An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15426 entries, 13280 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 20, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 1100–1199

116 entries
  • 1100

Exercitatio anatomico-medica de glandulis intestinorum, earumque usu et affectionibus.

Schaffhausen: Onophrius et Waldkirch, 1677.

Independently of Bartholin and Rudbeck, George Joyliffe (1621-58) observed the lymphatics. He communicated his discovery to Glisson early in 1652 and the latter included an account in the above work (Cap. xxxi). See No. 972. Includes a description of “Peyer’s patches”, the lymphoid follicles in the small intestine which have an important role in typhoid. They were first described by J. N. Pechlin (1644-1706) in his De purgantium medicamentorum facultatibus exercitatio nova (1672).



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever, Lymphatic System
  • 1101

De ductu salivali novo, saliva, ductibus oculorum aquosis, et humore oculi aqueo.

Leiden: P. vander Aa, 1685.

Nuck’s name has been attached to the glands and duct described by him.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Lymphatic System
  • 1102

Experimental inquiries: Part the second. Containing a description of the lymphatic system in the human subject and in other animals. Together with observations on the lymph, and the changes which it undergoes in some diseases.

London: J. Johnson, 1774.

Hewson gave the first complete account of the anatomical peculiarities of the lymphatics. He divided the lymphatics into two groups – superficial and deep. He described the leucocytes as derived from the lymphatic glands and thymus.

"Hewson's studies of the lymphatics are models of skill and ingenuity. He studied them in vitro and in vivo (observing them through a hand‐held magnifying glass in the web of a frog's foot). Disproving the current theory, he showed that the lymphatics are not part of the blood system, that nodes are stopping stations along lymphatic vessels and that every cavity of the body, and not just the lacteals of the small intestine, is drained by the lymphatic system. He demonstrated the absorptive properties of the lymphatics by injecting a dye or noxious substance into experimental animals and then demonstrating it in the lymphatics in a distant part of the body. It was this theory – that the lymphatics, and not just the intestinal lacteals, are a vast and highly effective absorption system – that brought him into conflict with Monro secundus (Wintrobe, 1980).

"Hewson went further, suggesting that noxious agents could enter the body via the lymphatics. ‘The axillary glands are likewise frequently observed to swell in consequence of cancers in the breast and it is found of no use to extirpate the breast itself unless the affected glands can likewise be removed; for otherwise the cancerous tumour of the glands may renew the disease.’ (Hewson, 1774a).

"This work inevitably led him to study further the villi of the gut and their lacteals. He demonstrated how villi in the small intestine differed from those in the colon, and then went on to compare the lacteals of fish, amphibians and turtles (Hewson, 1774b)." (Derek Doyle, "William Hewson (1739-74): the father of haematology", British Journal of Haematology, April, 2006).

 



Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, Lymphatic System
  • 1103

The anatomy of the absorbing vessels of the human body.

London: G. Nicol, 1786.

With Hunter and Hewson, Cruikshank laid the foundation of modern knowledge concerning the lymphatics. He was Dr. Johnson’s physician and William Hunter’s assistant.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, Lymphatic System
  • 1104

Vasorum lymphaticorum corporis humani historia et ichnographia.

Siena: ex typ. P. Carli, 1787.

Mascagni, Professor of Anatomy at Siena, made several discoveries regarding the lymphatics. His beautiful atlas contained 41 engravings of the lymphatics and gained him lasting fame. He had previously published a Prodrome, in French, 1784; this contained only four plates.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, Lymphatic System
  • 1105

Microscopische Beobachtungen über die sichtbare Fortbewegung der Lymphkörnchen in den Lymphgefässen der Froschlarven.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 267-72, 1837.


Subjects: Lymphatic System
  • 1106

De cursu lymphae in vasis lymphaticis.

Marburg: typ. Elwerti, 1849.

Noll advanced the theory that lymph is formed by the diffusion of fluids from the blood through the vessel walls into the surrounding tissues.



Subjects: Lymphatic System
  • 1107

Untersuchungen über den Bau der Lymphdrüsen.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1861.

Histology of the lymphatics. His drew the illustrations.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), Lymphatic System
  • 1108

Die Lymphgefässe und ihre Beziehung zum Bindegewebe.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1862.

“Recklinghausen’s canals”, the lymph canaliculi.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, Lymphatic System
  • 1109

Ueber das Epithel der Lymphgefässwurzeln und über die von Recklinghausen’schen Saftcanälchen.

Z. wiss. Zool 13, 455-73, 1863.


Subjects: Lymphatic System
  • 1110

Anatomie, physiologie, pathologie des vaisseaux lymphatiques.

Paris: A. Delahaye & E. Lecrosnier, 18741875.

Notable for its illustrations.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, Lymphatic System
  • 1111

Ueber den lymphatischenApparat des Pharynx.

Dtsch. med. Wschr., 10, 313, 1884.

“Waldeyer’s tonsillar ring”, the lymphoid ring of the nasopharynx.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › Laryngology
  • 1112

The influence of mechanical factors on lymph production.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 16, 224-67, 1894.


Subjects: Lymphatic System
  • 1113

The origin and development of the lymphatic system.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1913.


Subjects: EMBRYOLOGY, Lymphatic System, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1114

The quantitative study of lymphocyte production.

J. Anat. (Lond.), 67, 250-62; 1935-36, 70, 507-14, 1933.


Subjects: Lymphatic System
  • 1116

Adenographia: sive, glandularum totius corporis descriptio.

London: typ. J. G. impens. Authoris, 1656.

Wharton described the duct of the submaxillary salivary gland (“Wharton’s duct”). He described the thyroid more accurately than his predecessors, naming it. He also described “Wharton’s jelly” of the umbilical cord (pp.243-44). Wharton explained the role of saliva in mastication and digestion, but provided erroneous explanations for the functions of the adrenals and thyroid. Adenographia gave the first thorough account of the glands of the human body, which Wharton classified as excretory, reductive, and nutrient. He differentiated the viscera from the glands and explained their relationship. Wharton was one of the few physicians to remain in London during the plague of 1666.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Adrenals, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 1117

Recherches sur les maladies chroniques. Vol. 1. Analyse médicinale du sang.

Paris: Ruault, 1775.

De Bordeu first conceived the idea of internal secretion by his hypothesis that every organ, tissue, and cell discharges into the blood products which influence other parts of the body. His work was published in a collective volume by three physicians from his family: Antoine de Bordeu, Théophile de Bordeu, and François de Bordeu. Théophile's Analyse médicinale du sang appeared as part six of the book (pp. 346-588). In the first edition he was not specifically credited as author. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion, ENDOCRINOLOGY, HEMATOLOGY
  • 1118

Le sang, est-il identique dans tous les vaisseaux qu’il parcourt?

Paris: L'Auteur, 1801.

Like de Bordeu, and more definitely, Legallois anticipated the conception of internal secretions. He surmised from the identity in composition of all varieties of arterial blood and the diversity of venous blood in different parts of the body, that this diversity is acquired, in each case from the loss of some substance from the organ from which the vein proceeds.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion, HEMATOLOGY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 1119

The anatomy of the thymus gland.

London: Longman, 1832.

Cooper, the most popular surgeon in London during the early part of the 19th century, was connected with both Guy’s and St. Thomas’s Hospitals. Among his best works is his description of the thymus; he described the “reservoir” of the thymus as lined by smooth mucous membrane and running spirally, not straight, through the gland.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion
  • 1120

Ueber secretorische und trophische Drüsennerven.

Pflüg. Arch.ges. Physiol., 17, 1-67, 1878.

Investigation of the secretory and trophic nerves of glands. Heidenhain considered all secretory phenomena to be intracellular, rather than mechanical, processes.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion
  • 1121

The chemical regulation of the secretory process.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 73, 310-22, 1904.

Bayliss and Starling developed the theory of hormonal control of internal secretion.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion
  • 1122

The Croonian Lectures on the chemical correlation of the functions of the body.

Lancet 2, 339-41, 423-25, 501-03, 579-83, 1905.

Starling constructed a general scheme of the “hormones” as he named the internal secretions. This is the first appearance of the word, which was suggested by W. B. Hardy.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion
  • 1123
  • 3794

Innere Sekretion.

Berlin & Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1910.

Biedl showed that the adrenal cortex is essential for life. His classic work shows the rapid development of the knowledge concerning endocrinology. In 1890 there were few publications dealing with internal secretion, but Biedl, in the second edition of his book, 1913, was able to include a bibliography of 8,500 items. The 4th edition (1922) includes an exhaustive bibliography. An English translation appeared in 1912.

 



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals, ENDOCRINOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Adrenals
  • 1124

Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. An account of recent researches into the function of emotional excitement.

New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1915.

Observation of the effect of strong emotions on gastrointestinal motility (No. 1029) led Cannon to examination of the sympathetic nervous system and its emergency function. Cannon showed the close connexion between the endocrine glands and the emotions.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY, GASTROENTEROLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1125

Die Hormone; ihre Physiologie und Pharmakologie. 2 vols.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 19291934.


Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion, ENDOCRINOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY
  • 1126

Observations on the thyroid gland, with notes on the same subject by Sir Astley Cooper.

Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 1, 429-56, 1836.

King, sometimes referred to as the “father of endocrinology”, antici-pated the endocrine action of the thyroid.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 1126.1

On the anatomy of the Indian rhinoceros (Rh. unicornis L.).

Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., 4, 31-58, 1852.

Owen was the first to describe the parathyroids, which he observed in his dissection of a Great Indian Rhinoceros that had lived at the Zoological Society of London from 1834 to 1849.  See B. Modarai, A. Sawyer, & H. Ellis, "The Glands of Owen," Journal Royal Society of Medicine 97 (2004) 494-495.

 



Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1127

Om en ny körtel hos menniskan och atskilliga däggdjur.

Upsala Läkaref. Förh., 15, 441-71, 1880.

Remak, Owen, and Virchow had previously noted the presence of what may have been parathyroids; the first systematic account of them was given by Sandström. An English translation of this paper appeared in Bull. Inst. Hist. Med., Baltimore, 1938,6, 192-222; a translation was also published in book form at Baltimore, 1938.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Parathyroids
  • 1128

On the function of the Thyroid gland.

Proc. roy. Soc. (Lond.), 38, 5-7; 40, 6-9., 18841885, 1886.

From his experimental work Horsley produced evidence to support the view that myxoedema, cretinism and operative cachexia strumpriva are all due to thyroid deficiency.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1129

Functional nervous disorders due to loss of thyroid gland and pituitary body.

Lancet, 1, 5, 1886.

First successful experimental hypophysectomy; two dogs survived five and six months respectively after this operation.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1130

Sur les fonctions du corps thyroïde.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 43, 841-47, 1891.

Gley re-discovered the parathyroids and later came across Sandström’s description (see No. 1127). Gley seems to have been the first to understand their real significance; his work showed the necessity of the parathyroids for the maintenance of life.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1131

Ueber das normale vorkommen von Jod im Thierkörper.

Hoppe-Seyl. Z. physiol. Chem., 21, 319-30, 481-93; 22,1-17, 18951896.

Demonstration of the presence of iodine in organic combination in the thyroid. Baumann isolated an iodine-containing compound (“Thyrojodin”). The biochemical research stimulated by this work led eventually to the discovery of thyroxine. Second paper is written with E. Roos.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 1131.1

The chemistry of the thyroid gland and the nature of its active constituent.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 20, 474-96, 1896.

Isolation of a globulin afterwards named thyroglobulin.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1132

Studies on thyroid. I. The relation of iodine to the physiological activity of thyroid preparations.

Bull. Hyg. Lab. U.S. Publ. Hlth. Serv., No. 47, 1909.


Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1133

The isolation in crystalline form of the compound containing iodine, which occurs in the thyroid; its chemical nature and physiologic activity.

J. Amer. med. Ass., 64, 2042-43; Trans. Ass. Amer. Physicians, 30, 420-49, 1915.

Kendall isolated in crystalline form the thyroid hormone “thyroxine” on Christmas Day, 1914.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1134

The acetonitril test for thyroid and of some alterations of metabolism.

Amer J. Physiol., 63, 257-99, 1923.

The acetonitril test was introduced by Hunt in 1905 (J. biol. Chem., 1, 33) and later modified by him. It shows the activity of thyroid preparations to be proportional to their iodine content.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 1135

An elementary chemical study of the parathyroid glands of cattle.

Milit. Surg., 52, 280-84, 1923.

Hanson isolated the first really potent parathyroid extract.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 1136
  • 3861

The extraction of a parathyroid hormone which will prevent or control parathyroid tetany and which regulates the level of blood calcium.

J. biol. Chem., 63, 395-438, 1925.

Isolation of parathormone, the active principle of the parathyroids.

Collip’s “parathormone”. He showed that it raises the calcium level in para-thyroidectomized dogs.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Parathyroids
  • 1137

Chemistry of thyroxine I.

Biochem. J., 20, 293-313, 1926.

Harington showed that thyroxine is a derivative of tyrosine, and he gave its formula as C15H11O4NI4.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 1138

Chemistry of thyroxine. III. Constitution and synthesis of thyroxine.

Biochem. J., 21, 169-81, 1927.

Synthesis of thyroxine.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids
  • 1138.01

Effect of hormones of anterior pituitary on thyroid gland in the guinea pig.

Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26, 860-62, 1929.

Loeb and Aron (No.1138.2) demonstrated the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1138.02

Action de la préhypophyse sur le thyroïde chez le cobaye.

C.R. Soc. Biol. Fil., 102, 682-684, 1929.

Simultaneously with Loeb (No. 1138.1) Aron demonstrated the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1138.1

3:5:3'-Triiodothyronine. I. Isolation from thyroid gland and synthesis.

Biochem. J., 53, 645-50, 1953.

Discovery of the second thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid , WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1138.2

Evidence for calcitonin – a new hormone from the parathyroid that lowers blood calcium.

Endocrinology, 70, 638-49, 1962.

With E. C. Cameron, B. A. Cheney, A. G. F. Davidson, and K. G. Henze.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Parathyroids
  • 1093
  • 1139
  • 1228
  • 1538
  • 3668
  • 801

Opuscula anatomica.

Venice: V. Luchinas, 15631564.

Eustachius is credited with several anatomical discoveries, among them the tensor tympani muscle and the Eustachian tube, published in his chapter entitled De auditus organis. In the last respect, however, he was anticipated by Alcmaeon, about 500 BCE. Eustachius was the first to describe the chorda tympani as a nerve. Plate VIII illustrates the “Eustachian valve”, the valvula venae cavae in the right auricle. Eustachius recognized the thoracic duct in the horse and even detected some of its valves. His work on this structure was forgotten until Aselli’s description of the lacteals. This work includes first description of the adrenals. Several of the plates deal with the structure of the kidney.

Basing his work on the dissection of fetuses and newborn children, Eustachi was the first to study the teeth in any considerable detail. In his Libellus de dentibus attached to this work he provided an important description of the first and second dentitions and described the hard outer tissue and soft inner structure of the teeth. He also attempted an explanation of the problem of the sensitivity of the tooth’s hard structure. The Libellus has a separate title page dated 1563. It was reprinted with German translation, Wien, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1951. It was translated into English by Joan H. Thomas and edited and introduced by David A. Chernin and Gerald Shlklar as as A little treatise on the teeth. The first authoritative book on dentistry (1563) (Canton, MA, 1999). Eustachi’s illustrations of the teeth were first published in his Tabulae anatomicae, edited by Giovanni Maria Lancisi (No. 391). For further information, including a discussion of the states of the Opuscula, see the entry at HistoryofInformation.com at this link.

Digital facsimile of the 1563 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

 

 



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Anatomy of the Heart & Circulatory System, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals, Lymphatic System, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 1140

Recherches expérimentales sur la physiologie et la pathologie des capsules surrénales.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 43, 422-25; 542-46, 1856.

Brown-Séquard found that excision of both adrenals in animals invariably proved fatal, thus determining their indispensability. He also believed that they had an antitoxic influence upon the blood. His experimental work was of great importance in the development of our knowledge of the internal secretions.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1141

Note sur quelques réactions propres à la substance des capsules surrénales.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 43, 663-65, 1856.

Vulpian discovered adrenaline in the adrenal medulla.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1143

The physiological effects of extracts of the suprarenal capsules.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 18, 230-76, 1895.

These workers demonstrated the existence of a pressor substance (adrenaline) in the adrenal medulla. Preliminary communications regarding the above appeared in the proceedings of the Physiological Society, J. Physiol., 1894,16, p. i-v; 1895,17, p. ix-xiv.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1144

On the blood-pressure-raising constituent of the suprarenal capsule.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull., 8, 151-57, 1897.

Abel and Crawford further investigated the pressor substance of Oliver and Schäfer calling it “epinephrine”.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1145

Ueber den blutdruckerregenden Bestandtheil der Nebenniere, das Epinephrin.

Hoppe-Seyl. Z. physiol. Chem., 28, 318-62, 1899.


Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1146

The blood-pressure-raising principle of the suprarenal glands.

Therap. Gaz., 17, 221-24; Amer. J. Pharm., 73, 523-31, 1901.

Isolation of adrenaline.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1147

A preliminary report on the active principle of the suprarenal gland.

Amer. J. Physiol., 5, 457-61, 1901.

Independently of Takamine, Aldrich succeeded in isolating adrenaline in a crystalline form. He gave it the formula C9H13NO3. Adrenaline was the first hormone to be isolated.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1147.1

Ueber Adrenalin und Alkylaminoacetobrenzcatechin.

Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges., 37, 4149-54, 1904.

Synthesis of adrenaline.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1148

Further studies on adrenal insufficiency in dogs.

Science, 66, 327, 1927.

Cortical hormone first obtained.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1149

The preparation of an active extract of the supra-renal cortex.

Anat. Rec., 44, 225, 1929.

First practical method of preparing an extract of the active agent of the adrenal cortical hormone. It was named cortin until it was recognized that there are several active agents in the secretion.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1150

Isolation in crystalline form of the hormone essential to life from the suprarenal cortex; its chemical nature and physiologic properties.

Proc. Mayo Clin., 9, 245-50, 1934.

Together with H. L. Mason, B. F. McKenzie, C. S. Myers, and G. A. Koelsche, Kendall reported the isolation in crystalline form of cortin ('C20H30O5)'



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1151

A physiologic and chemical investigation of the suprarenal cortex.

J. biol. Chem., 114, lvii-lviii, 1936.

Isolation of nine closely related steroid hormones from adrenal cortical extracts; one of these was Compound E (C21H28O5) which in 1939 was renamed cortisone. With H. L. Mason, C. S. Myers, and W. D. Allers. See also the same journal, 1936,114, 613; 116, 267.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1152

Chemical studies on the adrenal cortex. II. Isolation of several physicologically inactive crystalline compounds from active extracts. III. Isolation of two new physiologically inactive compounds.

J. biol. Chem., 111, 599-612; 116, 291-305, 1935.

Isolation of Compound F, identical with Kendall’s Compund E. See No. 1151.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1153

Über Bestandteile der Nebennieren-Rinde. VI. Trennungsmethoden sowie Isolierung der Substanzen Fa, H, und j.

Helv. chim. Acta, 19, 1107-26, 1936.

Isolation of Compound Fa, identical with Compounds E and F. Reichstein shared the Nobel Prize with Kendall and Hench in 1950.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1154

Corticosteron, a crystallized compound with the biological activity of the adrenal-cortical hormone.

Nature (Lond.), 139, 26, 1937.

Isolation of corticosterone. With E. Laqueur, T. Reichstein, R. W. Spanhoff, and I. E. Uyldert.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1155

Isolation of nor-adrenaline from the adrenal gland.

Acta chem. scand., 3, 305-6, 1949.

With U.S. von Euler and U. Hamberg. See also fuller account in Acta physiol. scand., 1950, 20, 101-8. Noradrenaline was independently isolated by B. F. Tullar, Science, 1950, 109, 536-7.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1155.1

Isolation of a highly active mineralocorticoid from beef adrenal extract.

Nature (Lond.), 169, 795-96, 1952.

Isolation of aldosterone. With S. A. Simpson and J. F. Tait.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1155.2

The total synthesis of steroids.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 74, 4223-51, 1952.

Synthesis of cortisone by Woodward and colleagues. With F. D. Taub, K. Heusler, and W. M. McLamore.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1156

Ueber die Entstehung der Glandula pituitaria.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. tviss. Med., 482-85, 1838.

Important description of the pituitary.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1157

Sulla distruzione della ghiandola pituitaria.

Riv. sper. Freniat., 18, 525-61, 1892.

Vassale and Sacchi showed water and mineral metabolism to be affected by hypophysectomy.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1158

L’hypophyse du cerveau. I. Physiologie.

Paris: Vigot Frères, 1908.

Paulesco found that the removal of the anterior pituitary had fatal results, while removal of the posterior lobe had negative results.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1159

The action of extracts of the pituitary body.

Biochem. J., 4, 427-47, 1909.

Oxytocic action of posterior pituitary injection.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1160
  • 3894

Experimental hypophysectomy.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull, 21,127-69, 1910.

First experimental evidence of the relationship between the pituitary and the reproductive system; demonstration that hypophysectomy causes genital atrophy. 



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1161

The functions of the pituitary body.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 139,473-84, 1910.

See No. 3896.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1162

Über die Funktion der Hypophyse.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 146, 1-146, 1912.

Aschner was able to keep his hypophysectomized dogs alive indefinitely. He found that they developed genital hypoplasia.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1162.1

A contribution to the physiology of lactation.

Amer. J. Physiol., 38, 285-312, 1915.

Gaines demonstrated the action of the pituitary in lactation.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1163

The effect of the anterior lobe administered intraperitoneally upon growth, maturity and oestrus cycles of the rat.

Anat. Rec., 21, 62-63, 1921.

Evans and Long discovered the growth hormone of the anterior pituitary, showing that continued injections of an anterior pituitary extract produced an acceleration in the growth-rate of laboratory animals.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1164

Evaluation of the hormone of the infundibulum of the pituitary gland in terms of histamine, with experiments on the action of repeated injections of the hormone on the blood pressure.

J. Pharmacol., 20, 65-84, 19221923.


Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1165

Further investigations on the oxytocic-pressor-diuretic principle of the infundibular portion of the pituitary gland.

J. Pharmocol., 22,289-316, 19231924.


Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1166

The induction of precocious sexual maturity by pituitary homeotransplants.

Amer. J. Physiol., 80, 114-25, 1927.

Smith was able to induce precocious sexual maturity in mice and rats by the implantation of pituitary tissue.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1167

Experimental evidence regarding the rôle of the anterior pituitary in the development and regulation of the genital system.

Amer. J. Anat., 40, 159-217, 1927.

Pituitary tissue implanted in the immature mouse was found by these writers to cause precocious sexual maturity. Thus they showed that the activity of the gonads is maintained by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1168

Das Hormon des Hypophysenvorderlappens.

Klin. Wschr., 6, 348-52; 7, 831-35, 1927.

Isolation of the gonadotrophic hormone of the anterior pituitary (Prolan A & B).



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1168.1

The active principles of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. I. The demonstration of the presence of two active principles. II. The separation of the two principles and their concentration in the form of potent solid preparations.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 50, 573-601, 1928.

Isolation of vasopressin and oxytocin. With T. B. Aldrich, I. W. Grote, L. W. Rowe, and E. P. Bugbee.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1168.2

Action du lobe antérieur de l’hypophyse sur la montée laiteuse.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 99, 1998-80, 1929.

Demonstration of the existence of a pituitary lactogenic hormone (prolactin).



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1169

La diabetes pancreática de los perros hipofisoprivos.

Rev. Soc. argent. Biol., 6, 251-96, 1930.

Houssay’s depancreatized hypophysectomized dog. This work led to Houssay’s demonstration of the importance of the anterior pituitary in sugar metabolism, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in 1947. See also Endocrinology, 1931,15, 511-23.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1170

The adrenotropic hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe.

Lancet, 2, 347-48, 1933.

Isolation of an impure “adrenotropic hormone” containing adrenocorticotropic principle. With E. M. Anderson and D. L. Thomson.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1171

The preparation, identification and assay of prolactin – a hormone of the anterior pituitary.

Amer. J. Physiol., 105, 191-216, 1933.

With R. W. Bates and S. W. Dykshorn.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1172

The physiology and pharmacology of the pituitary body. 2 vols.

Chicago, IL: University Press, 19361939.

Includes an extensive bibliography.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, PHARMACOLOGY
  • 1173
  • 3976

Permanent experimental diabetes produced by pituitary (anterior lobe) injections.

Lancet, 2, 372-74, 1937.

Anterior pituitary diabetogenic hormone.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 1173.1

Interstitial cell stimulating hormone. II. Method of preparation and some physico-chemical studies.

Endocrinology, 27, 803-08, 1940.

Choh Hao Li and colleagues isolated of the interstitial cell stimulating (luteinizing) hormone. 



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1174

Adrenocorticotropic hormone.

J. biol. Chem., 149, 413-24, 1943.

Choh Hao Li and colleagues Isolated pure adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from sheep pituitary glands. 



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1175

Preparation and properties of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone.

J. biol. Chem., 149, 425-36, 1943.

Isolation of ACTH from swine pituitaries. 



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1175.1

Isolation and properties of the anterior hypophyseal growth hormone.

J. biol. Chem., 159, 353-66, 1945.

Choh Hao Li and colleagues isolated the anterior pituitary growth hormone. 



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1175.2

Isolation of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Science, 109, 445-46, 1949.

By Choh Hao Li and colleagues. 



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1175.3

The synthesis of an octapeptide amide with the hormonal activity of oxytocin.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 75, 4879-80, 1953.

Synthesis of oxytocin. With C. Ressler, J. M. Swan, C. W. Roberts, P. G. Katsoyannis, and S. Gordon. For his work on the synthesis of oxytocin and other posterior pituitary hormones, du Vigneaud was awarded a Nobel Prize (Chemistry) in 1955.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1175.4

A synthetic preparation possessing biological properties associated with arginine-vasopressin.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 76, 4751-52, 1954.

Synthesis of vasopressin. With D. T. Gish and P. G. Katsoyannis.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1176

Transplantation der Hoden.

Arch Anat. Physiol. uriss. Med., 42-46, 1849.

Berthold showed that transplantation of a cock’s testes to another part of the body prevented atrophy of the comb, the usual sequel to castration. He was thus the first to prove the existence of an internal secretion. English translation in Bull. Hist. Med., 1944, 16, 399-401.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1177

Expérience démontrant la puissance dynamogénique chez l’homme d’un liquide extrait de testicules d’animaux.

Arch. Physiol. norm. path., 5 sér., 1, 651-58, 1889.

Brown-Séquard injected into himself a testicular extract in order to bring about rejuvenation. He reported much benefit but his advocacy of this method evoked scepticism and criticism, although it stimulated research on internal secretion, being perhaps the first employment of “male sex hormone”. Further papers on this subject were published by Brown-Séquard in the same journal, 1889, 5 sér., 1, 739-46; 1890, 2, 201-08, 443-57, 641-48; and 1891, 3, 747-61.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1178

On spermin.

J. Russk. fis.-chim. Obsh., 23,151-55, 1891.

Isolation of spermin from the testis.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1178.1

Einige Versuche über Ovarientransplantation bei Kaninchen.

Zbl. Gynäk., 20, 524-28, 1896.

Knauer implanted ovaries into immature or castrated animals, producing development of sexual characteristics, thus demonstrating the existence of an ovarian hormone.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1179

Ueber die Bildung des Corpus luteum bei der Maus.

Arch. mikr. Anat., 47, 261-308, 1896.


Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1180

An experimental enquiry into the factors which determine the growth and activity of the mammary glands.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 77, 505-22, 19051906.

In their classic paper on the mammary gland, these workers attributed its changes during pregnancy to the fetus.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1181

Der Bau der Uterusschleimhaut des geschlechtsreifen Weibes besonderer Berücksichtigung der Menstruation.

Mschr. Geburt. Gynäk., 27, 1-82, 1908.

First definite description of the cyclical changes in the endometrium, which were shown to be a normal physiological process.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1182

The existence of a typical oestrus cycle in the guinea-pig; with a study of its histological and physiological changes.

Amer. J. Anat., 22, 225-83, 1917.

The vaginal smear test for estrus; it demonstrates the histological changes occurring in the vagina during the menstrual cycle.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1183

An ovarian hormone.

J. Amer. med. Ass., 81, 819-21, 1923.

Isolation of the active principle of the ovarian hormone (oestrin). More detailed account in J. biol. Chem., 1924, 61, 711-23.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1184

The induction of a sexually mature condition in immature females by injection of the ovarian follicular hormone.

Amer. J. Physiol., 69,577-88, 1924.

Test for recognition of the estrus hormone.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1185

The menstrual cycle of the monkey, Macacus rhesus. Observations on normal animals, the effects of removal of the ovaries and the effects of injection of ovarian and placental extracts into the spayed animals.

Contr. Embryol. Carneg. Instn., 19,1-44, 1927.

This paper marks the beginning of modern knowledge of the menstrual cycle. Allen showed that uterine bleeding occurs as a withdrawal effect when estrogen ceases to act on the endometrium.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1186

Über das Vorkommen weiblichen Sexualhormons (Menformon) im Harn von Männern.

Klin. Wschr. 6, 1859, 1927.

Discovery of the estrogenic activity of male urine. With E. Dingemanse, P. C. Hart, and S. E. de Jongh.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1187

The effect of the injection of a lipoid fraction of bull testicle in capons.

Proc. Inst. Med. Chicago, 6, 242-54, 1927.

McGee prepared the first active male hormone extract from the lipoid fraction of bull testes. His paper includes a preliminary account of the capon-comb test. See No. 1191.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1188

Physiology of the corpus luteum.

Amer. J. Physiol, 88, 326-46, 1929.

Discovery of the corpus luteum hormone, progesterone.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1189

The male hormone.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 26, 325-26, 1929.

Funk and Harrow obtained crude active male hormone extracts from male urine.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1190

The chemistry of oestrin. I. Preparation from urine and separation from an unidentified solid alcohol.

Biochem. J., 23, 1090-98, 1929.

Isolation of pregnanediol.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1191

The effects of extracts of testis in correcting the castrated condition in the fowl and in the mammal.

Endocrinology, 13, 367-74, 1929.

C. R. Moore, T. F. Gallagher, and F. C. Koch were the first to obtain a potent testicular extract containing the male sex hormone, androsterone, later obtained in crystalline form by Butenandt. They also gave a detailed account of the capon-comb test for the assay of the male hormone.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1192

The ovary-stimulating hormone of the placenta.

Canad. med. Ass. J., 22, 215-19, 761-74, 1930.

Collip’s anterior-pituitary-like (A-L-P) factor.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1193

The preparation of the crystalline ovarian hormone from the urine of pregnant women.

J. biol. Chem., 86, 499-509, 1930.

Isolation for the first time of a pure crystalline hormone (oestrone). Doisy shared the Nobel Prize with Dam in 1943. Written with C. D. Veler and S.A. Thayer. Preliminary communication in Amer. J. Physiol., 1929, 90, 329-30.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1194

The chemistry of oestrin. III. An improved method of preparation and the isolation of active crystalline material.

Biochem. J., 24, 435-45, 1930.

Crystalline estriol obtained.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1195

Ueber die chemische Untersuchung der Sexualhormone.

Z. angew. Chem., 44, 905-08, 1931.

The male sex hormone, androsterone, was isolated in crystalline form by Butenandt. He shared the Nobel Prize for chemistry with Ruzicka (No.1201) in 1939.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1196

Die Hormone des Ovariums und des Hypophysenvorderlappens.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1931.

Second edition, 1935.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1197

Sex and internal secretions; a survey of recent research.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1932.

Second edition, 1939, with C. H. Danforth and E. A. Doisy.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1198

Chemical and physiological properties of crystalline oestrogenic hormones.

Canad. J. Res., 8, 180-97, 1933.

Estriol obtained from placental tissue.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Canada, Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1199
  • 6130

Die Behandlung der Amenorrhoë mit hohen Dosen der Ovarialhormone.

Klin. Wschr., 12, 1557-62, 1933.

First use of estrogenic hormone for the treatment of amenorrhea in ovariectomized women, with production of the typical cyclical endometrial changes.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › Menstruation