people received the first issue of Microbial Genetics Bulletin, a typed and mimeographed publication. Digital facsimile from estherlederberg.com at this link.

Esther Lederberg's discovery became much better known in a paper that she co-authored with her husband, Joshua Lederberg: "Genetic studies of lysogenicity in Escherichia coli," Genetics 38 (1953) 51-64. That paper was enhanced with photographs of the action of the phage on sensitive lysogenetic and resistant strains of E. coli. Digital facsimile of the 1953 paper from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, GENETICS / HEREDITY
  • 13526

Quantitative studies of tissue transplantation immunity. IV. Induction of tolerance in newborn mice and studies on the phenomenon of Runt Disease.

Phil. Trans. B., 242, 439-477, 1959.

First description of what became known as Graft-versus-host disease (GvDH). This the authors initially called "graft against host (GAH)." The authors cited three conditions, later known as the Billingham criteria, which must be met for GvHD to occur:

  • 'An immuno-competent graft is administered, with viable and functional immune cells.
  • The recipient is immunologically different from the donor – histo-incompatible.
  • The recipient is immunocompromised and therefore cannot destroy or inactivate the transplanted cells." (Wikipedia article on Graft-versus-host-disease, accessed 8-2021).
(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)


Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 13527

Hypnodontics: Hypnosis in dentistry.

Brooklyn, NY: Dental Items of Interest Publishing Co., 1952.

"Accepted by the American Dental Association."



Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Hypnosis (Mesmerism), DENTISTRY, Hypnosis
  • 13528

Muslim midwives: The craft of birthing in the premodern Middle East.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2014.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Middle East, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › History of Gynecology, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 13529

Nahrungsmittel in der arabischen Medizin. Das Kitāb al-Aġḏiya wa-l-ašriba des Naǧīb ad-Dīn as-Samarqandī. Edition, Übersetzung und Kontext von Juliane Müller.

Leiden, 2017.


Subjects: MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine
  • 13530

The black doctors of colonial Lima: Science, race, and writing in colonial and early Republican Peru.

Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2014.

"In this groundbreaking study on the intersection of race, science, and politics in colonial Latin America, José Jouve Martín explores the reasons why the city of Lima, in the decades that preceded the wars of independence in Peru, became dependent on a large number of bloodletters, surgeons, and doctors of African descent. The Black Doctors of Colonial Lima focuses on the lives and fortunes of three of the most distinguished among this group of black physicians: José Pastor de Larrinaga, a surgeon of controversial medical ideas who passionately defended the right of scientific learning for Afro-Peruvians; José Manuel Dávalos, a doctor who studied medicine at the University of Montpellier and played a key role in the smallpox vaccination campaigns in Peru; and José Manuel Valdés, a multifaceted writer who became the first and only person of black ancestry to become a chief medical officer in Spanish America. By carefully documenting their actions and writings, The Black Doctors of Colonial Lima illustrates how medicine and its related fields became areas in which the descendants of slaves found opportunities for social and political advancement, and a platform from which to engage in provocative dialogue with Enlightenment thought and social revolution" (publisher).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, Latin American Medicine › History of Latin American Medicine
  • 13531

Expelling the plague: The Health Office and the implementation of quarantine in Dubrovnik, 1377-1533.

Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2015.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Croatia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans) › Plague, History of
  • 13532

The PKU paradox: A short history of a genetic disease.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.


Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • 13533

Hippocrate.

Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1992.

Translated into English by M. B. DeBevoise as Hippocrates, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works)
  • 13534

The health seekers of Southern California 1870-1900.

Santa Monica, CA: Angel City Press, 2008.


Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 13535

Medicinal plants and enigmatic health practices of Northern Ethiopia.

Addis Ababa: Berhanena Selam Printing Press, 1993.


Subjects: BOTANY › Medical Botany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Ethiopia
  • 13536

The history of medicine in Iran. Entries extracted from the Encyclopaedia Iranica Vols. I-XII.

New York: Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation, 2004.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Iran (Persia), Persian (Iranian) Islamic Medicine › History of Persian (Iranian) Islamic Medicine
  • 13537

Abortion in America and the law in America: Roe v. Wade to the present.

Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2020.


Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Abortion
  • 13538

Caput Bonae Spei hodiernum, das ist: vollständige Beschreibung des africanischen Vorgebürges der Guten Hofnung. Worinnen in dreyen Theilen abgehandelt wird, wie es heut zu Tage, nach seiner Situation und Eigenschaft aussiehet; ingleichen was ein Natgur-Forscher in den dreyen Reichen der Natur....

Nuremberg: Peter Conrad Monath, 1719.

Includes the first study of the natural history of the Cape region of South Africa. Translated into English by "Mr. Medley" as The present state of the Cape of Good-Hope. 2 vols., London, 1738-31. Digital facsimile of the 1719 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › South Africa, NATURAL HISTORY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 13539

Pathological and practical observations on spinal diseases: illustrated with cases and engravings. Also, An inquiry into the origin and cure of distorted limbs.

London: Thomas and George Underwood, 1827.

Harrison founded the first infirmary for spinal diseases in London.  See Weiner & Silver, "Edward Harrison and the treatment of spinal deformities in the nineteenth century," J. R. Coll. Phys. Edinb., 38 (2006) 265-71.  Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Spine
  • 13540

Transmissible agent in non-A, non-B hepatitis.

Lancet,1, 459-463, 1978.

The first paper recording the discovery of what was, eleven years later in 1989, named the hepatitis C virus (see No. 12653). Harvey Alter (Nobel Prize 2020) and colleagues inoculated the serum/plasma of 4 patients with non-A/non-B hepatitis into 5 chimps, and the chimps showed both biochemical and histological evidence of a typical hepatitis. The experiment was performed with a negative control. Order of authorship in the original paper: Alter, Purcell, Holland....

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae › Hepatitis C Virus
  • 13541

Transmission of hepatitis C by intrahepatic inoculation with transcribed RNA.

Science, 277, 570-74, 1997.

Rice (Nobel Prize 2020) and colleagues constructed a viral RNA genome with the 3’ region and a consensus region to exclude potential inactivating mutations, which was then injected into the liver of chimps. That RNA, specifically encoded for the Hepatitis C virus (HVC), established a productive infection, and a clinical hepatitis resulted. Infectious virus was found in chimps' blood for several months from this "non mutation prone and ultrapure" RNA genome, which coded bonafide virus and also provoked the specifically expected antibody response. 

Order of authorship in the original publication:  Kolyphalov, Agapov..., Rice.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae › Hepatitis C Virus
  • 13542

Consideraciones politico-medicas sobre la salud de los navegantes, en que se exponen las causas de sus mas frecuentes enfermedades, modo de precaverlas, y curarlas. Con las conducentes instrucciones para el mejor régimen de los cirujanos de navíos, que hacen viage à la América, especialmente para los de la Real Compañia Guipuzcoana de Caracas, à fin de que con mayor acierto se conduzcan, asi en el méthodo curativo de los enfermos, como en el manejo de los botiquines de su cargo.

Madrid: Antonio Sanz, 1769.

A treatise specifically concerning the health of sailors of the Real Compañia Guipuzcoana de Caracas (Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas)-- Basque traders who had a monopoly on the Venezuelan trade. Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Venezuela, Maritime Medicine
  • 13543

Recherches historiques, zoologiques, anatomiques et paléontologiques sur la girafe, (Camelopardalis giraffa, Gmelin).

Paris: Imprimerie veuve Berger-Levrault, 1845.

First comprehensive (124pp., 17 plates) anatomical study of the giraffe, conducted during a 20 day dissection of the huge animal in Toulouse. The authors entrusted the dissection to the Toulouse taxidermist, H. Traverse, who was able to dissect the animal while preserving its hide and skeleton intact, with the goal of eventually stuffing the animal, which remains preserved in the Musée d'histoire naturelle de Toulouse. Mém. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Strasbourg, III, livr. 3. 



Subjects: ANATOMY › Comparative Anatomy, ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 13544

Secreta mulierum et virorum (cum commento).

Cologne: Nicolaus Götz, circa 1475.

This work on the physiology and procreative "secrets" of women was attributed to Albertus Magnus, but is now thought to have been written by one of his disciples. It was one of the most widely printed medical works in the 15th century, of which 60 different, and sometimes augmented, printed editions are catalogued in the ISTC.
ISTC No. ia003010700



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY
  • 13545

Petri Loefling... Iter Hispanicum, eller Resa til spanska länderna uti Europa och America förrättad infrän år 1751 til år, 1756, med Beskrifningar och ron öfver de märkvärdigaste växyer, utgifven efter dess frånfälle af Carl Linnaeus.

Stockholm: Lars Salvii, 1758.

Edited by Carl Linnaeus after the early death of Pehr Löfling, who Linnaeus considered his most gifted disciple. This is the account of Löfling's mostly botanically oriented researches through Spain, Portugal, and northern Venezuela, particularly the area around Cumana, the capital of New Andalusia (now Venezuela).  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Venezuela, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 13546

De medico hebraeo: Enarratio apologica ... Apposita sunt praeterea, non paucorum amplissimorum principum, quam multa decreta, in hebraeorum fauorem constituta. Annectuntur, quinetiam, in tractatus calce, nonnulla aurea dicta; ex priscorum hebraeorum monumentis excerpta; nunc primum, latinitate donata, & ad studiosorum vtilitatem, in lucem edita. Dauid de Pomis, medico physico hebraeo, auctore.

Venice: apud Ioannem Variscum, 1588.

De Pomis was a rabbi and physician. "... on account of the edict of Pius IV forbidding Jewish physicians to attend Christians (1555), he moved from town to town in Italy before he settled in 1569 in Venice, where he published the greater part of his works. Pius IV (1559–65) gave him permission to attend Christians, a concession revoked by Pius V (1565–72) and later restored by Pope Sixtus V (1585–90). In his booklet De Medico Hebraeo Enarratio Apologica (Venice, 1588) David de’ Pomis refutes the charges brought against Jews and Jewish physicians in particular by a bull of 1581 by Gregory XIII (1572–85). He stresses that according to the Bible and Talmud a Jewish physician must give help to every sufferer, and cites numerous instances of Jewish doctors who had distinguished themselves by their work and their loyalty. The volume ends with a selection of talmudic rules translated into Latin in order to prove that the Talmud should not be despised" (https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/pomi-s-de-x0027, accessed 9-2021). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Jews and Medicine, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 13547

Instruction sur l'herbe petum ditte en France l'herbe de la Royne ou Medicée: Et sur la racine MECHIOCAN principalement (avec quelques autres simples rares et exquis) exemplaire à manier philosophiquement tous autres vegetaux.

Paris: Galiot du Pré, 1572.

The earliest treatise in French on tobacco, including its usage in medicine, and probably the earliest separate treatise on tobacco in any language.  Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link. See Bowen, W. H., "The earliest treatise on tobacco: Jacques Gohory's 'Instruction sur l'herbe petum," Isis, 38, 349-363.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 13548

Il tabacco opera ... Nella quale si tratta dell'origine, historia, coltura, preparatione, qualità natura, virtà & uso in fumo, in polvere, in foglia, in lambitivo, et in medicina della pianta volgarmente detta tabacco, si discorre degl'vtili ch'arreca moderatamente preso, de i danni ch'apporta smoderatamente usato, e qual sia il vero e legitimo modo di prenderlo: trattato naturale, medico, morale & curioso.

Rome: Filippo Maria Mancini, 1669.

Discusses the origin, history, cultivation, preparation, nature and virtues of tobacco, whether used for smoking, snuffing, chewing, etc. or for medicinal purposes (Waring). "The custom of smoking, its role in divination among the Indians, and its rapid spread throughout the world are dealt with, and several chapters are devoted to pipes... A long account of the subject of snuff is provided, and notice is taken of the papal interdictions of 1642 and 1650 against the use of tobacco in churches" (Arents). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco
  • 13549

Medicinisch-praktischer Unterricht für die Feld- und Landwundärzte der österreichischen Staaten. 2 vols. [& Supplement:] Die in dem medicinisch-praktischen Unterrichte für die Feld-und Landwundärzte vorkommende Arzneymittel.

Vienna: Johann Thomas Eblen van Trattnern, 1776.

This work on "Practical medical lessons for field and land surgeons of the Austrian states," includes a 91-page appendix containing 319 recommended pharmaceuticals for the treatments described in the text. The formulae for the pharmaceutical preparations appear in parallel columns in German and Latin.   



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Austria, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 13550

Manuscripts and drawings in the ornithology and Rothschild libraries of The Natural History Museum at Tring. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications No. 2.

Tring, England: British Ornithologist's Club in association with The Natural History Museum, 1996.

The Natural History Museum at Tring, located in the grounds of the former Rothschild family home of Tring Park, was originally the private museum of Lionel Walter, 2nd Baron Rothschild.
The building was constructed in 1889 to house Rothchild's collection of mounted specimens, and first opened to the public in 1892. The Rothschild family gave the museum and its contents to the nation in 1937, and it is now managed by the Natural History Museum, London. It was known as the Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum until 2007.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Life Sciences Libraries, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 13551

Evolutionary rate at the molecular level.

Nature, 217, 624-626, 1968.

Using complex mathematics, Motoo Kimura calculated that genomes constantly undergo a remarkably high number of mutations per unit of time. He wrote, "Calculating the rate of evolution in terms of nucleotide substitutions seems to give a value so high that many of the mutations involved must be neutral ones."  Motoo Kimura's theory holds that most evolutionary changes occur at the molecular level, and that most of the variation within and between species is due to random genetic drift of mutant alleles that are selectively neutral -- neither advantageous or disadvantageous. Kimura does not discuss natural selection in his paper; however, his theory does not contradict traditional Darwinian theory that evolution occurs through the natural selection of non-neutral, advantageous variants in a given population. Kimura expanded his theory in his 1983 book The neutral theory of molecular evolution.

In 2021 a digital facsimile of the 1968 paper was available from blackwellpublishing.com at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, EVOLUTION
  • 13552

A catalogue of rare syphilis books held in the Special Collections Department of the University of Glasgow.

Glasgow: University of Glasgow.

https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/Media_389083_smxx.pdf

Describes and illustrates in color over 200 rare books from the 15th century to 1820, including those in the Hunterian Collection, with links to more extensive online cataloguing. No author or publisher or date of publication is stated.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Diseases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Exhibition Catalogues, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 13553

A brief discourse of a disease called the suffocation of the mother. Written uppon occasion which hath beene of late taken thereby, to suspect possession of an evill spirit, or some such like supernaturall power. Wherin is declared that divers strange actions and passions of the body of man, which the common opinion, are imputed to the Divell, have their true naturall causes, and do accompanie this disease.

London: John Windet, 1603.

Jorden was the first English physician who viewed women accused of witchcraft as unfortunate persons suffering from some medical condition. "Asserting that there were natural causes for their afflictions, Jorden often served as expert witness at trials of women accused of witchery. His arguments did not always persuade the judges, however. One Elizabeth Jackson, accused of causing the fits suffered by Mary Glover, was convicted in spite of Jorden's defense. Jorden (1603) called the disorder manifested in Jackson (and in the majority of supposed witches) by two terms: hysterical, and strangulatus uteri, or "suffocation of the mother" (mother here being an old-fashioned term for the uterus), since a choking in the throat was a common accompaniment. Jorden was impressed by the panoply and ever-shifting quality of symptoms associated with this condition: now shortness of breath, now palpitations, now paralysis, and so on. He was also aware that the hysterical "fits" might occur with varying regularity: yearly, monthly, or even weekly." (Wikipedia article on Edward Jorden, accessed 9-2021).

Digital facsimile of a photocopy from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria
  • 13554

Mystical Bedlam: Madness, anxiety, and healing in seventeenth-century England.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

"Mystical Bedlam explores the social history of insanity of early seventeenth-century England by means of a detailed analysis of the records of Richard Napier, a clergyman and astrological physician, who treated over 2000 mentally disturbed patients between 1597 and 1634. Napier's clients were drawn from every social rank and his therapeutic techniques included all the types of psychological healing practised at the time. His vivid descriptions of his clients' afflictions and complaints illuminate the thoughts and feelings of ordinary people. This book goes beyond simply analysing mental disorder in a seventeenth-century astrological and medical practice. It reveals contemporary attitudes towards family life, describes the appeal of witchcraft and demonology to ordinary villagers, and explains the social and intellectual basis for the eclectic blend of scientific, magical, and religious therapies practised before the English Revolution" (publisher).



Subjects: Magic & Superstition in Medicine, PSYCHIATRY › History of Psychiatry, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 13555

Sleepless souls: Suicide in early modern England.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

"Sleepless Souls is a social and cultural history of suicide in early modern England. It traces the rise and fall of the crime of self-murder and explores why suicide came to be harshly punished in the sixteenth century, and why it was subsequently gradually decriminalized, tolerated, and even sentimentalized. It is a readable, detailed, and scholarly examination of the changing meaning of self-destruction, which provides an illuminating perspective of the sweep of cultural and social change in England over three centuries" (publisher)



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › History of Psychiatry, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 13556

Witchcraft and hysteria in Elizabethan London: Edward Jorden and the Mary Glover case.

London: Routledge, 1991.


Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › History of Psychiatry, PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria
  • 13557

A comparative history of the increase and decrease of mankind in England, and several countries abroad, according to the different soils, situations, business of life, use of the non-naturals, &c. faithfully collected from, and attested by, above three hundred vouchers, and many of them for a long course of years, in two different Periods. To which is added a syllabus of the general States of health, air, seasons, and food for the last three hundred years; and also a meteorological discourse.

London: W. Nicoll and C. Etherington, 1767.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Mortality Statistics, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 13558

Space medicine: The human factor in flights beyond the earth. Edited by John P. Marbarger.

Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1951.

Includes chapters by Maj. Gen. Harry G. Armstrong, Wernher von Braun, Hubertus Strughold, Heinz Haber and others.



Subjects: AVIATION Medicine › Aerospace Medicine
  • 13559

Is carbon dioxide from fossil fuel changing man's environment?

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 114, 10-17, 1970.

Keeling developed the first instrument that could measure carbon dioxide in atmospheric samples with consistently reliable accuracy, and in 1958 began collecting carbon dioxide samples from a base he established at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, two miles (3000 m) above sea level. From this data he established what became known as the Keeling Curve, a graph of the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. In this transcription of Keeling's text from a symposium on atmospheric polution in April 25, 1969 Keeling presented irrefutable observational data documenting the progressive rise of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere from the mid-1800s to 1970. The first publication of the Keeling Curve appears on p. 14, figure 7. 

Keeling began his paper as follows: "I originally proposed as the title of this talk: 'If carbon dioxide from fossil fuels is changing man's environment, what will we do about it?' It was my meaning to inquire into what might be the response of scientists, philosophers, and decision-makers if specialists assert that accelerated use of fossil fuels may be harmful. I was requested to modify the title to read 'Is Co2 from fossil fuel changing man's environment?' either because a shorter title might suggest a shorter more acceptable talk, or because I obviously cannot answer the first question. I cannot answer the second question either; but I will not give you my views on both questions." He ended his paper with, "If the human race survives into the twenty-first century with the vast population increase that now seems inevitable, the people living then, along with their other troubles, may also face the threat of climatic change brought about by an uncontrolled increase in atmospheric CO2 from fossil fuels."
Digital facsimile from nsdl.library.cornell.edu at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)





Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Climate Change, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Hawaii
  • 13560

The suppressor-mutator system of control of gene action in maize.

Ann. Rep. Dept. Gen. Carnegie. Inst. Yearbook, 57, 415-429, 1958.

In this paper McClintock described a novel mobile genetic element that she called Suppressor-Mutator (Spm), and its complex regulation. She discovered that Spm could switch back and forth between an “inactive” form and an active form—what she called “changes of phase,” later understood to be a result of methylation. Some forms of Spm cycled between inactive and active phases during development, while others showed specific patterns of expression, and were only active in certain plant parts. She suggested that "there was a direct relation between the degree of supressive capacity of an Spm element and its ability to induce a mutation." These pioneering studies foreshadowed later work by others showing the importance of epigenetics— heritable changes in development not caused by changes to the DNA sequence.  Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › Epigenetics, GENETICS / HEREDITY › Genome › Mobile Genetic Elements, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 13561

Die hormonale Sterilisierung des weiblichen Organismus.

Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1931.

Halberlandt, professor of physiology at Innsbruck, invented the first hormonal contraceptive, Infecundin, using corpus luteum extracts from females rich in the hormone progesterone. His initial report on the contraceptive in this 28-page pamphlet may be translated as follows:
“I have been in contact for over 3 years with the therapeutic firm Gideon Richter in Budapest, and it is likely that in the near future a suitable ‘sterilizing preparation’ under the name ‘Infecundin’ will be available for systemic administration in clinical experiments as I had already announced in Vienna at the 4 th. Congress [Sept. 1930] of the World League for Sexual Reform”. He ended the pamphlet with this statement: "Theoretically, one of the greatest triumphs of mankind would be the elevation of procreation into a volunary and deliberate act."

Digital facsimile from muvs.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: Contraception
  • 13562

Extraction, purification and properties of Aequorin, a bioluminescent protein from the luminous hydromedusan, Aequorea.

J. Cell. & Comp. Physiol., 59, 223-239, 1962.

Shimomura (Nobel Prize 2008) reported the discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a single footnote in this paper that was otherwise devoted to an entirely different bioluminescent protein: photoprotein aequorin. This may be the only time that the Nobel Prize was awarded for a discovery reported in a single footnote.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Shimomura, Johnson, Saiga.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Bioluminescence, BIOLOGY › Marine Biology
  • 13563

The nature of animal light.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1920.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Bioluminescence
  • 13564

Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression.

Science, 263, 802-805, 1994.

Chalfie (Nobel Prize 2008) and colleagues showed that the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, could be used as a visible marker for protein localization and expression in vivo, in bacteria and worm cells, and in the absence of any contributing factors from the jelly fish itself, proving that the protein acted totally alone without any interference from possible contaminating factors. This demonstration established GFP as a fine tool to study proteins in vivo, and fundamentally altered the way in which investigators could define and study intracellular and intra organismal biological events. Douglas Prasher played a key role in this discovery, but did not share in the Nobel Prize.

About Prasher the Wikipedia article states, "He is known for his work to clone and sequence the genes for the photoprotein aequorin[1] and green fluorescent protein (GFP) [2] and for his proposal to use GFP as a tracer molecule.[3] He communicated his pioneering work to Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien, but by 1991 was himself unable to obtain further research funding, and left academia. Eventually, he had to abandon science. Chalfie and Tsien were awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work that they publicly acknowledged was substantially based on the work of Douglas Prasher, and through their efforts and those of others, Douglas Prasher returned to scientific research work [in Tsien's laboratory] in June 2010."
Order of authorship in the original paper: Chalfie, Tu, Euskirchen, Ward, Prasher.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Bioluminescence, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis
  • 13565

Crystal structure of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein.

Science, 273, 1392-1395, 1996.

Tsien (Nobel Prize 2008) and colleagues published the crystal structure of the 238 A.A. long green fluorescent protein (GFP).
With this data, the authors could determine what had to be modified within the protein in such a way that the protein would be able to absorb and emit light in other areas of the spectrum, i.e. these protein variants of GFP would not only shine much stronger, but in quite a few different colors such as cyan, blue, and yellow, eventually expanding the color palette to red and orange, etc. The variants also became more photostable, and excited at a wavelength that matched that of conventional microscopes filter sets, remarkably increasing the practical useability of GFP. The authors created a powerful protein tool that allowed researchers to perform imaging experiments that could easily discriminate between and follow multiple tagged proteins in cells and higher organisms. 

Order of authorship in the original publication: Ormö, Cubitt, Kallio, et al, Tsien, Remington.

In 1998 Tsien authored a much longer report on GFP: "The green fluorescent protein," Ann. Rev. Biochem., 67, 509-544.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Bioluminescence, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis
  • 13566

Luminous creatures: The history and science of light production in living organisms.

Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2018.


Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Bioluminescence
  • 13567

Invisible invaders: Smallpox and other diseases in Aboriginal Australia 1780-1880.

Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 2002.

"An epidemic of smallpox among Aboriginal people around the infant colony of Sydney in 1789 puzzled the British, for there had been no cases on the ships of the First Fleet. Where, then, did the epidemic come from?

"As explorers moved further inland, they witnessed other epidemics of smallpox, notably in the late 1820s and early 1830s and again in the 1860s and 1870s. They also encountered many pockmarked survivors of early epidemics.

"In Invisible Invaders, Judy Campbell argues that epidemics of smallpox among Australian Aboriginals preceded European settlement. She believes they originated in regular visits to the northern coast of Australia by Macassan fishermen from southern Sulawesi and nearby islands. They were searching for trepang, for which there was a profitable market in China" (publisher).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › History of Smallpox
  • 13568

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: Chromosome walking and jumping.

Science, 245, 1059-1065, 1989.

Utilizing the chromosome "walking and and jumping" technique developed by Collins, the authors showed how they cloned the cystic fibrosis locus on the basis of its chromosomal location without the benefit of genomic rearrangements. They showed that the CF gene spans approximately 250,000 base pairs of genomic DNA. This was the first gene for a human disease discovered without a known protein sequence.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Rommens, Iannuzzi, et al..., Riordan, Tsui, Collins.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis
  • 13569

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: Cloning and characterization of complimentary DNA.

Science, 245, 1066-1072, 1989.

The authors first published a ‘map’ of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene and on p. 1071, they published an illustration/schematic model of the predicted CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance
regulator). They first described a deletion mutation DeltaF508  (ΔF508) that was detected in both CF clones, which would result in a ‘loss’ of a phenyalanine residue at position 508 in the CF polypeptide.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Riordan, Rommens, et al, Collins, Tsui.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis
  • 13570

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: Genetic analysis.

Science, 245, 1073-1080, 1989.

The authors demonstrated that about 70% of the crucial mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients corresponds to the specific deletion of 3 base pairs, which results in the loss of a phenylalanine residue at A.A. position 508. This discovery provided a target for pharmacologists, molecular biologists and molecular geneticists to develop a biologic drug for the benefit of the majority of those afflicted with CF.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Kerem, Rommens, et al, Tsui.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis
  • 13571

Correction of the 508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 108, 18843-18848, 2011.

Negulescu and colleagues published a "proof of concept" experiment showing that the novel molecule called VX-809 could correct in vitro the very common and critical 508del-CFTR mutation identified by Collins. (See GM 13570). When undergoing trials in humans this drug, manufactured under the trade name Lumacaftor by Vertex Pharmaceuticals, failed to perform as well as expected. Vertex then developed other combination drugs that enhanced the in vivo effect of VX-809, leading to the duel combination drug they called Orkambi. These drugs led to long term remissions, greatly improved quality of life, and a longer life span for CF patients. Regrettably, in 2018 the cost of Orkambi for a single CF patient was around $275,000 per year. Order of authorship in the original publication: Van Goor, Hadida, Grottenhuis, et al, Negulescu. Digital text from pnas.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Cystic Fibrosis Drugs
  • 13572

Esoteric anthropology.

Port Chester, New York: [No publisher identified], 1853.

In this rather comprehensive popular and illustrated book on medicine and physiology Nichols explained sexual physiology in a level of detail radical for the time, and also advocated free love.

Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: Popularization of Medicine, SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 13573

Catalogue of works on alchemy and chemistry. Exhibited at The Grolier Club, 29 East 32d St. New York, Jan. 16th to Jan. 26th, 1891.

New York: [Privately Printed], 1891.

This appears to be the second catalogue of a U.S. exhibition of rare books on any scientific subject, following John Shaw Billing's catalogue of his exhibition of books from the Army Medical Library at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1899. (See GM 13587.) Bolton's briefly annotated catalogue records a selection of 110 highlights from what was presumably Bolton's much larger private library. For Bolton's "select" bibliography of chemistry and the history of chemistry, containing 12,031 entries, see No. 11425.

Digital facsimile of Bolton's 1891 exhibition catalogue from historyofscience.com at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Chemistry / Biochemistry, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 13574

The eye and nervous system: Their diagnostic relations by various authors. Edited by Wm. Campbell Posey and William G. Spiller.

Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1906.

The first comprehensive treatise in English on neuro-ophthalmology.  Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Neuro-ophthalmology
  • 13575

Clinical neuro-ophthalmology.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1947.

Considered first textbook on neuro-ophthalmology.



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Neuro-ophthalmology
  • 13576

One hundred important ophthalmology books of the 20th century.

2001.

http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/dept/20thcenturybooks/100Books.htm#TOC

"One hundred 20th century ophthalmic books arranged chronologically within each subspecialty area. The subspecialty areas themselves are arranged roughly in anatomical order from the front of the eye to the back of the eye. Click on any of these titles to go to the appropriate part of the main text below. Scroll down to reach the alphabetic checklist, and scroll further down to reach the main text."



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, DIGITAL RESOURCES, OPHTHALMOLOGY › History of Ophthalmology
  • 13577

Vernacular bodies: The politics of reproduction in Early Modern England.

New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

"Making babies was a mysterious process in 17th-century England. Fissell uses popular sources—songs, jokes, witchcraft pamphlets, prayerbooks, popular medical manuals—to recover how ordinary men and women understood the processes of reproduction. Because the human body was so often used as a metaphor for social relations, the grand events of high politics such as the English Civil War reshaped popular ideas about conception and pregnancy. This book is the first account of ordinary people’s ideas about reproduction, and offers a new way to understand how common folk experienced the sweeping political changes that characterized early modern England" (publisher).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › History of Gynecology, SEXUALITY / Sexology › History of Sexuality / Sexology, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 13578

Health and medicine by Michael B. Dougan.

Little Rock, AK: Central Arkansas Library System, 2021.

https://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/entries/health-and-medicine-392/

An overview of the history of health and medicine in Arkansas with many cross-references to related articles in the online Encyclopedia of Arkansas.



Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Arkansas
  • 13579

Images in Mississippi medicine: A photographic history of medicine in Mississippi. By Lucius M. Lampton and Karen Evers.

Ridgeland, MS: Mississippi State Medical Association, 2018.


Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Mississippi
  • 13580

The Rudolph Matas history of medicine in Louisiana. Edited by John Duffy. 2 vols.

Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1962.


Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Louisiana
  • 13581

The history of the Rhode Island Medical Society and its component societies 1812-1962.

East Providence, RI: Roger Williams Press, 1966.


Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Rhode Island
  • 13582

Modern colonization by medical intervention: U.S. medicine in Puerto Rico.

Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2013.


Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Puerto Rico
  • 13583

Medicine and the Mormons: An introduction to the history of Latter-day Saint health care.

Bountiful, UT: Horizon Publishers & Distributors, 1981.


Subjects: RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Utah
  • 13584

Eros, Wollust, Sünde. Sexualität in Europa von der Antike bis in die Frühe Neuzeit.

Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag, 2018.


Subjects: SEXUALITY / Sexology › History of Sexuality / Sexology
  • 13585

Sexual cultures in Europe: National histories.

Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.

"... brings together for the first time studies of the sexual cultures of all the major European countries--including France, Germany, Russia, Italy, Spain, Britain and the Netherlands--to focus on their commonalities and differences. European sexual cultures were widely diverse, partly as a result of the great religious divides, different legal systems, and different economic patterns. However, there were some strands of common experience--the reaction to the Enlightenment, the Western influence on the South and East, the hybridization of populations, and sexual fantasy and tourism" (publisher).



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Medical Anthropology, SEXUALITY / Sexology, Sociology, Medical
  • 13586

Casey A. Wood Collection: Complete inventory list. P145.

Montréal: Osler Library of the History of Medicine.

https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/read/33597385/casey-a-wood-collection-osler-library-archives-mcgill-university

"This is a guide to one of the collections held by the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University."



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries, DIGITAL RESOURCES
  • 13587

Rare medical books. Remarks made by Dr. John S. Billings at the meeting of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical Society, December 16th, 1889.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull., 1, 29-31, 1890.

This three page paper is primarily a detailed bibliographical listing of a selection of rare books that Billings brought from the Army Medical Library for exhibition at Johns Hopkins Hospital. This was probably the first exhibition of rare medical books in the United States for which a catalogue was published. Billings preceded the catalogue with general observations on the nature of the market for rare medical books, including remarks on how different categories of rare medical books were priced. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link
 .



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics
  • 13588

Snakes of Maryland.

Baltimore, MD: The Natural History Society of Maryland, 1936.


Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Maryland, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology
  • 13589

The saint.

The New Republic, December 12, 1999.
https://newrepublic.com/article/116863/sherwin-nuland-william-osler

One of the best late 20th century summaries of Osler's life and significance in the form of a review of Michael Bliss's Sir William Osler: A life in medicine (1999) (No. 11029).


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, DIGITAL RESOURCES
  • 13590

Nicolás Bautista Monardes: Su vida y su obra, ca. 1493-1588.

Mexico: D.F. Compañia Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, 1961.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals
  • 13591

Dr. Kelly of Hopkins: Surgeon, Scientist, Christian.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1959.

Davis was a personal friend of Kelly for twenty years. She based this biography partly on Kelly's notebooks and journals that Kelly left her upon his death.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals
  • 13592

Women in medicine.

Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp., 7, 50-52, 1896.

Kelly was one of the first influential male physicians in America to advocate for the advancement of women physicians. This presentation was primarily a review of Elizabeth Blackwell's Pioneering work in opening the medical profession to women (1895), presented at the [Johns Hopkins] Hospital Historical Club meeting of January 13, 1896.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About
  • 13593

The theory of rain.

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 1, 41-86, 1788.

In this paper on the operation of the water-cycle in meteorology Hutton hypothesized that rain was caused by a mixture of air currents of differing temperatures, either saturated or nearly saturated with moisture. "His Theory of Rain proposes the rule that 'the action and effect of heat and cold' lies at the base of all rainfall. As he says, he seeks to 'form a theory of rain upon that investigated rule, concerning the evaporation and condensation of water' . . . Backed with a considerable array of facts on humidity, temperature, wind currents, and precipitation, Hutton propounds that the amount of humidity in the atmosphere increases proportionally to an increase in the temperature; precipitation occurs where a colder air mass collides with a hotter air mass, thereby cooling it and forcing it to expel its moisture" (Farnsworth, Mediating order and chaos: The water-cycle in the complex adaptive systems of romantic culture [2002] 23-24).  Hutton noted that mountain ranges can cause precipitation by raising and cooling warmer moisture-bearing air and claimed that rain could be predicted scientifically by carefully studying geographical features and wind currents.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Climate Change
  • 13594

Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy.

New Eng. J. Med., 257, 491-496, 1957.

Thomas (Nobel Prize 1990) and colleagues reported the first bone marrow transplants. They described the treatment of six patients with cancers and/leukemia and one patient with multiple myeloma. Three of the patients died, two responded and survived to hospital discharge, and one was still alive on day 53 when the paper was submitted. The paper was intended to describe the procedure, its side effects, its complications and to document the various lab parameters monitored on each patient, and their probable significance and utility when used to monitor the patient post irradiation, chemotherapy and marrow infusion. Order of authorship in the original publication: Thomas, Locte, Lu, et al.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Multiple Myeloma, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 13595

The technique of free skin grafting in mammals.

J. Exp. Biol., 28, 385-402, 1951.

This "paper facilitated the later discovery of `actively acquired tolerance' and the definition of the principal laws of transplantation tolerance. Fittingly, this line of experimentation led to the awarding of the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Medawar. Thus, it was in a series of classic experiments (stemming from this J. Exp. Biol. paper) that the field of transplantation biology was born....
This "paper is a self-contained manual for distinct forms of skin transplants in a variety of laboratory animals. There are very detailed discussions and illustrations concerning the anatomy of the mammalian integument. Importantly, the paper also provides unique information on regional variation of skin within a given animal and on the process of transplant survival or rejection. Specific discussions focus on principles of wound healing post-transplantation and on Billingham and Medawar's formative thoughts on transplantation immunity. The paper is most useful in discussing frankly the pros and cons of skin grafting as a laboratory procedure. There is considerable discussion of the pitfalls encountered in skin grafting, e.g. pigmentation and hair growth, but also the advantages, e.g. accessibility and availability for biopsy" (Santa Jeremy Ono, "The birth of transplantation immunology: The Billingham-Medawar Experiments at Birmingham University and University College London" (J. Exp. Biol, 207 (2004) 4013-4014).

Digital facsimile of the 1951 paper from cob.silverchair-cdn.com at this link.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, TRANSPLANTATION, TRANSPLANTATION › Skin Grafting
  • 13596

Ūber eigenartige Krankheitsfälle des späteren Alters.

Zeit. f. Ges. Neurol. u. Psych., 4, 356-85, 1911.

In this record of his continuing research on what in 1910 Kraepelin called Alzheimersche Krankheit (Alzheimer's disease) Alzheimer provided detailed history, clinical signs, symptoms descriptions, pathologic and histologic descriptions with numerous illustrations of his first and second patients, Auguste D. and Johann F.  He described and illustrated the three key diagnostic points for Alheimer's disease. On p. 364, fig.1 he described "die Plaques," later called amyloid beta plaques. On pp. 380-81 he illustrated the microscopic intracellular manifestation of what he called "Eigentumliche Fibrillenveranderung der Ganglienzellen," later called intracellular neuronal tau fibrillary tangles. He also described the first time what was later called cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), illustrating this on Tafel V, figs.1 and 2, and with a chromolithographed plate.  See M. Graeber, S. Kösel et al,  "Rediscovery of the case described by Alois Alzheimer in 1911: Historical, histological and molecular genetic analysis," Neurogenetics, 1 (1997) 73-80.

Digital facsimile from biusante.parisdescartes.fr at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders › Presenile or Senile Dementia
  • 13597

Diagnosis of uterine cancer by the vaginal smear.

New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1943.

"In 1943, after a three-year period of concentrated collaborative experience with the vaginal smear for the diagnosis of gynecologic cancer, Papanicolaou and Traut published their widely heralded monograph, Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer by the Vaginal Smear.... This report encompassed a variety of physiologic and pathologic states, including the menstrual cycle, puerperium, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, prepuberty, menopause, amenorrhea, endometrial hyperplasia, vaginal and cervical infections, and 179 cases of uterine cancer, 127 cervical and 52 corporeal" (Speert, Obstetric & gynecologic milestones, p. 289).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, PATHOLOGY › Cytopathology
  • 13598

Stem cells and the future of regenerative medicine.

Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2002.

In 2001 this report cited the following diseases with high prevalence in the United States as likely candidates for stem cell research:

Cardiovascular Disease: 58 million U.S. patients
Automimmune Disease: 30 million patients
Diabetes: 16 million patients
Osteoporosis: 10 million patients
Cancers: 10 million patients
Alzheimer’s: 5.5 million patients
Parkinson’s disease: 5.5 million patients

The report also cited many lower incidence diseases and conditions that would benefit such as spinal cord injuries, burns and various birth defects.

Digital edition from nap.edu at this link.



Subjects: ECONOMICS, BIOMEDICAL, Regenerative Medicine
  • 13599

The see with a better eye: A life of R. T. H. Laennec. By Jacalyn Duffin.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

"....relies on a vastly expanded foundation of primary source material, including thousands of pages of handwritten patient records, lecture notes, unpublished essays, and letters....

"Laennec’s famous Treatise on Mediate Auscultation was his only published book, but two lesser known works were left in manuscript: an early treatise on pathological anatomy and a later set of lectures on disease. The three parts of Duffin’s biography correspond to these books. First, she examines Laennec’s student research on the emerging science of pathological anatomy, the background for his major achievement. Second, she uses his clinical records to trace the discovery and development of “mediate auscultation” (listening through an instrument, or mediator, to sounds within the human body). The stethoscope allowed clinicians to “see” the organic alterations inside their living patients’ bodies. Finally, she explores the impact of auscultation on diagnostic practice and on concepts of disease. Analyzed here for the first time in their entirety, Laennec’s Collége de France lectures reveal his criticism of over-enthusiastic extrapolations of his own method at the expense of the patient’s story" (publisher).



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Auscultation and Physical Diagnosis, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Stethoscope