An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15423 entries, 13280 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 17, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 12300–12399

100 entries
  • 12300

Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 74, 5088-5090, 1977.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Woese, Fox.) Woese and Fox discovered a "third kingdom" in microbial life that they called "archaebacteria" (Archaea) as distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. In their original classification archaebacteria were classified as bacteria.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Available from pnas.org at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › TAXONOMY, BIOLOGY › TAXONOMY › Classification of Cellular Life, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 12301

Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 87, 4576-4579, 1990.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Woese, Kandler, Wheelis.) Introduction of the three-domain biological classification system that divides cellular life into three forms or domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.  Archaea and bacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms, the cells of which have no nucleus. The  Eukarya domain includes all life that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, and multicellular organisms

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Digital facsimile from pnas.org at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › TAXONOMY › Classification of Cellular Life, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 12302

Isolation of an archeon at the prokaryote eukaryote interface.

Nature, 577, 519-525, 2020.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Imachi, Nobu, Nakahara...Takai.) The authors report that after 12 years of research they have cultured a microorganism that may be the transitional species between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The organism, obtained from deep ocean sediments, they named Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum. It has a large number of genes that encode eukaryotic signature proteins only found in eurkaryotes. This bacterium has long tentacle-like protrusions emanating from its surface, and its metabolism characteristics prompted the authors to propose a new model for the emergence of the first eukaryotic cell. Instead of the classic phagocytosis concept of one cell eating another, the authors proposed that this host archaeon connected to the metabolic partner using the newly discovered tentacular extracellular structures and simultaneously formed a primitive chromosome surrounding structure that is topologically similar to the nuclear membrane.

"On the basis of the available data obtained from cultivation and genomics, and reasoned interpretations of the existing literature, we propose a hypothetical model for eukaryogenesis, termed the entangle–engulf–endogenize (also known as E3) model." (From the abstract.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Open source from Nature.com at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, BIOLOGY › TAXONOMY › Classification of Cellular Life, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 12303

Sur les organisms de la nitrification.

Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, 110, 1013-1016, 1890.

In his research on nitrifying bacteria Winogradsky discovered the first known form of chemoautotrophy in which organisms obtain energy by oxidation of electron donors in their environments without the intervention of light energy. This was a key discovery in the nitrogen cycle.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, MICROBIOLOGY › Environmental Microbiology
  • 12304

Expression of a bacterial gene in mammalian cells.

Science, 209, 1422-1427, 1980.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Mulligan, Berg.) In an understated paper the authors suggested the potential of treating recessive diseases like Lesch-Nyhan syndrome by gene therapy.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS
  • 12305

Virus-like particles in serum of patients with Australia-antigen-associated hepatitis.

Lancet, 295, 695-698, 1970.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Dane, Cameron, Briggs.) The authors showed that the "Australian antigen" was a virus causing hepatitis B.
(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Hepatitis, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae
  • 12306

Chronic liver disease and primary liver-cell cancer with hepatitis-associated (Australia) antigen in serum.

Lancet, 295, 1243-1247, 1970.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Sherlock, Niazi, Fox...). The authors demonstrated that the hepatitis B virus can cause cancer.
(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Hepatitis, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae › Hepatitis B Virus
  • 12307

Zwischen Magie und Wissenschaft: Ärzte und Heilkunst in den Papyri aus Ägypten.

Vienna: Phoibos-Verlag, 2007.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Egypt › History of Ancient Medicine in Egypt
  • 12308

Les maladies à l'aube de la civilisation occidentale. Recherches sur la réalité pathologique dans le monde grec préhistorique, archaïque et classique.

Paris: Payot, 1983.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › History of Ancient Medicine & Biology, PATHOLOGY › Paleopathology › History of Paleopathology
  • 12309

Innovation in Byzantine medicine: The writings of John Zacharias Aktourarios (c. 1275- c. 1330). By Petros Bouras-Vallianatos.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020.


Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE
  • 12310

Die hochsprachliche profane Literatur der Byzantiner. Vol. 1: Philosophie, Rhetorik, Epistolographie, Geschichtschreibung, Geographie. Vol. 2: Philologie, Profandichtung, Musik, Mathematik und Astronomie, Naturwissenschaften, Medizin, Kriegswissenschaft, Rechsliteratur. By Herbert Hunger, assisted by Christan Hannick and Peter E. Pieler.

Munich: C. H. Beck, 1978.


Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE
  • 12311

Manuscripta medica: A descriptive catalogue of the manuscripts in the library of the Medical Society of London.

London: John Bale, Sons & Danielsson, 1932.

This manuscript collection was acquired by the Wellcome Trustees in 1984, and is now in the Wellcome Library. It included a number of Byzantine medical manuscripts.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Life Sciences Libraries, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Manuscripts & Philology
  • 12312

Dreams, healing, and medicine in Greece: From antiquity to the present. Edited by Steven M. Obewrhelman.

London & New York, 2016.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, Magic & Superstition in Medicine, PSYCHOLOGY › History of Psychology
  • 12313

Le médecins nestoriens au Moyen Âge. Les maîtres des Arabes.

Paris: Harmattan, 2004.


Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE › History of Byzantine Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Syria and Syriac Texts
  • 12314

Histoire de lépreux au Moyen Âge, une société d'exclus.

Paris: Imago, 1988.


Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE › History of Byzantine Medicine, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy › History of Leprosy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine
  • 12315

Who's who in orthopedics.

London: Springer, 2005.

A biographical encyclopedia of contributors to the history of orthopedics.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › History of Orthopedics, Fractures
  • 12316

Opera, desire, disease, death.

Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

"The book focuses on operatic representations of disease and on the ways in which operas associate illness with sexuality, gender, and desire. The authors consider the frequent operatic alliance of tuberculosis with female sexuality (as in Verdi's La Traviata and Puccini's La Boheme); the relation between venereal disease and the moral transgression or failure of male heroes (as in Wagner's Parsifal and Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress); and the association of cholera and homosexual desire in Berg's Lulu and Britten's Death in Venice. A virtuosic chapter considers how assorted operas have identified smoking with sexuality and rebellion. The conclusion considers parallels between earlier operatic representations of disease and recent cultural and scientific representations of AIDS" (publisher).



Subjects: Music and Medicine
  • 12317

Physicians and surgeons of the West. Illinois edition.

Chicago & New York: American Biographical Publishing Company, 1900.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works)
  • 12318

Catalogue of physicians and surgeons who have presented their diplomas and other credentials to the Board of Examiners of the Medical Society of the State of California and received therefrom a license to practice medicine and surgery in said state, in obedience to an "Act to regulate the practice of medicine in the State of California, approved April 3, 1876. Compiled by W. A. Grover.

San Francisco, CA: A. L. Bancroft, Printers, 1877.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link. At the same link the Hathi Trust offers facsimiles of the same directory published from 1899 to 1921.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12319

Anatomical and surgical lectures.

San Francisco, CA: Elias S. Cooper, 1856.

A one-page advertising circular dated December 10, 1856 advertising Cooper's first course of private lectures in San Francisco. Cooper, founder of California’s (and the West Coast’s) first medical school, came to San Francisco in May 1855 and immediately embarked on an ambitious program to advance the status of medicine in the state. He not only established his own medical and surgical practice in the city (which he promoted vigorously, to the dismay of some of his rivals), but also began his own private medical teaching program (advertised in the present circular), agitated for improvements in the teaching of anatomy, helped to found both the San Francisco County Medico-Chirurgical Association and the California State Medical Society, began publishing the prestigious Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal, and in 1858 founded California’s first medical school, attached to the University of the Pacific. The medical school’s faculty originally consisted of Cooper and six others; Cooper’s nephew, Levi Cooper Lane, joined the faculty in 1859. Cooper served as professor of anatomy and surgery at the school from its inception until his death eight years later. After Cooper’s death the school went into decline, being eclipsed by the foundation in 1864 of the rival Toland Medical College, ancestor of the University of California’s medical school. In 1870 Cooper’s school was revived by Levi Cooper Lane and Henry Gibbons; in 1882 it was renamed Cooper Medical College after its founder. After several decades of independent existence, Cooper Medical College was acquired by Stanford University; Stanford University’s School of Medicine thus can trace its ancestry back to the first medical school founded on the West Coast.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12320

Stanford University School of Medicine and the predecessor schools: An historical perspective.

Stanford, CA: Stanford University School of Medicine, 2002.

Digital format only, available from lane.stanford.edu at this link: https://lane.stanford.edu/med-history/wilson/chap01.html



Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12321

Australia antigen (a hepatitis-associated antigen). Purification and physical properties.

J. exp. Med., 131, 1190-1199, 1970.

 Purification of the Australia antigen and investigation of its physical properties. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Millman, Loeb, Bayer, Blumberg.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Hepatitis, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae › Hepatitis B Virus
  • 12322

Report of an operation for removing a foreign body from beneath the heart. Published by the San Francisco County Medico Chirurgical Association as an additional paper to its Transactions for the year 1857.

San Francisco, CA: Whitton, Towne & Co. Printers and Publishers, 1857.

Perhaps the earliest separate publication on a surgical operation issued in California.



Subjects: SURGERY: General , U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12323

Memories, men and medicine: A history of medicine in Sacramento, California, with biographies of the founders of the Sacramento Society for Medical Improvement and a few contemporaries, illustrated with views of Sacramento and some important characters.

Sacramento, CA: Sacramento Society for Medical Improvement, 1950.

Covers from the California Gold Rush to 1949.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12324

Seeking the golden fleece: A record of pioneer life in California, to which is annexed footprints of early navigators, other than Spanish, in California, with an account of the voyage of the schooner Dolphin.

San Francisco, CA: A. Roman & Co., 1877.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12325

Pioneering British women chemists: Their lives and contributions.

Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2019.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), Chemistry › History of Chemistry, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12326

A devotion to their science: Pioneer women of radioactivity.

Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation, 1997.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), Chemistry › History of Chemistry, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12327

Glycogen formation in the liver from d- and 1-lactic acid.

J. biol. Chem., 81, 389-403, 1929.

The Cori cycle (also known as the lactic acid cycle), a metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in muscles is transported to the liver and converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is cyclically metabolized back to lactate.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 12328

Tuskegee's truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Edited by Susan M. Reverby.

Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.


Subjects: AFRICAN AMERICANS & MEDICINE & BIOLOGY › History of African Americans & Medicine & Biology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis › History of Syphilis
  • 12329

Clio: The arteries.The development of ideas in arterial surgery.

Austin, TX: R. G. Landes, 1992.

Reprints several dozen classic papers with commentary.



Subjects: VASCULAR SURGERY › History of Vascular Surgery
  • 12330

Resuscitation greats. Edited by Peter Baskett and Thomas Baskett.

London: Clinical Press, 2007.


Subjects: Resuscitation › History of Resuscitation
  • 12331

On the shoulders of giants: Eponyms and names in obstetrics and gynaecology. 2nd edition.

London: Royal Colleges of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2008.

Third edition entitled Eponyms and names in obstetrics and gynaecology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › History of Gynecology, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › History of Obstetrics
  • 12332

The evolution of cardiac catheterization and interventional cardiology.

St. Albans, England: Iatric Press and the European Society of Cardiology, 2006.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 12333

Cold hearts: The story of hypothermia and the pacemaker in heart surgery.

Toronto, Canada: McClelland & Stewart Ltd, 1984.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Pacemakers
  • 12334

Mysterious heparin: The key to open heart surgery.

Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1990.


Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery, HEMATOLOGY › Anticoagulation
  • 12335

Fifty years of cardiac and pulmonary surgery 1942-1993. The beginning of open heart surgery of postoperative intensive care. The first complete left heart catheterization. Mechanical heart valves.

Scand. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. Suppl., 42, 1-96, 1994.

Björk may be most remembered for the Bjork-Shiley artificial heart valve.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › Cardiothoracic Prostheses, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery
  • 12336

History of cardiovascular surgery. Edited by L. A. Bockeria.

Moscow: Publishing House of the Bakoulev Scientific Center, 1998.

An international conference on the history of cardiovascular surgery. Dedicated to the memory of V.I. Burakovsky (Moscow, September 24-25, 1996). Attendees and contributors included many Western and Russian pioneers.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia
  • 12337

Thoracic surgery in Canada: A story of people, places, and events. The evolution of a surgical specialty.

Toronto, Canada: Decker, 1989.


Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery
  • 12338

Selected papers on electrocardiography of Willem Einthoven with bibliography, biographical notes and comments by H. A. Snellen.

Leiden, 1977.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography
  • 12339

Ultrasound in clinical diagnosis: From pioneering developments in Lund to global application in medicine. Edited by Bo Ekloff, Kjell Lindström and Stig Persson.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Concerns applications in echocardiography, echoencephalography, in obsterics and gynecology, Doppler ultrasound in vascular disease, ultrasound in radiology, and development of ultrasound in ophthalmology.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sweden, IMAGING › History of Imaging, IMAGING › Sonography (Ultrasound)
  • 12340

Rheumatic fever in America and Britain: A biological, epidemiological, and medical history.

New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1999.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rheumatic Fever
  • 12341

Surgical treatment of coronary arteriosclerosis.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1970.

The history of the coronary artery bypass technique by the inventor of the procedure.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery
  • 12342

Histoire de la découverte de la circulation du sang.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1854.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link. Revised edition, 1857, of which a digital facsimile is also available from the Hathi Trust at this link.  Translated into English by J. C. Reeve as A history of the discovery of the circulation of the blood, Cincinnati, 1859. Digital facsimile of the 1859 edition from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12343

The courage to fail: A social view of organ transplants and dialysis.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Includes chapters on the heart transplantation moratorium and the artificial heart.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › Heart Transplants, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences, TRANSPLANTATION › History of Transplantation
  • 12344

Hypertension, the renal basis. Benchmark papers in human physiology. Edited by David B. Gordon.

Stroudsberg, PA: Academic Press, 1980.


Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Hypertension
  • 12345

Classic papers in coronary angioplasty. Edited by Clive Handler and Michael Cleman.

London: Springer, 2006.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery
  • 12346

Die Lehre vom Kreislauf vom Harvey. Eine historische Abhandlungen.

Berlin: Friedrich August Herbig, 1831.

Perhaps the earliest essay by a professional historian on the pre-Harveian history of the circulation. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12347

Die Meningitis cerebro-spinalis epidemica vom historisch-geographischen und pathologisch-therapeutischen Standpunkte.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1866.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: Biogeography › History of Biogeography, EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis
  • 12348

Jenner and vaccination: A strange chapter of medical history.

London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1889.

Creighton, one of the founders of epidemiology, disputed the germ theory of infectious disease, and became "one of the anti-vaccination movement's 'most ardent and distinguished spokesmen.' Creighton argued that vaccination was poisoning of the blood with contaminated material, which could provide no protection from disease" (Wikipedia article Charles Creighton, accessed 4-2020).



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Anti-Vaccination, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Vaccination
  • 12349

The politics of prevention: Anti-Vaccinationism and public health in nineteenth-century England.

Medical History, 32, 231-252, 1988.

Digital facsimile from semanticscholar.org at this link.



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Anti-Vaccination, POLITICS, MEDICAL
  • 12350

Vaccine: The debate in modern America.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.


Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Anti-Vaccination, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines
  • 12351

Evolution and creationism: A documentary and reference guide.

Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007.


Subjects: EVOLUTION › History of Evolutionary Thought, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 12352

Die Geschichte der angeborenen Herzkrankheiten.

Düsseldorf: C. H. Nolte, 1937.

A history of congenital heart disease covering cyanosis, foetal endocarditis and various malformations. Bedford 850.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology
  • 12353

Thoracic surgery before the 20th century.

New York: Vantage Press, 1960.


Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery, Thoracic Surgery
  • 12354

Technology and American medical practice, 1880-1930: An anthology of sources. Edited by Joel D. Howell.

New York: Garland Publishing, 1989.


Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › History of Biomedical Instrumentation
  • 12355

Efficiency, scientific management, and hospital standardization: An anthology of souyrces. Edited by Edward T. Morman.

New York: Garland Publishing, 1989.


Subjects: HOSPITALS › History of Hospitals
  • 12356

The veins. Edited by Harold Laufman.

Austin, TX: Silvergirl, 1986.

Reprints classic papers, some translated into English for the first time, dealing with the surgical anatomy of the venous system, diagnostic tests for venous disease, varicose veins, and thromboembolic disease, among other subjects.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Venous Disease, VASCULAR SURGERY › History of Vascular Surgery
  • 12357

History of the discoveries of the circulation of the blood, of the ganglia and nerves, and of the action of the heart.

London: Richard Bentley, 1865.

Lee, an obstetrician, published one of the earliest studies of the history of the circulation of the blood in English. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12358

Recopilación histórico-bibliográfica de la circulación de la sangre en el hombre y los animales.

Zaragoza: Agustín Pieró, 1866.

Digital facsimile from bdh-rd.bne.es at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12359

Orally administered penicillin in patients with rheumatic fever.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 138, 1030-1036, 1948.

Massell and colleagues demonstrated that rheumatic fever could be prevented by penicillin treatment of streptococcal throat infections.  (Order of authorship in the original publication: Massell, Dow, Jones.)

See also: J.R. Goerner, R. F. Massell, T. D. Jones, "Use of pencillin in the treatment of carriers of beta-hemolytic streptococci among patients with rheumatic fever," New Eng. J. Med. 237 (1947) 576–580.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Rheumatic Heart Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rheumatic Fever, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 12360

Rheumatic fever and streptococcal infection: Unraveling the mysteries of a dread disease.

Boston: Boston Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1997.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Rheumatic Heart Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rheumatic Fever
  • 12361

The eighteenth-century origins of angina pectoris: Predisposing causes, recognition and aftermath.

Medical History, Suppl. No. 21, 2001.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology
  • 12362

Writing the pulse: The origins and career of the sphygmograph and its American masters.

No place identified: Xlibris.com, 2018.

"The definitive history of a technology that was used in research and practice in Europe and America beginning with the invention of the sphygmograph by German physiologist Karl Vierordt in 1854" (W. Bruce Fye).

 



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Sphygmogram, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Sphygmomanometer
  • 12363

The origins of thoracic anesthesia.

Park Ridge, IL: Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology, 1991.


Subjects: ANESTHESIA › History of Anesthesia
  • 12364

The developing heart: A "history" of pediatric cardiology.

Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

A memoir, largely from personal experience, of the developments in embryology, pathology, clinical features, treatment of congenital heart disease.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, CARDIOLOGY › Pediatric Cardiology, PEDIATRICS › History of Pediatrics
  • 12365

The diagnosis of rheumatic fever.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 126, 481-484, 1944.

The Jones criteria (later revised in 1992 and 2015) for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rheumatic Fever
  • 12366

Le cœur dans les textes égyptiens depuis l'ancien jusqu'à la fin du nouvel Empire.

Paris: Paul Geuther, 1930.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Egypt › History of Ancient Medicine in Egypt, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology
  • 12367

A century of arterial hypertension: 1896-1996. Edited by Nicholas Postel-Vinay in collaboration with the International Society of Hypertension. Translated by Richard Edelstein and Christopher Coffin.

Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Hypertension (High Blood Pressure), CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology
  • 12368

Congenital heart disease: Benchmark papers in human physiology.

Stroudsberg, PA, 1982.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › Pediatric Cardiology
  • 12369

Creation of an atrial septal defect without thoracotomy. A palliative approach to complete transposition of the great arteries.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 196, 1-2, 1966.
Rashkind balloon atrial septostomy to treat transposition of the great vessels.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › Pediatric Cardiology
  • 12370

International bibliography of cardiovascular auscultation and phonocardiography.

New York: American Heart Association, 1971.

Part 1: over 6000 journal articles, books and book chapters from 1820 to 1966. Part 2: author listing of books, theses, dissertation, and phonodiscs from 1816 to 1968. Part 3: subject index to journal articles.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology
  • 12371

Public health and the risk factor: A history of an uneven medical revolution.

Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2003.

"The acceptance of risk factors has produced changes in public health and medicine as profound as those that resulted from bacteriology and the germ theory of disease. . . . The risk factor concept has been controversial because of its statistical methodology, its multifactorial concept of disease etiology, and its effect on the economic interests of commercial, professional, and health organisations." This excerpt from the preface provides an excellent summary of this book. William Rothstein, professor of sociology at the University of Maryland, explains how "the risk factor" arose in life insurance and from developments in population statistics and probability theory. Since the end of the 19th century, major U.S. life-insurance companies have collected sociodemographic data and health data about millions of their policyholders, followed these persons for long periods, and used the data to calculate premiums and benefits. Initially, the companies used information on the results of urinalysis (to detect kidney disease and diabetes), "build" (i.e., weight in relation to height), medical history, occupation, and place of residence, because their records showed that these factors were strongly associated with mortality rates. Later, blood pressure and smoking status were added. By conducting medical examinations and taking measurements for life-insurance companies, physicians became familiar with the concept of risk factors and incorporated it into their clinical practice. Risk factors are identified through correlations with diseases, rather than from laboratory evidence of biologic mechanisms. Statistical inference is used to examine associations between multiple risk factors and the probability of disease. The scientific credibility of risk factors accrues from repeated demonstration of the associations in different populations and in different settings, dose-response effects, and reductions in disease after changes to the risk factors. The second half of the book is about the rise and fall of the epidemic of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the 20th century. Rothstein examines the evidence for the main risk factors for CHD, using the standard criteria for assessing epidemiologic results -- chance, bias, confounding, reverse causation, and possible true causation. He relies heavily on life-insurance findings, because they meet many of these criteria. He is relatively skeptical about randomized clinical trials owing to concern about the generalizability of the findings. Tobacco smoking and high blood pressure meet the criteria for risk factors for CHD and other diseases. The diet-heart hypothesis is where confusion sets in. The evidence is not strong. Advice from the medical profession fluctuates. Rothstein believes that, rather than cholesterol or saturated fat, the relevant risk factor is total caloric intake. The life-insurance data have for many decades demonstrated associations between overweight and CHD and diabetes, yet reducing population levels of caloric intake is not in the interest of the food industry or within the expertise of the medical profession. In the last 20 pages of the book Rothstein claims that "personal risk factors," such as cigarette smoking and high blood pressure or lipid levels, cannot account for the epidemic of CHD. (In my view, his brief analysis is flawed by an assumption that long latency times are needed.) Rather, he argues that "social and cultural factors" are important determinants of CHD but does not explain how they might account for the major epidemic of the 20th century..."(Annette J. Dobson, New England Journal of Medicine.)



Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 12372

The coronary heart disease pandemic in the twentieth century: Emergence and decline in advanced countries.

Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2017.

"This book demonstrates that a pandemic of coronary heart disease occurred in North America, western and northern Europe, and Australia and New Zealand from the 1930s to about 2000. At its peak it caused more deaths than any other disease. The book examines and compares trends in coronary heart disease mortality rates for individual countries. The most detailed analyses are for the United States, where mortality rates are examined for race, sex, and age groups and for geographic regions. Popular explanations for the rise and fall of coronary heart disease mortality rates are examined" (publisher).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, DEATH & DYING › Mortality Statistics, EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 12373

Devices and desires: Gender, technology, and American nursing.

Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

"Nursing and technology have been inexorably linked since the beginnings of trained nursing in the United States in the late nineteenth century. Whether or not they thought of the devices they used as technology, nurses have necessarily used a variety of tools, instruments, and machines--from thermometers to cardiac monitors--to appraise, treat, and comfort patients. Tracing the relationship between nursing and technology from the 1870s to the present, Margarete Sandelowski argues that technology has helped shape and intensify persistent dilemmas in nursing and that it has both advanced and impeded the development of the profession" (publisher).



Subjects: NURSING › History of Nursing
  • 12374

British cardiology in the 20th century. Edited by Mark E. Silverman, Peter R. Fleming, Arthur Hollman, Desmond G. Julian, Dennis M. Krikler.

London & New York: Springer Science , 2012.

"The first and only detailed history of mdoern cardiology and cardiac surgery in Britain" (W. Bruce Fye, 2020).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology
  • 12375

Heart surgery classics. Edited by Larry W. Stephenson and Renato Ruggiero.

Boston: Adams Publishing Group, 1994.

Reprints of classics with commentaries by Henry Bahnson, Earl Bakken, Denton Cooley, James Cox, Michael DeBakey, Alden Harken, Dudley Johnson, Adrian Kantrowitz, Willem Kolff, C. Walton Lillehei, and Albert Starr.  Several classic European papers were translated for this volume.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery
  • 12376

Pioneering research in surgical shock and cardiovascular surgery: Vivien T. Thomas and his work with Alfred Blalock. An autobiography by Vivien T. Thomas

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.

Later retitled, Partners of the Heart: Vivien Thomas and His Work with Alfred Blalock.



Subjects: AFRICAN AMERICANS & MEDICINE & BIOLOGY, BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › History of Cardiac Surgery, Pediatric Surgery › History of Pediatric Surgery
  • 12377

Cholesterol and beyond: The research on diet and coronary heart disease, 1900-2000.

New York: Springer, 2010.

"A concise overview of the chain of evidence accumulated during the past century supporting the relationship between dietary habits and blood levels of cholesterol and the associated relationship between blood total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the etiology of atherosclerosis and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)" (publisher.)



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, NUTRITION / DIET › History of Nutrition / Diet
  • 12378

The irritable heart of soldiers and the origins of Anglo-American cardiology: The U.S. Civil War (1861) to World War I (1918).

Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2002.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, MILITARY MEDICINE & HYGIENE › History of Military Medicine
  • 12379

Physical medicine: The employment of physical agents for diagnosis and therapy.

Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1941.


Subjects: PHYSICAL MEDICINE / REHABILITATION
  • 12380

Polio wars: Sister Kenny and the golden age of American medicine. By Naomi Rogers.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

"During World War II, polio epidemics in the United States were viewed as the country's "other war at home": they could be neither predicted nor contained, and paralyzed patients faced disability in a world unfriendly to the disabled. These realities were exacerbated by the medical community's enforced orthodoxy in treating the disease, treatments that generally consisted of ineffective therapies. Polio Wars is the story of Sister Elizabeth Kenny — "Sister" being a reference to her status as a senior nurse, not a religious designation — who arrived in the US from Australia in 1940 espousing an unorthodox approach to the treatment of polio. Kenny approached the disease as a non-neurological affliction, championing such novel therapies as hot packs and muscle exercises in place of splinting, surgery, and immobilization. Her care embodied a different style of clinical practice, one of optimistic, patient-centered treatments that gave hope to desperate patients and families. The Kenny method, initially dismissed by the US medical establishment, gained overwhelming support over the ensuing decade, including the endorsement of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (today's March of Dimes), America's largest disease philanthropy. By 1952, a Gallup Poll identified Sister Kenny as most admired woman in America, and she went on to serve as an expert witness at Congressional hearings on scientific research, a foundation director, and the subject of a Hollywood film. Kenny breached professional and social mores, crafting a public persona that blended Florence Nightingale and Marie Curie. By the 1980s, following the discovery of the Salk and Sabin vaccines and the March of Dimes' withdrawal from polio research, most Americans had forgotten polio, its therapies, and Sister Kenny" (publisher).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Poliomyelitis (Infantile Paralysis)
  • 12381

Die Sportverletzungen. Neue Deutsche Chirurgie, hrsg. von P. von Bruns., 13. bd.

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 1914.

Sportart, Sportverletzung, Sportmedizin, Kampfsport, Ballspiel, Leichtathletik, Tanz, Bergsport, Gerätturnen, Wassersport, Wintersport, Motorsport, Pferdesport, Rudersport, Radsport, Sporttraumatologie.



Subjects: Sports Medicine
  • 12382

Chirurgie der Sportunfalle.

Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1925.


Subjects: Sports Medicine
  • 12383

Muscular movement in man: The factors governing speed and recovery from fatique.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 1927.


Subjects: Sports Medicine
  • 12384

Laboratory disease: Robert Koch's medical bacteriology.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.


Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › History of Bacteriology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis › History of Tuberculosis
  • 12385

Die von Pirquet'sche Hautreaktion und die intravenöse Tuberkulinbehandlung.

Med. Klin., 4, 402-404, 1908.

First publication on the The Mantoux test or Mendel–Mantoux test (also known as the Mantoux screening test, tuberculin sensitivity test, Pirquet test, or PPD test for purified protein derivative) is a tool for screening for tuberculosis (TB) and for tuberculosis diagnosis.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium › Mycobacterium tuberculosis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, Laboratory Medicine › Diagnostic Skin Tests
  • 12386

Isolation of a crystalline protein with tuberculin activity.

Science, 63, 619-620, 1926.

Siebert identified the active agent in tuberculin as a protein.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium › Mycobacterium tuberculosis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 12387

The isolation and properties of the purified protein derivative of tuberculin

Amer. Rev. Tuberc., 30, 713-720, 1934.

Purification of tuberculin (PPD). By the 1940s Seibert's PPD was the international standard for tuberculin tests.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium › Mycobacterium tuberculosis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, Laboratory Medicine › Diagnostic Skin Tests, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 12388

Purification and characterization of the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-antigen P1.

J. Immunol., 125, 587-592, 1980.

First purification and publication of a dust mite allergen in 1978 by Platts-Mills and Chapman.



Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 12389

Landmark papers in allergy. Seminal papers in allergy with expert commentaries. Edited by Aziz Sheikh, Thomas Platts-Mills, and Allison Worth.

Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.


Subjects: ALLERGY › History of Allergy
  • 12390

Landmark papers in otolaryngology. Edited by John S. Phillips and Sally Erskine.

New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.


Subjects: OTOLOGY › History of Otology, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › History of ENT
  • 12391

Landmark papers in anaesthesia. Edited by Nigel Webster and Helen Galley.

Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.


Subjects: ANESTHESIA › History of Anesthesia
  • 12392

Of time and the physician. The autobiography of Lewellys F. Barker.

New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1942.

Barker succeeded William Osler as physician-in-chief of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. His autobiography provides insight into a keyt period in the history of Johns Hopkins. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography, HOSPITALS
  • 12393

Life and correspondence of Henry Ingersoll Bowditch by his son, Vincent Y. Bowditch. 2 vols.

Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1902.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12394

The rapid shallow breathing resulting from pulmonary congestion and edema.

J. exp. Med., 49, 531-537, 1929.

First description of the Churchill–Cope reflex, a reflex in which distension of the pulmonary vascular bed, as occurs in pulmonary oedema, causes an increase in respiratory rate (tachypnoea) by stimulation of the juxtacapillary (J) receptors. Available from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: PULMONOLOGY
  • 12395

An inquiry into the claims of Doctor William Harvey to the discovery of the circulation of the blood; with a more equitable retrospect of that event. To which is added an introductory lecture delivered on the third of November, 18929, in vindication of Hippocrates from sundry charges of ignorance preferred against him by the late professor Rush.

Philadelphia: E. L. Carey & A. Hart, 1834.

Perhaps the earliest American monograph on the history of circulation. Keynes characterized this volume as "an elaborate and very learned attempt to belittle Harvey's achievement" Keynes, Life of William Harvey, p. 425.) Digital facsimile from Google Books (at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12396

A genuine narrative of the deplorable deaths of the English gentlemen and others who were suffocated in the Black Hole in Fort-William, at Calcutta, in the Kingdom of Bengal, in the night succeeding the 20th day of June, 1756, in a letter to a friend.

London: A. Millar, 1758.

Holwell was a survivor of the Black Hole of Calcutta in Fort William, Calcutta , a poorly ventilated dungeon measuring 4.30 × 5.50 ⁠metres (14 × 18 ⁠⁠feet), in which troops of Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, held British prisoners of war the night of 20 June 1756. As a result of this incident there were supposedly many deaths from suffocation and heat exhauston. Howell's account of this incident  obtained wide circulation in England, and some claim this gained support for the East India Company's conquest of India. His account of the incident was not publicly questioned during his lifetime, nor for more than a century after his death. However, in recent years, his version of the event has been called into question by historians. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12397

An account of the manner of inoculating for the small pox in the East Indies: With some observations on the practice and mode of treating that disease in those parts.

London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt, 1767.

Holwell's account of smallpox variolation in India prior to Jenner has been disputed by historians. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox
  • 12398

William Harvey, physician and biologist: His precursors, opponents and successors. Parts I-V.

Annals of Science, 1938.

"The most comprehensive bibliographical reference work on the history of the circulation" (Bedford 200).



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12399

Flora Boreali-Americana, sistens caracteres plantarum quas in America septentrionali collegit et detexit Andreas Michaux, Instituti Gallici Scientiarum, necnon Societatis Agriculturae Caroliniensis socius. Tabulis Aeneis 51 ornata [after Pierre-Joseph Redouté]. 2 vols.

Paris & Strassburg: Apud fratres Levrault, 1803.

"The French government sent Michaux to the United States to collect North American seeds, shrubs, and trees ; he landed at New York City on 1 October, accompanied by his son [François-André Michaux] and a gardener. In 1786 he established a nursery at Hackensack, N.J., and the following year another at Charleston, S.C., from both of which he shipped many boxes of seeds and thousands of trees to the park at Rambouillet, France.

"Between 1786 and 1792 he botanized through much of the United States from New York to Florida and as far west as West Virginia and eastern Kentucky; in the same period he also visited Spanish Florida and the Bahamas. In 1792 Michaux decided to pursue his botanical studies in Lower Canada. On 2 June he met the retired fur trader Peter Pond near New Haven, Conn.; Pond informed him that the fur-trade canoes to the west, which Michaux may have considered accompanying, had left Montreal at the end of April. Michaux eventually proceeded to Montreal, where he arrived on 30 June. He remained there into July, botanizing and meeting several members of the fur-trading merchant class, including Joseph Frobisher and Alexander Henry, whom he undoubtedly questioned about the flora of the west. He then went to Quebec, where he spent several days with Dr John Mervin Nooth, discussing Nooth’s scientific inventions, inspecting his garden, herborizing, and preparing a voyage to James Bay.

"Late in July, Michaux, accompanied by a mixed-blood interpreter, left Quebec for the Rivière Saguenay. On 5 August he arrived at Tadoussac, where he hired three Indian guides, and on the 7th the party started up the Saguenay in two bark canoes. On the 10th they reached the fur-trade post of Chicoutimi, and six days later Lac Saint-Jean, where Michaux explored extensively the shores and the surrounding forest. Following the Rivière Mistassini and small rivers and lakes, he arrived at Lac Mistassini on 4 September. Two days later, after proceeding about 25 miles down the Rivière de Rupert, which flows into James Bay, he was forced by bad weather and the late season to turn back, about 400 miles short of his objective.

"As on all his voyages, Michaux daily recorded in a journal the conditions of travel, the day’s progress, and the plants he had observed or discovered ; as well, when possible, he noted their most northerly limits. He observed, for example, that the great rapids on the Mistassini marked the limit of Potentilla tridentata, or three-toothed cinquefoil, and that Gaultheria procumbens, or wintergreen, disappeared ten leagues up the same river from Lac Saint-Jean. One of the last specimens he collected was Primula mistassinica, or bird’s-eye primrose, found along the Rivière de Rupert, and named by him. Michaux also wrote of his admiration for his guides’ ability to manipulate the canoes and added that, although he never feared drowning, “these voyages are frightening for those not accustomed to them, and I would advise the Little Masters of London or Paris . . . to stay home.”

"Michaux arrived at Montreal in October 1792. On 2 December he was back at New York City, and in January 1793 he shipped to France seeds he had collected. In May he met Edmond Charles Genet, minister plenipotentiary to the United States of the French revolutionary government, who hoped to promote the revolution in Lower Canada; Michaux gave him several memoranda containing his observations on former French colonies in North America, including Canada. Genêt persuaded Michaux to undertake a secret political mmission to Kentucky, the nature of which is still largely unclear. From 1793 to 1796 he continued to botanize in the United States, travelling as far west as the Mississippi River. He was increasingly hampered by the French government’s failure since 1789 to support him financially, and in 1796 he was finally obliged to abandon his project. On 13 August he left Charleston, but one month later his ship was wrecked off the coast of Holland ; his herbarium was damaged, some of his manuscripts were lost, and Michaux himself almost perished. He reached Paris in January 1797 to discover that, of the thousands of trees he had sent since his arrival in North America, few had survived the ravages of the revolution. Moreover, he was unsuccessful in efforts to recover the arrears of his salary or to obtain financial support for a return trip to North America.

"In October 1800 Michaux was engaged as a naturalist in a scientific expedition bound for Australia under the direction of Captain Nicolas Baudin. Always more comfortable working alone, Michaux left ship at Île de France (Mauritius) in April 1801 and proceeded to Madagascar, where he died of fever – according to some historians, on 13 Nov. 1802 near Tamatave, but, according to a member of the expedition, on 11 Oct. 1803 at Tananarive." (Judith F. M. Hoeniger, ).

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Canada, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists