An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15961 entries, 13944 authors and 1935 subjects. Updated: April 29, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 8100–8199

100 entries
  • 8100

In the blink of an eye: The deadly story of epidemic meningitis.

New York: Springer Science , 2013.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Cerebrospinal Meningitis
  • 8101

Silent victories: The history and practice of public health in twentieth-century America. Edited by John W. Ward and Christian Warren.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8102

Brush with death: A social history of lead poisoning.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Subjects: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE › History of Occupational Health & Medicine, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences, TOXICOLOGY › History of Toxicology, TOXICOLOGY › Lead Poisoning
  • 8103

Disease and class: Tuberculosis and the shaping of modern North American society.

New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis › History of Tuberculosis, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 1311
  • 3165
  • 4673
  • 8104

Dr. Willis's practice of physick.

London: T. Dring, C. Harper & J. Leigh, 1684.

The only complete edition of Willis's works in English, translated by the poet Samuel Pordage. It contains the translations of all his works except his Affectionum quae dicuntur hystericae (1671). The collection includes the First Edition in English of Willis's De anima brutorum. The volume is divided into six separately paginated sections, each with its own title-leaf. Included are English versions of Willis's three great works on the brain--Cerebri anatome, Pathologiae cerebri and De anima brutorum--as well as his clinical and pharmaceutical treatises. In Treatise III, pp. 128-158 Willis’s described the intercostal and spinal nerves. He described the ganglion chain as the “intercostal nerve” and thought it came from the head.

In addition to his invaluable work in the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, Willis was the first to distinguish true diabetes mellitus, and showed that the polyuria was not due to any disease of the kidneys. He anticipated the recognition of hormones in the circulation of his suggestion that the phenomena of puberty were due to a ferment distributed through the body from the genitals. He discovered the superficial lymphatics of the lungs, distinguished acute tuberculosis from the chronic fibroid type and gave the first clinical and pathological account of emphysema.  The modern treatment of asthma really begins with Willis, who considered it to be of nervous origin. ("Of the convulsive cough and asthma," Treatise VIII, pp. 92-96; No. 3165). Willis was probably the first to report an epidemic of cerebrospinal fever" ("A description of an epidemical feaver, Treatise VIII, pp. 46-54; No. 4673). Transcription of the complete text from Early English Books Online at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 8105

The sick child in early modern England, 1580-1720.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

The first book on children's health and illness in early modern England.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), PEDIATRICS › History of Pediatrics, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 8106

The smoke of London: Energy and environment in the early modern city.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › History of Ecology / Environment, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom)
  • 8107

Air service medical manual.

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1918.

The first U. S. work dedicated to the medical aspects of military pilot selection. According to the National Museum of Health and Medicine, this manual was written by William Holland Wilmer, then director of the Medical Research Laboratory at Mineola, Long Island (1917). This placed Wilmer at the forefront of training for flight surgeons and in the classification of pilot candidates as they used novel devices and instruments to simulate high-altitude conditions. He pioneered efforts to produce oxygen delivery systems to pilots.  CHAPTER I: Aviation and its medical problems. CHAPTER 2: The selection of the flier. CHAPTER 3: The classification of the flier. CHAPTER 4: The maintenance of the efficiency of the flier. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 8108

Physiologie de l'aéronaute: Travail du laboratoire de la clinique médicale de l'Hôtel-Dieu. M. le Professeur Dieulafoy.

Paris: G. Steinheil, 1907.

Physiological studies of balloonists; extensive bibliography. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: AVIATION Medicine
  • 8109

Le Mexique et l'Amérique tropicale: climats, hygiène et maladies.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1864.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Bioclimatology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Mexico, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, Latin American Medicine, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 8110

De Mexique au point de vue de son influence sur la vie de l'homme.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1861.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Mexico, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, Latin American Medicine
  • 8111

Medical Heritage Library: Opening access to seven centuries of medical history.


"The Medical Heritage Library (MHL), a digital curation collaborative among some of the world’s leading medical libraries, promotes free and open access to quality historical resources in medicine. Our goal is to provide the means by which readers and scholars across a multitude of disciplines can examine the interrelated nature of medicine and society, both to inform contemporary medicine and strengthen understanding of the world in which we live. The MHL’s growing collection of digitized medical rare books, pamphlets, journals, and films number in the tens of thousands, with representative works from each of the past six centuries, all of which are available here through the Internet Archive."

In March 2018 this library contained over 239,000 items.

From the Wikipedia, (partial) accessed 12-2016:

The MHL began digitization of monographs in 2010 with an initial grant from the Sloan Foundation. Work on the MHL project has continued with funding support from collaborating institutions, the National Endowment for the Humanities , and the Mellon Foundation via a program administered by the Council on Library and Information Resources. All digitized works are located at the Internet Archive.

The collection includes books, pamphlets, journals, and video and audio recordings in the history of medicine and related fields. A working list of subject headings is available here. Titles have been chosen for their scholarly, educational, and research value. The MHL consults with a volunteer group of scholars in the history of medicine and related fields and surveys its users regularly. As of August 2014, the collection consists of nearly 60,000 items including monographs, journals, audio and video....

The MHL has created a full-text search tool for use by researchers.[1] The tool allows users to search the full-text of one or more items simultaneously. The tool is in an extended beta release and comments or questions are welcome!

The UK Medical Heritage Library started in 2014 with nine digitisation partners in England and Scotland, including [UCL] (University College London), the [University of Leeds], the [University of Glasgow], the [London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine], [King's College London], and the [University of Bristol] - along with the libraries of the [Royal College of Physicians of London], the [Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh], and the [Royal College of Surgeons of England]. The original partnership is between the [Wellcome Library] and [Jisc]. Material digitized by the UK MHL project is also available through the MHL portal at the Internet Archive and searchable through the full-text search tool described above.


Original members of the collaborative formed in 2010 are:

Content contributors have joined the project regularly since 2011; the MHL continues to seek additional content contributors.

Timeline of the Project

  • 2010: MHL founded with grant (Medical Heritage Library Phase I) from the Sloan Foundation; initial digitization of medical history texts begins.
  • 2011: MHL awarded a National Endowment for the Humanities Digital Humanities Level One Start-up Grant.
  • 2012: MHL awarded a National Endowment for the Humanities grant for digitizing historic American medical journals received from National Endowment for the Humanities.
  • 2012: MHL awarded a Mellon Foundation grant for processing archival collections via the Council on Library and Information Science.


Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8112

PubMed Central (PMC).


"PubMed Central® (PMC) is a free archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (NIH/NLM). In keeping with NLM’s legislative mandate to collect and preserve the biomedical literature, PMC serves as a digital counterpart to NLM’s extensive print journal collection. Launched in February 2000, PMC was developed and is managed by NLM’s National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).


"Free Access: A Core Principle of PMC

As an archive, PMC is designed to provide permanent access to all of its content, even as technology evolves and current digital literature formats potentially become obsolete. NLM believes that the best way to ensure the accessibility and viability of digital material over time is through consistent and active use of the archive. For this reason, free access to all of its journal literature is a core principle of PMC.

Please note, however, that free access does not mean that there is no copyright protection. As described on our copyright page publishers and individual authors continue to hold copyright on the material in PMC and users must abide by the terms defined by the copyright holder.

"How Journal Articles are Provided to PMC

PMC is a repository for journal literature deposited by participating journals, as well as for author manuscripts that have been submitted in compliance with the public access policies of participating research funding agencies. PMC is not a publisher and does not publish journal articles itself.

PMC offers publishers a number of ways in which to participate and deposit journal content in the archive. Journals that would like to participate in PMC must meet PMC’s minimum requirements, submit a formal application, and undergo a review of the scientific and editorial quality of the content of the journal as well as a review of the technical quality of their digital files. More information on requirements for PMC participation and the review steps is available at Add a Journal to PMC and in the FAQ.

"PMC’s Integration with other Resources

In addition to its role as an archive, the value of PMC lies in its capacity to store and cross-reference data from diverse sources using a common format within a single repository. With PMC, a user can quickly search the entire collection of full-text articles and locate all relevant material. PMC also allows for the integration of its literature with a variety of other information resources that can enhance the research and knowledge fields of scientists, clinicians and others.

"International Collaboration and Durability

NLM is collaborating internationally with other agencies that share the goals of PMC. Maintaining copies of PMC’s literature in other reliable international archives that operate on the same principles provides greater protection against damage or loss of the material. At the same time, the diversity of sites allows for the possibility of more and even greater innovation, ensuring the permanence of PMC over the long-term." (,   accessed 12-2016).

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital or Digitized Periodicals Online
  • 8113



"PubMed comprises over 26 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. PubMed citations and abstracts include the fields of biomedicine and health, covering portions of the life sciences, behavioral sciences, chemical sciences, and bioengineering. PubMed also provides access to additional relevant web sites and links to the other NCBI molecular biology resources.

"PubMed is a free resource that is developed and maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), located at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)", accessed 12-2016.

From the Wikipedia article on PubMed, accessed 12-2016:

"PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval.

From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database had been primarily through institutional facilities, such as university libraries. PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching.[1] The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore.[2

In addition to MEDLINE, PubMed provides access to:

  • older references from the print version of Index Medicus back to 1951 and earlier;
  • references to some journals before they were indexed in Index Medicus and MEDLINE, for instance ScienceBMJ, and Annals of Surgery;
  • very recent entries to records for an article before it is indexed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and added to MEDLINE; and
  • a collection of books available full-text and other subsets of NLM records.[3]
  • PMC citations

Many PubMed records contain links to full text articles, some of which are freely available, often in PubMed Central[4] and local mirrors such as UK PubMed Central.[5]

Information about the journals indexed in MEDLINE and available through PubMed is found in the NLM Catalog.[6]



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8114


Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1998.

"MedlinePlus is the National Institutes of Health's Web site for patients and their families and friends. Produced by the National Library of Medicine, the world’s largest medical library, it brings you information about diseases, conditions, and wellness issues in language you can understand. MedlinePlus offers reliable, up-to-date health information, anytime, anywhere, for free.

You can use MedlinePlus to learn about the latest treatments, look up information on a drug or supplement, find out the meanings of words, or view medical videos or illustrations. You can also get links to the latest medical research on your topic or find out about clinical trials on a disease or condition.

Health professionals and consumers alike can depend on it for information that is authoritative and up-to-date. MedlinePlus has extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other trusted sources on over 975 diseases and conditions. There are directories, a medical encyclopedia and a medical dictionary, health information in Spanish, extensive information on prescription and nonprescription drugs, health information from the media, and links to thousands of clinical trials. MedlinePlus is updated daily and can be bookmarked at the URL:" (accessed 12-2016).

From the Wikipedia article on MedlinePlus, accessed 12-2016:

"MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine. The service provides curated consumer health information in English and Spanish.[1] The site brings together information from the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), other U.S. government agencies, and health-related organizations. There is also a site optimized for display on mobile devices, in both English and Spanish. In 2015, about 400 million people from around the world used MedlinePlus.[2] The service is funded by the NLM and is free to users.

MedlinePlus provides encyclopedic information on health and drug issues, and provides a directory of medical services. MedlinePlus Connect links patients or providers in electronic health record (EHR) systems to related MedlinePlus information on conditions or medications.

PubMed Health[3] is another NLM site that offers consumer health information, in addition to information for health professionals.


The National Library of Medicine has long provided programs and services for professional medical scientists and health care providers, including MEDLINE and the various services that access it, such as PubMed and Entrez. By the 1990s, more members of the general public were using these services as Internet access became widespread.[4] But nonprofessional users could benefit from reliable health information in a layperson-accessible format.[5][6][7] The National Library of Medicine introduced MedlinePlus in October 1998, to provide a non-commercial online service similar, for example, to the commercial WebMD. In 2010 another NCBI service, PubMed Health, complemented MedlinePlus in offering curated consumer health information; PubMed Health focuses especially on finding information about clinical effectiveness of treatments.[8]

MedlinePlus initially provided 22 health topics in English, which expanded to almost 1000 health topics in English and Spanish, plus links to health information in over 40 languages. MedlinePlus was recognized by the Medical Library Association for its role in providing health information.[9] The site scored 84 in the American Customer Satisfaction Index for 2010.[10]"

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8115



From the Wikipedia article on MEDLINE, accessed 12-2016:

MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. It includes bibliographic information for articles from academic journals covering medicinenursingpharmacydentistryveterinary medicine, and health care. MEDLINE also covers much of the literature in biology and biochemistry, as well as fields such as molecular evolution.

Compiled by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), MEDLINE is freely available on the Internet and searchable via PubMed and NLM's National Center for Biotechnology Information's Entrez system.

MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) is a computerised biomedical bibliographic retrieval system. It was launched by the National Library of Medicine in 1964 and was the first large scale, computer based, retrospective search service available to the general public.[1]

Initial development of MEDLARS[edit]

Since 1879, the National Library of Medicine had published Index Medicus, a monthly guide to medical articles in thousands of journals. The huge volume of bibliographic citations were manually compiled. In 1957 the staff of the NLM started to plan the mechanization of the Index Medicus, prompted by a desire for a better way to manipulate all this information, not only for Index Medicus but also to produce subsidiary products. By 1960 a detailed specification was prepared and by the spring of 1961 a request for proposals was sent out to 72 companies to develop the system. As a result, a contract was awarded to the General Electric Company. The computer (a Minneapolis-Honeywell 800) which was to run MEDLARS was delivered to the NLM in March 1963, and Frank Bradway Rogers(Director of the NLM 1949 to 1963) said at the time "..If all goes well, the January 1964 issue of Index Medicus will be ready to emerge from the system at the end of this year. It may be that this will mark the beginning of a new era in medical bibliography."

MEDLARS cost $3 million to develop and at the time of its completion in 1964, no other publicly available, fully operational electronic storage and retrieval system of its magnitude existed. The original computer configuration operated from 1964 until its replacement by MEDLARS II in January 1975.[2][3]


In late 1971, an online version called MEDLINE ("MEDLARS Online") became available as a way to do online searching of MEDLARS from remote medical libraries.[4] This early system covered 239 journals and boasted that it could support as many as 25 simultaneous online users (remotely logged-in from distant medical libraries) at one time.[5] However, this system remained primarily in the hands of libraries, with researchers able to submit pre-programmed search tasks to librarians and obtain results on printouts, but rarely able to interact with the NLM computer output in real-time. This situation continued through the beginning of the 1990s and the rise of the World Wide Web.

In 1996, soon after most home computers began automatically bundling efficient web browsers, a free public version of MEDLINE was instigated. This system, called PubMed, was offered to the general online user in June, 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a public ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore.[5]


The database contains more than 26 million records[6] from 5,639 selected publications[7] covering biomedicine and health from 1950 to the present. Originally the database covered articles starting from 1965, but this has been enhanced, and records as far back as 1950/51 are now available within the main index. The database is freely accessible on the Internet via the PubMed interface and new citations are added Tuesday through Saturday. For citations added during 1995-2003: about 48% are for cited articles published in the U.S., about 88% are published in English, and about 76% have English abstracts written by authors of the articles.


MEDLINE uses Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) for information retrieval. Engines designed to search MEDLINE (such as Entrez and PubMed) generally use a Boolean expression combining MeSH terms, words in abstract and title of the article, author names, date of publication, etc. Entrez and PubMed can also find articles similar to a given one based on a mathematical scoring system that takes into account the similarity of word content of the abstracts and titles of two articles.[8]"



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8116

Internet Archive.

San Francisco, CA: Internet Archive, 1996.

From the Wikipedia article on the Internet Archive, accessed 12-2016:

"The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".[4][5] It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including web sites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes.[6] In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.

"The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures.[7][8] The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

"Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[9] Its headquarters are in San FranciscoCalifornia, where about 30 of its 200 employees work. Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To prevent losing the data in case of e.g. a natural disaster, the Archive attempts to create copies of (parts of) the collection at more distant locations, currently including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina[10] in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam.[11] The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium[12] and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.[13"

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8117

The Wellcome Library Digital Collections.

London: Wellcome Library, 2010.

"The Wellcome Library is developing a world-class online resource for the history of medicine by digitising a substantial proportion of its holdings and making the content freely available on the web.

We select material based on the strengths of our holdings and the interests of current or potential audiences. We also aim to create significant online resources that will stimulate research in the global health themes that underpin our collecting strategy.

The Library’s digital collections are growing to include:

  • cover-to-cover books
  • video and audio
  • entire archive collections and manuscripts
  • paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, ephemera and more.

We will also strive to include important content from other institutions, which complements our own holdings, and to explore commercial partnerships for cost-effective digitisation of other parts of our collections.


There are a range of tools and features to help you find and use the Library’s digitised content.

You can:

  • Browse all digitised content by topic, genre, author and collection
  • Search the catalogue for your topic to find digital media alongside analogue resources.
  • Subscribe via RSS to see new additions to the digital collections. 
  • View, download and reuse content under a range of licenses, including Creative Commons non-commercial, attribution and Public Domain licenses where appropriate.

Digitised material is gradually being added to the Library website and catalogue. Some access restrictions will apply. For full details, download the Library’s policy on Access personal data within our research collections [PDF 1.85MB]." (, accessed 12-2016).




Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8118

Hathi Trust Digital Library.


"HathiTrust began in 2008 as a collaboration of the universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (now the Big Ten Academic Alliance) and the University of California system to establish a repository to archive and share their digitized collections. HathiTrust quickly expanded to include additional partners and to provide those partners with an easy means to archive their digital content.

The initial focus of the partnership has been on preserving and providing access to digitized book and journal content from the partner library collections. This includes both in copyright and public domain materials digitized by Google, the Internet Archive, and Microsoft, as well as through in-house initiatives. The partners aim to build a comprehensive archive of published literature from around the world and to develop shared strategies for managing and developing their digital and print holdings in a collaborative way.

The primary community that HathiTrust serves is the members (faculty, students, and users) of its partner libraries, but the materials in HathiTrust are available to all to the extent permitted by law and contracts, providing the published record as a public good to users around the world" (, accessed 12-2016).


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8119

Google Books.

Mountain View, CA: Google LLC, 2004.

From the Wikipedia article on Google Books, accessed 12 -2016: 

"Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.[1] Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project.[2] Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives.[3][4]

The Publisher Program was first known as 'Google Print' when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004.

The Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge[5][6]and promoting the democratization of knowledge.[7] But it has also been criticized for potential copyright violations,[7][8] and lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.

As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries.[9][10]Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world,[11][12] and stated that it intended to scan all of them.[11]"

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8120

The social function of science.

London: George Routledge, 1939.

This pioneering sociological study contained two large folding information graphics. The first was one of the first attempts at a "map of science." It divided science into physical, biological, and social sectors, and distinguished between fundamental and technical research.

  • 8121

Graphic methods for presenting facts.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 1914.

The first book on information graphics published in America. Digital facsimile of the 1919 printing from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 8122

Graphic presentation of statistical information: Papers presented at the 136th annual meeting of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section: Session of Graphical Methods for Presenting Statistical Data: Boston, Massachusetts, August 23-26, 1976, Vol. 3.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics › Graphic Display of, GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 8123

Medical ethics in antiquity: Philosophical perspectives on abortion and euthanasia.

Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1985.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › History of Ancient Medicine & Biology, Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Abortion
  • 8124

Medical ethics in the ancient world.

Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2001.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › History of Ancient Medicine & Biology, Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics
  • 8125

Hippocrates in a world of pagans and Christians.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Late Antiquity, Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 8126

Galenism: Rise and decline of a medical philosophy.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire › History of Medicine in the Roman Empire
  • 8127

La Doctrine classique de la médecine indienne. Ses origines et ses parallèles grecs.

Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1949.

Second edition, Paris: Ecole Française d'Extêm-Orient, 1975. English translation: The classical doctrine of Indian medicine: Its origins and its Greek parallels. Translated from the original in French by Dev Raj Chanana, New Delhi: Munshiram Monharial, 1964. Digital facsimile of the 1964 translation from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › India
  • 8128

Medical ethics in imperial China: A study in historical anthropology.

Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1979.

The first comprehensive history of explicity medical ethics in pre-modern China, spans the period from 500 BCE through the 19th century and provides literal translations of all accessible codes of ethics in the known Chinese medical literature.

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › History of Anthropology, Chinese Medicine › History of Chinese Medicine, Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics
  • 8129

Medical ethics in the Renaissance.

Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1995.

The first comprehensive examination of medical ethics in the Renaissance.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics, Renaissance Medicine › History of Renaissance Medicine
  • 8130

The codification of medical morality: Historical and philosophical studies of the formalization of western medical morality in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Vol. 1: Volume One: Medical ethics and etiquette in the eighteenth century. Vol. 2: Anglo-American medical ethics and medical jurisprudence in the nineteenth century. Edited by Robert Baker, Dorothy Porter and Roy Porter.

Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 19931995.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics
  • 8131

Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 4th edition. Edited by Bruce Jennings. 6 vols.

New York: Macmillan, 2014.

Subjects: Encyclopedias, Ethics, Biomedical
  • 8132

Observations on the duties and offices of a physician; and on the method of prosecuting enquiries in philosophy.

London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1770.

"The first philosophical, secular medical ethics in the English language" (Lawrence, Paul. "(John Gregory." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.). "Gregory divided the practice of medicine into four parts, or branches: 'the art of preserving health, of prolonging life, of curing diseases, and making death easy' " (Vanderpool, Palliative care [2015] 19). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING, Ethics, Biomedical
  • 8133

Medical ethics and etiquette. The code of ethics adopted by the American Medical Association, with commentaries by Austin Flint.

New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1883.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical, Societies and Associations, Medical
  • 8134

The emergence of Roman Catholic medical ethics in North America: An historical, methodological, bibliographical study.

Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1979.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 8135

Jewish medical ethics: A comparative and historical study of the Jewish religious attitude to medicine and its practice.

New York: Bloch Publishing Company, 1959.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical, Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics, Jews and Medicine, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 8136

Final report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel.

Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1973.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

  • 8137

Primer of robotic & telerobotic surgery. Edited by Garth H. Ballantyne, Jacques Marescaux, and Pier Cristoforo Giulianotti.

Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Robotics, Robotics & Telerobotics in Medicine & Surgery, Telemedicine
  • 8138

Telepresence: Dextrous procedures in a virtual operating field.

American Journal of Surgery, 57, 192, 1991.

The first teleoperated surgery. Funded by the U.S. Dept. of Defense, the first prototype of a telesurgery robot was developed at Stanford Research International (SRI) (Menlo Park, CA) and called the Green Telepresence System. It was primarily developed for open surgery.

Subjects: Robotics & Telerobotics in Medicine & Surgery, Telemedicine
  • 8139

Telesurgical laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Surg. Endosc., 12, 1091, 1998.

First teleoperated (robotic) surgery on a patient.

"On March 3, 1997, I successfully performed the first “robotic” laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a 52-year old female patient who suffered from symptomatic cholecystolithiasis.[2] I performed the surgery at some 10 yards away from the patient, while sitting at the master’s console. In the meantime, a second surgeon, Dr. Guido Leman, was standing at the patient’s side to hold the camera and to provide assistance in case of technical mishaps. The effector system consisted of two articulated robot arms to which the sterile tools had been snapped. At the time, the tools consisted of a grasper and a coagulating hook mounted at the end of articulated “endo-wrist” mechanisms that had been introduced inside the patient’s abdomen through conventional trocar cannula’s placed by the first author at the beginning of the procedure. The procedure was performed under guidance of a 3D optical system that required the use of adjusting goggles to obtain an in-depth view of the surgical field.

"Minor problems were encountered, such as imperfect insolation of the hook that had to be covered by the tip of a glove that was tied to the endo-wrist system. The grasper tip (the grasper was actually a needle holder) was found to be too sharp to allow common use. However, the procedure was concluded successfully in 65 minutes, and the patient made an uneventful recovery" (Jacques Himpens, "My experience performing the first telesurgical procedure in the world," Bariatric Times, April 1, 2016).

Subjects: Robotics & Telerobotics in Medicine & Surgery, SURGERY: General
  • 8140

The NeuroStation--a highly accurate, minimally invasive solution to frameless stereotactic neurosurgery.

Comput. Med. Imaging Graph., 18, 247-56, 1994.

The beginning of image-guided surgery. Abstract: "The NeuroStation is an image-guided neurosurgery workstation designed to deliver frameless stereotaxy within an ergonomic, integrated surgical environment. Generally, stereotaxy can provide the neurosurgeon with important intra-operative localization information using diagnostic images such as computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To date, however, stereotaxy has not been widely accepted by neurosurgeons due to the procedural difficulties of incorporating conventional stereotaxy. The NeuroStation addresses the problems of conventional stereotaxy through the use of frameless stereotactic methods wherein state-of-the-art instrumentation and computer innovations allow: a) standard surgical instruments to be used as the localization device; b) multipoint registration methods in place of frame-based registration; and c) real-time interactive surgical localization. The NeuroStation can thus be transparently integrated into the neurosurgical procedure providing the neurosurgeon with image-guidance for surgical planning, biopsies, craniotomies, endoscopy, intra-operative ultrasound, radiation therapy, etc."

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSURGERY › Stereotactic Neurosurgery
  • 8141

The American medical ethics revolution: How the AMA's code of ethics has transformed physicians' relationships to patients, professionals, and society.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical
  • 8142

Before bioethics: A history of American medical ethics from the colonial period to the bioethics revolution.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical › History of Biomedical Ethics
  • 8143

Anyone, anything, anytime: A history of emergency medicine.

Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier, 2005.

Subjects: Emergency Medicine
  • 8144

The ambulance: A history.

Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.

Subjects: Emergency Medicine
  • 8145

Essays on the history of physiology in Russia, by Kh.S. Koshtoyants. Editor of English translation: Donald B. Lindsley. Translated from the Russian by David Boder, Kristan Hanes [and] Natalie O'Brien.

Washington, DC: American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1964.

Focuses on neurophysiology, especially the work of Sechenov and Pavlov. Originally published in Moscow, 1946.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 8146

The visual display of quantitative information.

Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1983.

Subjects: GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 8147

Atlas of science: Visualizing what we know.

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010.

Subjects: GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 8148

The statistical breviary; shewing, on a principle entirely new, the resources of every state and kingdom in Europe; illustrated with stained copperplate charts, representing the physical powers of each distinct nation with ease and perspicuity. To which is added, a similar exhibition of the ruling powers of Hindoostan.

London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Wallis, 1801.

In this work Playfair invented the pie chart. It has also been suggested that Playfair, often short of funds, may have colored the charts in all the copies himself—the process he characterized as "staining" in the title. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Pie chart from Playfair's Statistical Breviary (1801), showing the proportions of the Turkish Empire located in Asia, Europe and Africa before 1789

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics › Graphic Display of, GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 8149

Representation of a Function by its Line Integrals, with Some Radiological Applications.

Journal of Applied Physics, 34, 2722-27, 1963.

Cormack showed that changes in tissue density could be computed from x-ray data. Because of limitations in computing power no machine was constructed during the 1960s. Cormack's papers generated little interest until Godfrey Hounsfield and colleagues invented computed tomography, and built the first CT scanner in 1971, creating a real application of Cormack's theories. Cormack continued with "Representation of a Function by its Line Integrals, with Some Radiological Applications. II," Journal of Applied Physics 35 (1964) 2908-13.  

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, IMAGING › Computed Tomography (CT, CAT)
  • 8150

Medical imaging by NMR.

Brit. J. Radiol., 50, 188, 1977.

Mansfield developed a mathematical technique that would allow NMR scans to take seconds rather than hours and produce clearer images than the technique Paul Lauterbur developed in 1973. Mansfield showed how gradients in the magnetic field could be mathematically analysed, which made it possible to develop a useful nuclear magnetic resonance imaging technique. Mansfield also showed how extremely fast imaging could be achievable. This became technically possible a decade later. See also P Mansfield, "Multi-planar imaging formation using NMR spin echoes," J. Physics C. Solid State Phys. 10 (1977) L55–L58.


Subjects: IMAGING › Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • 8151

3D printed bionic ears.

Nano Letters, 13, 2634-2639, 2013.

Description and illustration of the first 3D printed bionic organ: an ear.  From the Abstract: "The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements.' The abstract and two color images are available from at this link.

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 8152

Das Werden der Welten. Mit Unterstützung des Verfassers aus dem schwedischen übersetzt von L. Bamberger.

Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, 1907.

In this work Arrhenius predicted the possibility of man-made global warming. His prediction that significant global warming would take ~3000 years to develop is now recognized as a substantial underestimate due in part to his failure to foresee the rapid increases in fossil fuel use during the twentieth century. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Climate Change, Environmental Science & Health
  • 8153

Die Entstehung der Kontinente.

Mitteilung aus Justus Perthes’ geographischer Anstalt, 58, 185-195; 253-256; 305-309, 1912.

Wegener originated the theory of continental drift in this paper on the origin of continents, which he conceived after being struck by the apparent correspondence in the shapes of the coastlines on the west and east sides of the Atlantic, and supported with extensive research on the geological and paleontological correspondences between the two sides. He postulated that 200 million years ago there existed a supercontinent (“Pangaea”), which began to break up during the Mesozoic era due to the cumulative effects of the “Eötvös force,” which drives continents towards the equator, and the tidal attraction of the sun and moon, which drags the earth’s crust westward with respect to its interior. Wegener’s theory attracted little interest until 1919, when he published the second edition of his treatise Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, EVOLUTION
  • 8154

Plant succession: An analysis of the development of vegetation.

Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1916.

A seminal work of ecological science, establishing a dynamic model of species succession toward an eventual "climax" equilibrium under the influence of climate and other factors in a given habitat. "From his observations of the vegetation of Nebraska and the western United States, Clements developed one of the most influential theories of vegetation development. Vegetation cover does not represent a permanent condition but gradually changes over time. Clements suggested that the development of vegetation can be understood as a sequence of stages resembling the development of an individual organism. After a complete or partial disturbance, vegetation grows back (under ideal conditions) towards a mature "climax state," which describes the vegetation best suited to the local conditions. Though any actual instance of vegetation might follow the ideal sequence towards climax, it can be interpreted in relation to that sequence, as a deviation from it due to non-ideal conditions" (Wikipedia article on Frederick Clements, accessed 12-2016). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, BOTANY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Nebraska
  • 8155

The theory of island biogeography.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.

MacArthur and Wilson showed that the species richness of an area could be predicted in terms of such factors as habitat area, immigration rate and extinction rate.


Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, Biogeography
  • 8156

The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content.

Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96, 320-325., 1970.

Crutzen showed that nitrous oxide impacts the ozone layer by pointing out "that emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a stable, long-lived gas produced by soil bacteria, from the Earth's surface could affect the amount of nitric oxide (NO) in the stratosphere. He showed that nitrous oxide lives long enough to reach the stratosphere, where it is converted into NO. Crutzen then noted that increasing use of fertilizers might have led to an increase in nitrous oxide emissions over the natural background, which would in turn result in an increase in the amount of NO in the stratosphere. Thus human activity could have an impact on the stratospheric ozone layer" (Wikipedia article on Ozone depletion, accessed 12-2016).

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, Environmental Science & Health
  • 8157

Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone.

Nature, 249, 810-812, 1974.

Rowland and his post-doctoral student, Molina, suggested that long-lived organic halogen compounds, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), could reach the stratosphere where they would be dissociated by UV light, releasing chlorine atoms, and depleting the ozone layer.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, Environmental Science & Health
  • 8158

Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal Cl0x/Nox interaction.

Nature, 315, 207-210, 1985.

Discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. In December 2016 the full text of the paper was available from at this link.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, Environmental Science & Health
  • 8159

NeuroTribes: The legacy of autism and the future of neurodiversity. Foreward by Oliver Sacks.

New York: Avery, an imprint of Penguin Random House, 2015.

A very well written semi-popular historical account of autism.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROLOGY › Neurodevelopmental Disorders, NEUROLOGY › Neurodevelopmental Disorders › Autism
  • 8160

Art of Vesalius. Edited by Robrecht Van Hee.

Antwerp: Garant, 2014.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 8161

Histoire du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge. De Solférino à Tsoushima.

Paris: H. Plon, 1963.

English translation: History of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Volume I: From Solferino to Tsushima. (Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute, 1985).

Subjects: Global Health, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8162

Histoire du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge. Vol. 2: De Sarajevo à Hiroshima.

Geneva: Institut Henri Dunant, 1978.

English translation:  History of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Volume II: From Sarajevo to Hiroshima (Geneva:  Henri Dunant Institute, 1984).

Subjects: Global Health, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8163

De Yalta à Dien Bien Phu: Histoire du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge, 1945-1955. (Histoire du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge. Vol. 3:)

Geneva: Georg Editeur, 2007.

Subjects: Global Health, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8164

De Budapest à Saigon: Histoire du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge, 1956-1965. (Histoire du Comité international de la Croix-Rouge, Vol.4.)

Geneva: Georg Editeur, 2009.

Subjects: Global Health, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8165

International Committee of the Red Cross: History.

Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 2016. Extensive background, videos, links to the ICRC archives, etc., etc. Accessed 12-2016

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , Global Health, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8166

The humanitarians: The International Committee of the Red Cross.

New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Subjects: Global Health, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8167

The Wikipedia.

San Francisco, CA: Wikimedia Foundation, 2001.

When I posted this in December 2016 there were over 5,300,000 entries just in the English language Wikipedia.

Though, of course, the quality of entries, varies, and one has to read everything critically, many Wikipedia articles are the best encyclopedia entries on the subjects concerned, and, of course, they are free to all.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Collaborations Online (Wikis), Encyclopedias
  • 8168

Gallica: La bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1997.

Gallica includes printed materials, graphic materials, and sound recordings. These materials are royalty-free and available free of charge when used strictly for private purposes.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8169

Münchener DigitalisierungsZentrum Digitale Bibliothek.

Munich: Bayerische StaatsBibliothek, 1997.

"Since 1997, the Munich Digitization Center has been offering the rich holdings of the Bavarian State Library (BSB) on the Internet. It is the central innovation and production unit of BSB for the development, testing and deployment of new products and processes..., in particular for digitization and preservation."  

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8170

ECHO: Exploring and Collecting History Online.


"ECHO (Exploring and Collecting History Online) is a portal to over 5,000 websites concerning the history of science, technology, and industry. This guide helps researchers find the exact information they need while also granting curious browsers a forum for exploration. 

ECHO is also a first step into the field of digital history: since 2001 it has been a laboratory for experimentation in this new field, and it fosters communication and dialog among historians, scientists, engineers, doctors, and technologists. In addition to facilitating access to digital resources on the history of science, technology, and industry, ECHO has promoted the creation of digital history with tools like Zotero and the construction of Digital Memory Bank technology (as in preserving the memories of Hurricane Katrina). We also help scholars and institutions with their own digital history projects through workshops and consultancies. 

The project is based at George Mason University's Center for History and New Media."

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8171

U.S. National Library of Medicine Digital Projects.

Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1998.

Also: Circulating Now: From the Historical Collections of the World's Largest Biomedical Library

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 8172

The computer and medical care.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1968.

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 8173

The growth of medical information systems in the United States.

Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath and Company, 1979.

"About a fourth of the operating cost off hospitals is expended on information handling. (p. 2).

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › History of Computing / Mathematics in Medicine & Biology
  • 8174

HPP-64-1 DENDRAL-64-A system for computer construction, enumeration and notation of organic molecules as three structures and cyclic graphs. Interim report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, December 15, (1964).


DENDRAL is considered the first expert system because it automated the decision-making process and problem-solving behavior of organic chemists. The project consisted of research on two main programs, Heuristic Dendral and Meta-Dendral,[4] and several sub-programs. It was written in Lisp (programming language). Digital facsimile from the National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , BIOCHEMISTRY, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 8175

Applications of artificial intelligence for organic chemistry: The Dendral project.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.

Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , BIOCHEMISTRY, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 8176

Upon the electrical experiments to determine the location of the bullet in the body of the late President Garfield; and upon a successful form of induction balance for the painless detection of metallic masses in the human body.

Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 31st Meeting, 151-205, 1883.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Electrodiagnosis, Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine), INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 8177

A history of medical informatics in the United States, 1950-1990.

Bethesda, MD: American Medical Informatics Association, 1995.

Second edition, edited by Morris F. Collen and Marion J. Ball, and published the year after Collen's death at the age of 100, retitled The history of medical informatics in the United States (New York: Springer, 2015).

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › History of Computing / Mathematics in Medicine & Biology
  • 8178

Automated multiphasic screening and diagnosis.

Am. J. Public Health Nations Health, 54, 741-750, 1964.

Describes aspects of the pioneering automated multiphasic screening and diagnosis program at the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, the origins of their medical informatics system, developed by Collen and colleagues at Kaiser with the help of mathematicians/statisticians Dantzig and Neyman. Also by Robert M. Baer and A. B. Siegelaub. Collen directed the development of medical informatics at Kaiser Permanente. By 2017 this was probably the most advanced system of electronic medical records management. Digital facsimile from PubMed Central at this link.

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 8179

A model for national health care: The history of Kaiser Permanente.

New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1993.

Subjects: ECONOMICS, BIOMEDICAL › History of Biomedical Economics, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, Insurance, Health › History of Health Insurance
  • 8180

Kaiser wakes the doctors.

New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1943.

The first book on what became the Kaiser Permanente health plan, initially set up by Henry J. Kaiser to provide health care for his 200,000 workers.

Subjects: ECONOMICS, BIOMEDICAL, Insurance, Health › History of Health Insurance
  • 8181

Medical geography in historical perspective. (Medical History, Supplement No. 20). Edited by Nicolaas A. Rupke.

London: Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine, 2000.

Subjects: Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 8182

Histoire de la pensée médicale en Occident : Tome 1: Antiquité et Moyen Age. Tome 2: De la Renaissance aux Lumières. Tome 3: Du romantisme à la science moderne. Edited by Mirko Grmek.

Paris: Editions du Seuil, 19992014.

Subjects: History of Medicine: General Works
  • 8183

Les maladies dans l'art antique.

Paris: Fayard, 1998.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › History of Ancient Medicine & Biology, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 8184

Locating medical history: The stories and their meanings. Edited by Frank Huisman and John Harley Warner.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

Subjects: Historiography of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 8185

The inevitable hour: A history of caring for dying patients in America.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Hospice, DEATH & DYING › Palliative Care , GERIATRICS / Gerontology / Aging › History of Gerontology & Aging, HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 8186

Novato, CA, 2015.

On December 27, 2016, as this database reached its 10,000th entry, though its entry number is less because of the old decimal extensions used in the prior printed editions, I decided to add it in the "electronic resource" category. What distinguishes this site from the other "electronic resources" included under this category til this date is that it has been the work of only three people: Fielding Garrison, Leslie Morton, and myself, and it traces its origins back to 1912.  See About

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8187

Hippocratic heritage: A history of ideas about weather and human health.

New York & Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1982.

The first historical survey of human biometeorology, tracing the evolution of the Hippocratic idea that weather is one of the dterminants of health from its ancient origins to time of writing.

Subjects: Bioclimatology › History of Bioclimatology, Geography of Disease / Health Geography › History of Geography of Disease
  • 8188

Histoire médicale de l'Armée d'Orient.

Paris: Croullebois & Bossange, 1802.

Napoleon appointed Desgenettes physician-in-chief for his expedition into Egypt. Desgenette's Histoire contained 19 separate chapters written by expedition personel. Digital facsimile of the 1802 from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the expanded third edition (1835) from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Egypt, Geography of Disease / Health Geography, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › Napoleon's Campaigns & Wars
  • 8189

The emergence of tropical medicine in France.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, TROPICAL Medicine › History of Tropical Medicine
  • 8190

Traité de géographie et de statistique médicales et des maladies endémiques comprenant la météorologie et la géologie médicales, les lois stastisuqes de la population et de la mortalité, la distribution géographique des malades et la pathologie comparée des races humaines. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1857.

Digital facsimile of vol. 1 from Google Books at this link; of vol. 2 from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: Bioclimatology, Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 8191

Incunabula Short Title Catalogue (ISTC).


"The Incunabula Short Title Catalogue is the international database of 15th-century European printing created by the British Library with contributions from institutions worldwide.

"You can:

  • perform a simple search using different kinds of keywords
  • find items by browsing author, title, dates, and other headings

"The database records nearly every item printed from movable type before 1501, but not material printed entirely from woodblocks or engraved plates. 30,518 editions are listed as of August 2016, including some 16th-century items previously assigned incorrectly to the 15th century. Information on each item includes authors, short titles, the language of the text, printer, place and date of printing, and format. Locations for copies have been confirmed by libraries all over the world. Many links are provided to online digital facsimiles, and also to major online catalogues of incunabula such as the Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke, the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Inkunabelkatalog and Bod-Inc online.

"A number of copies recorded in ISTC are now described in detail in the Material Evidence in Incunabula (MEI) database. In due course, links will be added from the copies recorded in ISTC to their descriptions in MEI" (, accessed 12-2016).


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8192

Dictionary of scientific biography. Vols. 1-16 (1-15, Supplement 1) edited by Charles Coulston Gillespie. Vols. 17-18 (Supplement 2) edited by Frederick L. Holmes.

New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 19701990.

Over 5,000 biographies, each with detailed bibliographies of primary and secondary sources. Medical biographies tend to be of physiologists and other researchers rather than clinicians. Includes an exhaustive index and some topical essays. The Concise dictionary of scientific biography (New York, Scribner’s, [1981]) contains in 1 vol. very useful abridged versions of all biographies found in the 16 vol. work without the bibliographies.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works)
  • 8193

Islamic science: An Illustrated study.

London: World of Islam Festival Publishing Company Ltd., 1976.

Includes chapters on natural history, medicine and pharmacology, agriculture and irrigation, man and the natural environment.

Subjects: Agriculture / Horticulture, ISLAMIC OR ARAB MEDICINE › History of Islamic or Arab Medicine, Zoology / Natural History, Islamic
  • 8194


Manchester, 2014. "Copac exposes rare and unique research material by bringing together the catalogues of c.90 major UK and Irish libraries (and growing). In a single search you can discover the holdings of the UK’s national libraries (including the British Library), many University libraries, and specialist research libraries.  Researchers and educators use Copac to save time in their research, to quickly and easily discover and locate resources, to check document details, review materials in their field, and assess the rarity of materials etc. Information professionals trust Copac to give them access to a unique pool of high-quality bibliographic information.

"Searching Copac means you are searching a wide and varied range of library catalogues, from the collections of the Oxford and Cambridge universities to the libraries at the National Trust and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Copac’s contributors run the gamut from conservatoires to the catalogues of the major Russian and East European Collections in the country. We are adding more libraries all the time with a focus on specialist research collections, for example the Middle Temple Library and Institution of Mechanical Engineers Library, increasing the visibility of a growing range of specialist and rare materials" (accessed 12-2016).


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8195

OCLC WorldCat.


"WordCat is world's largest network of library content and lets you search the collections of libraries in your community and thousands more around the world. WorldCat grows every day thanks to the efforts of librarians and other information professionals."

WorldCat is a service of OCLC which originated in 1967. "As of March 2015, the OCLC database contained over 336M records with 2.2 billion cataloged items, and is the world's largest bibliographic database covering 72,000 libraries."[24]

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8196

Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog. Karlsruhe Virtual Catalog (KVK).

The Karlsruhe Virtual Catalog (KVK) is a meta search engine for the detection of several hundred million media in library and book trade catalogs worldwide.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8197

The Universal Short Title Catalogue (USTC).

St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland: University of St. Andrews, 2007.

"The USTC is a collective database of all books published in Europe between the invention of printing and the end of the sixteenth century" (, accessed 12-2016). It is hosted by the University of St. Andrews.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases
  • 8198

The English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC).


"The English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) lists over 480,000 items published between 1473 and 1800, mainly but not exclusively, in English, published mainly in the British isles and North America, from the collections of the British Library and over 2,000 other libraries.", accessed 12-2016.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom)
  • 8199

The European Library.


"Designed to meet the needs of the research community worldwide, our online portal offers quick and easy access to the collections of the 48 National Libraries of Europe and leading European Research Libraries. Users can cross-search and reuse over 28,627,026 digital items and 175,511,348 bibliographic records. To facilitate further research, links are also provided to other websites in the Europeana group" ( accessed 12-2016.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries