An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15429 entries, 13282 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 23, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 12400–12499

100 entries
  • 12400

Harvey, iniciador del método experimental.

Mexico: Ediciones ciencia, 1936.

First edition in Spanish of De motu cordis as well as a facsimile of the first edition. "Contains an important historical review of the circulation with particular reference to Servetus and to the Spanish reception of Harvey and a full bibliography of early Spanish literature on the circulation (pp. 1-124)" (Bedford 100).



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12401

William Harvey: A history of the discovery of the circulation of the blood. By Robert Willis.

London: C. Kegan Paul & Co., 1878.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology
  • 12402

The ancient art of feeling the pulse.

Br. Heart J., 13, 423-437, 1951.

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE, CARDIOLOGY › History of Cardiology
  • 12403

A paradox. Prooving, that the inhabitants of the isle called Madagascar, or St. Laurence, ... are the happiest people in the world. Whereunto is prefixed, a briefe and true description of that island: the nature of the climate, and condition of the inhabitants, and their speciall affection to the English above other nations. With most probable arguments of a hopefull and fit plantation of a colony there, in respect of the fruitfulnesse of the soyle, the benignity of the ayre, and the relieving of our English ships, both to and from the East-Indies.

London: Nathaniell Butter, 1640.

“Hamond, author and explorer, published a translation of Ambroise Paré’s ‘Methode de traicter les Playes faictes par Harquebuses et aultres batons a feu,’ 1617, 4to. He was in the service of the East India Company, and was employed by them to explore Madagascar and report on the advisability of annexing the island, of which he gave a glowing description” (DNB).
"Hamond spent four months on the island, as a surgeon. However his treatise portrays an exaggerated prospect of it, stating that “for wealth and riches, no Island in the world can be preferred before it. As for gold, silver, pearle and precious jems, questionlesse the Island is plentifully stored with them... great quantities of Aloes... the first fruits of a most plentifull harvest, which is better than the gleanings of America”. “Early descriptions of Madagascar and it’s vegetation illustrate the kind of attractions that tempted colonisers and traders to undertake arduous voyages to the island in pursuit of advancement. Walter Hammond, .. spent some time on Madagascar in 1630, (and) published a pamphlet in 1640 entitled ‘A paradox....’... He drew attention to its strategic use as a useful port of call to and from the East Indies, and to the fertility of its soil. By this time, Hammond had resigned his post in the company and was clearly writing tracks to encourage rivals to challenge his monopoly. His next attempt, ‘Madagascar the richest and most fruitful island in the world’ (1643), also makes a strong case for colonisation” (Lincoln. British Pirates and Society, 1680-1730). 

Digital text from Early English Books Online at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Madagascar, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12404

Memoir of Valentine Mott, M.D., LL.D., Professor of surgery in the University of the City of New York; member of the Institute of France.

New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1868.

An insightful biography written by a colleague in surgery. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, SURGERY: General › History of Surgery
  • 12405

The history of medicine in New Zealand.

Medical History, 11, 334-344, 1967.

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › New Zealand
  • 12406

History of medicine and surgery and physicians and surgeons of Chicago. Endorsed and published under the supervision of the council of the Chicago Medical Society.

Chicago, IL: Biographical Publishing Corporation, 1922.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Illinois
  • 12407

Can artificial intelligence reliably report chest x-rays? Radiologist validation of an algorithm trained on 2.3 million x-rays.

arXiv:1807.07455 , 2019.

"Background: Chest X-rays are the most commonly performed, cost-effective diagnostic imaging tests ordered by physicians. A clinically validated AI system that can reliably separate normals from abnormals can be invaluble particularly in low-resource settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a deep learning system to detect various abnormalities seen on a chest X-ray. Methods: A deep learning system was trained on 2.3 million chest X-rays and their corresponding radiology reports to identify various abnormalities seen on a Chest X-ray. The system was tested against - 1. A three-radiologist majority on an independent, retrospectively collected set of 2000 X-rays(CQ2000) 2. Radiologist reports on a separate validation set of 100,000 scans(CQ100k). The primary accuracy measure was area under the ROC curve (AUC), estimated separately for each abnormality and for normal versus abnormal scans. Results: On the CQ2000 dataset, the deep learning system demonstrated an AUC of 0.92(CI 0.91-0.94) for detection of abnormal scans, and AUC(CI) of 0.96(0.94-0.98), 0.96(0.94-0.98), 0.95(0.87-1), 0.95(0.92-0.98), 0.93(0.90-0.96), 0.89(0.83-0.94), 0.91(0.87-0.96), 0.94(0.93-0.96), 0.98(0.97-1) for the detection of blunted costophrenic angle, cardiomegaly, cavity, consolidation, fibrosis, hilar enlargement, nodule, opacity and pleural effusion. The AUCs were similar on the larger CQ100k dataset except for detecting normals where the AUC was 0.86(0.85-0.86). Interpretation: Our study demonstrates that a deep learning algorithm trained on a large, well-labelled dataset can accurately detect multiple abnormalities on chest X-rays. As these systems improve in accuracy, applying deep learning to widen the reach of chest X-ray interpretation and improve reporting efficiency will add tremendous value in radiology workflows and public health screenings globally."

Full text available from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.07455.pdf



Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , PULMONOLOGY, RADIOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12408

Beyond the state: The colonial medical service in British Africa.

Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Kenya, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Malawi, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Nigeria, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Tanzania, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Uganda, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12409

Medicine, mobility and the empire: Nyasaland networks, 1859-1960.

Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017.

"David Livingstone's Zambesi expedition marked the beginning of an ongoing series of medical exchanges between the British and Malawians. This book explores these entangled histories by placing medicine in the frameworks of mobilities and networks that extended across Southern Africa and beyond. It provides a new approach to the study of medicine and empire. Drawing on a range of written and oral sources, the book argues that mobility was a crucial aspect of intertwined medical cultures that shared a search for therapy in changing conditions. Mobile individuals, ideas and materials played key roles in medical networks that involved both professionals and laypeople. These networks connected colonial medicine with Protestant Christianity and migrant labour" (publisher).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Kenya, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Malawi, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Nigeria, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Tanzania, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Uganda, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Zanzibar
  • 12410

Te Rongoa Maori: Maori medicine.

Dunedin, New Zealand: Reed, 1966.

"Arriving in Kaikohe (in the Far North) as a pharmacist he [the author] "passed into a new world as far as medicine was concerned." He found that customers made their own "concoctions" and were under the influence of the tohunga (native priest) as there was only one doctor in the district who visited once a week. Williams was to become the "doctor, vet, social worker and friend to the local residents, although it was some time before "they had enough faith in me to tell what (plants) they were using." Williams was 93 when the book was first published and his service to the Far North community extended through the Depression years, the Second World War and for many years after. His public service included 24 years as Northland Hospital Board chairman and 10 years as a member of the NZ Hospital Boards' Association. Williams says that most of the information in the book was passed on by kuia (older Maori women) and from his own observations, adding that "I have just recorded what older Maori taught me, but I take no responsibility for their efficiency." The book first appeared at a time when there was a renewed interest in traditional Maori remedies and the plants used preparing them and the frequency of reprints shows that it had reached many interested in the topic. The book covers more that 40 different plant species, describing their habitat and medicinal uses" (publisher).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › New Zealand, TRADITIONAL, Folk or Indigenous Medicine
  • 12411

Secret remedies, what they cost and what they contain. Based on analyses made for the British Medical Association.

London: British Medical Association, 1909.

This exposé of useless or dangerous drugs was followed in 1912 by More secret remedies. What they cost & what they contain. Based on analyses made for the British Medical Association.

Digital facsimile of the 1909 work from the Internet Archive at this link; of the 1912 worki at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Quackery
  • 12412

Nostrums and quackery: Articles on the nostrum evil and quackery reprinted from the Journal of the American Medical Association. 3 vols.

Chicago, IL: American Medical Association Press, 19111936.

Cramp was director of the AMA's Propaganda for Reform Department.

"In 1911, Cramp published the first of three volumes called Nostrums and Quackery,[3] which would become "a veritable encyclopedia on the nostrum evil and quackery."[1] The first volume contained the educational materials, case histories, and testimonials his department had been collecting.[5]

"Nostrums and Quackery, Volume II, published in 1921, was a collection of legal reports of case law involving nostrums and patent medicine reprinted from the Journal of the American Medical Association meant to educate the general public. As reviewer Joseph MacQueen stated, "The matter that appears has been prepared and written in no spirit of malice, and with no object except that of laying before the public certain facts, the knowledge of which is essential to a proper concept of community health."[16]

"Cramp's Nostrums and Quackery and Pseudo-Medicine, Volume III, foreword by George H. Simmons, Editor Emeritus of the Journal of the American Medical Association,[8] was published in 1936. As described in The Science News-Letter, the book contained "terse, simple and factual accounts of hundreds of nostrums and the ways of pseudo-medical practitioners."[17] This volume, more condensed than the first two volumes, indexed 1,500 "remedies."[8] W.A. Evans, in his review, wrote "When you have read this book you will consider credulity based on fiction rather drab."[18(Wikipedia article on Arthur J. Cramp, accessed 4-2020)

Digital facsimile of the second edition of Vol. 1 (1912) from Google Books at this link, of Vol. 2 at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Quackery
  • 12413

The toadstool millionaires.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961.

Chronicles the rise of the patent medicine trade from its beginnings in colonial America until passage of the first federal food and drug law. Digital text available from quackwatch.org at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Nostrums, Patent Medicines, Quackery
  • 12414

Pure food: Securing the Federal Food and Drugs Act of 1906.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989.


Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Legislation, Biomedical, NUTRITION / DIET › History of Nutrition / Diet, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Nostrums, Patent Medicines
  • 12415

The quest for drug control: Politics and federal policy in a period of increasing substance abuse, 1963-1981.

New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.


Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Legislation, Biomedical, POLITICS, MEDICAL, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › History of Drug Addiction
  • 12416

One hundred years of heroin. Edited by David F. Musto with the assistance of Pamela Korsmeyer and Thomas W. Maulucci, Jr.

Westport, CT: Auburn House, 2002.


Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Opium › Morphine › Heroin, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › History of Drug Addiction
  • 12417

A system of hygienic medicine, or the only rational way of treating disease.

London: Frederick Pitman, 1886.

"In place of orthodox medicine, he [Allinson] promoted health through diet, exercise, fresh air and bathing. He advocated a vegetarian diet and the avoidance of alcohol, tobacco, coffee and tea. He especially promoted the benefits of stone-ground wholemeal breads. He opposed the use of drugs by doctors, many of which at that time were ineffective and toxic and was a lifelong opponent of compulsory vaccination against smallpox. This approach became known as Allinsonian Medicine" (Wikipedia article on Thomas Allinson, accessed 4-2020).



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Anti-Vaccination, Household or Self-Help Medicine, Popularization of Medicine
  • 12418

Resektion af refben vid kroniskt empyem. C. R. Sur la résection des côtes dans l'empyème chronique.

Nord. med. Ark.,11, 1-14, 1879.
Esklander proposed a new method of surgery, involving sectioning of the ribs, to cure a condition previously considered incurable caused by chronic purulent pleurisy. 


Subjects: PULMONOLOGY › Lung Diseases
  • 12419

Eine Methode Aus Der Einen Lippe Substanzverluste Der Anderen zu Ersetzen.

Arch. klin. Chir., 14, 622-631, 1872.

The Abbe-Estlander operation, transferring a full-thickness flap from one lip of the oral cavity to fill a defect in the other lip.



Subjects: PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY › Cleft Lip & Palate
  • 12420

The Zambesi Journal and Letters of Dr. John Kirk, 1858-63. Edited by Reginald Foskett. 2 vols.

Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1965.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12421

The last slave market: Dr. John Kirk and the struggle to end the East African slave trade.

London: Constable, 2011.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, Slavery and Medicine › History of Slavery & Medicine, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists › History of Voyages & Travels by Physicians....
  • 12422

Die arabische Medizin im lateinischen Mittelalter (Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akad. der Wiss., Math. naturw. Klasse, Jrhrg. 1976, 2. Abh.)

New York & Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1976.


Subjects: ISLAMIC OR ARAB MEDICINE › History of Islamic or Arab Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Medieval Islamic or Arab Medicine
  • 12423

On the parasitic fungi found growing in living animals.

Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 15, 277-294, 1842.

Bennett confirmed and extended the observations and experiments of Gruby concerning the mycodermatous vegetations found in the crusts of the disease called Tinea favosa, or Zorigo lupinosa of Bateman; he announced the occasional existence of, and described, a plant found growing on the lining membrane or cheesy matter of tubercular cavities in the lungs of man. This was the first description of aspergillus (a pathogenic fungus) growing in the lung tissue of humans.

Digital facsimile of the separate offprint (copy inscribed by Bennett to Bischoff) from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mycosis › Aspergillosis, Mycology, Medical
  • 12424

The Mesmeric mania of 1851, with a physiological explanation of the phenomena produced. A lecture.

Edinburgh: Sutherland & Knox, 1851.

Bennett provided a scientific explanation for then current mass hysteria or group hypnosis in Edinburgh. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Mesmerism, Hypnosis
  • 12425

Science and medicine in Imperial Russia. Second edition.

Raleigh, NC: Lulu Enterprises, 2018.

Concerns the development of medicine, chemistry and biology in Russia before the revolution.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia
  • 12426

Der Lymphozyt als gemeinsame Stammzelle der verschiedenen Blutelemente in der embryonalen Entwicklung und im postfetalen Leben der Säugetiere.

Folia Haematologica, 8, 125-134, 1909.

Maximow developed and introduced a unitarian theory of hematopoiesis, a theory upon which the modern concept of blood cells' origin and differentiation is based. He introduced the term "stem cell."  Translated into English by Claudia Koltzenburg, Alexey Chukhlovin, Athanasius Anagnostou, and Carol Stocking as "The Lymphocyte as a stem cell common to different blood elements in embryonic development and during the post-fetal life of mammals," Cell Therapy and Transplantation, 1 (2009) doi:10.3205/ctt-2009-en-000032.01 Available from the Wayback Machine at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, HEMATOLOGY, Regenerative Medicine
  • 12427

Cytological demonstration of the clonal nature of spleen colonies derived from transplanted mouse marrow cells.

Nature, 197, 452-4, 1963.

McCulloch and Till discovered the blood-forming stem cell, the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), through their pioneering work in mice. McCulloch and Till began a series of experiments in which bone marrow cells were injected into irradiated mice. They observed lumps in the spleens of the mice that were linearly proportional to the number of bone marrow cells injected. They hypothesized that each lump (colony) was a clone arising from a single marrow cell (stem cell). With Andrew Becker they demonstrated that each nodule arose from a single cell.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, Regenerative Medicine
  • 12428

The distribution of colony-forming cells among spleen colonies.

Journal of Cell and Comparative Physiology, 62, 327-336, 1963.

Evidence that stem cells are capable of self-renewal. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Siminovitch, McCullch, Till). Digital facsimile from tspace.library.utoronto.ca at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, Regenerative Medicine
  • 12429

The molecular vision of life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the rise of the new biology.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.


Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › History of Molecular Biology, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12430

Exploring the cell membrane: Conceptual developments. Edited by A. Kleinzeller. (Comprehensive biochemistry, Neuberger & van Deenen, eds., vol. 39).

Amsterdam & New York: Elsevier, 1995.


Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › History of Biochemistry, BIOLOGY › Cell Biology
  • 12431

Madness to mental illness: A history of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

London: RCPsych Publications, 2008.


Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › History of Psychiatry
  • 12432

A sporozoan found in the peptic glands of the common mouse.

Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med., 5, 12-13, 1907.

Tyzzer first identified cryptosporidium in mice and named it Cryptosporidium muris, spec. nov.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Cryptosporidium
  • 12433

Cryptosporidium parvum (sp. nov.) a coccidium found in the small intestine of the common mouse.

Arch. Protisenkd., 26, 394-412, 1912.

Tyzzer described an even smaller species of cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium parvum (sp. nov.), later recognized as the chief species infecting humans. His paper reproduced color lithographs of all the different life stages of the parasite.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Cryptosporidium
  • 12434

Acute enterocolitis in a human being infected with the protozoan Cryptosporidium.

Gastroenterology, 70, 592-598, 1976.

First report of infection by Cryptosporidium in a human being.

"Abstract
"A 3-year-old child with severe acute self-limited enterocolitis was found on rectal biopsy to be infected with the protozoal parasite Cryptosporidium. This organism is known to infect a variety of vertebrates, but this is the first report of infection by Cryptosporidium in a human being. Both light and electron microscopic findings in the rectal biopsy are reported. It is suggested, on the basis of the severity of the clinical symptoms, and on the pathological changes in the rectum, that the organism in this case is likely to have been the cause of the enterocolitis and thus to have been a pathogen rather than a commensal. The source of the infection in this child could not be established. The value of signoidoscopy and biopsies is noted in this condition and as a general method for determining the etiology of a gastrointestinal infection in cases where other studies are negative."

Digital facsimile from gastrojournal.org at this link.

Tzipori & Widmer, "A hundred-year retrospective on cryptosporidiosis," Trends Parasitol., 24, 184-189.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Cryptosporidium
  • 12435

Cyclospora species - A new protozoan pathogen of humans.

New Eng. J. Med., 328, 1308-1312, 1993.

Ortega and colleagues identified a novel parasite resembling C. muris in the feces of Peruvian patients and 2 U.S. patients, with symptoms resembling those of infections with Cryptosporidium. The parasite infected both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, but stained parasitic photos and electron microscope images revealed a parasite distinct from Cryptosporidium. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Ortega, Sterling, Gilman...) Available from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, PARASITOLOGY › Cyclospora
  • 12436

A new coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from humans.

J. Parasitology, 80, 625-629, 1994.

Based on very high magnification electron transmission micrographs and contrast microscopy, Ortega and colleagues fully characterized the parasite and named it Cyclospora cayetanensis n. sp., naming it after Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru where they did the principal studies of the parasite. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Ortega, Gilman, Sterling.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, PARASITOLOGY › Cyclospora
  • 12437

Ueber die Beziehungen von chemischer Constitution. Vertheilung und pharmakologischer Wirkung: Vortrag, gehalten im Verein für Innere Medicin am 12. December 1898.

circa 1902.

In this speech Ehrlich explained how the molecular structure of a drug can define its action and function. It represents his first attempts at modifying the molecular structure of a compound in order to tailor the in vivo physiological actions of a drug.

Digital facsimile from wellcomelibrary.org at this link. According to Ehrlich's Collected papers, this was reprinted from v., Leyden-Festschr., Berlin: Hirschwald, 1902. That may have been its first publication.

English translation as "The relations existing between chemical constitution, distrtibution and pharmacological action," in Collected papers of Paul Ehrlich (No. 86.4).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacodynamics
  • 12438

Die Schutzstoffe des Blutes.

Deutsch Med. Woch., 27, 865-867, 888-891, 913-916, 1901.

In this paper on humoral immunity in humans Ehrlich addressed the bacteriocidal property of the blood, attributing that to antibodies and antitoxins.

Digital facsimile from pei.de at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY
  • 12439

Microarray-based detection and genotyping of viral pathogens.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 99, 15687-15692, 2002.

First publication of DeRisi's microarray assay for the detection and genotyping of viral pathogens. "To address the limitations of existing viral detection methodologies, we have developed a genomic approach to virus identification. Using available sequence data from more than 140 sequenced viral genomes, we have designed a long oligonucleotide (70-mer) DNA microarray with the potential to simultaneously detect hundreds of viruses, including essentially all respiratory tract viruses" (from the Abstract). 

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Wang, Coscoy, Zylberberg....DeRisi.) 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Available from pnas.org at this link.



Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Computing / Mathematics in Medicine & Biology, VIROLOGY
  • 12440

Using a pan-viral microarray assay (Virochip) to screen clinical samples for viral pathogens.

J. Vis. Exp., (50): 2536, 2011.

Direct link to the Journal of Visualized Experiments, JOVE.com: https://www.jove.com/video/2536/using-pan-viral-microarray-assay-virochip-to-screen-clinical-samples

"Abstract
"The diagnosis of viral causes of many infectious diseases is difficult due to the inherent sequence diversity of viruses as well as the ongoing emergence of novel viral pathogens, such as SARS coronavirus and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, that are not detectable by traditional methods. To address these challenges, we have previously developed and validated a pan-viral microarray platform called the Virochip with the capacity to detect all known viruses as well as novel variants on the basis of conserved sequence homology1. Using the Virochip, we have identified the full spectrum of viruses associated with respiratory infections, including cases of unexplained critical illness in hospitalized patients, with a sensitivity equivalent to or superior to conventional clinical testing2-5. The Virochip has also been used to identify novel viruses, including the SARS coronavirus6,7, a novel rhinovirus clade5, XMRV (a retrovirus linked to prostate cancer)8, avian bornavirus (the cause of a wasting disease in parrots)9, and a novel cardiovirus in children with respiratory and diarrheal illness10. The current version of the Virochip has been ported to an Agilent microarray platform and consists of ~36,000 probes derived from over ~1,500 viruses in GenBank as of December of 2009. Here we demonstrate the steps involved in processing a Virochip assay from start to finish (~24 hour turnaround time), including sample nucleic acid extraction, PCR amplification using random primers, fluorescent dye incorporation, and microarray hybridization, scanning, and analysis."

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Chen, Miller, DeRisi, Chiu.) Digital text and embedded video from PubMedCentral at this link.
(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)


Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Computing / Mathematics in Medicine & Biology, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Visualization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, VIROLOGY
  • 12441

Vaccine nation: America's changing relationship with immunization.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2015.


Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Anti-Vaccination, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 12442

Lexikon zur Arzneimittelgeschichte. Sachwörterbuch zur Geschichte der pharmazeutische Botanik, Chemie, Mineralogie, Pharmakologie, Zoologie. Band 1: Tierische Drogen, Band 2: Pharmakologische Arzneimittelgruppen, Band 3: Pharmazeutische Chemikalien und Mineralien, Band 4: Geheimmittel und Spezialitäten, Band 5: Pflanzliche Drogen, Band 6: Ergänzungen zu Band 3, Band 7: Register. (7 vols. in 9)

Frankfurt am Main: Govi-Verlag, 19681975.


Subjects: Dictionaries, Biomedical, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals
  • 12443

Geschichte der Pharmazeutischen Chemie.

Weinheim: Verlag Chemie, 1972.


Subjects: Chemistry › History of Chemistry, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • 12444

Before Silent Spring: Pesticides and public health in pre-DDT America.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974.


Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › History of Ecology / Environment, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health, TOXICOLOGY › History of Toxicology
  • 12445

The philosophy of sleep.

Glasgow: W. R. M'Phun, 1830.

An early attempt at a comprehensive analysis of sleep from the medical point of view, including topics such as "Night-Mare", "Day-Mare", "Sleep-Walking," Sleep-Talking," Sleeplessness, Waking Dreams, Drowiness, Trance, etc.
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine
  • 12446

Origin and history of all the pharmacopeial vegetable drugs, chemicals and preparations with bibliography... Prepared under the auspices of and published by the American Drug Manufacturers' Association, Washington, D.C. Vol. 1 Vegetable drugs

Cincinnati, OH: The Caxton Press, 1921.

Lloyd comprehensively collected and studied the historical literature, citing it throughout the text and in the numerous bibliographies of specific drugs in this work. The book includes a bibliography of historical sources citing 707 works.

Lloyd and his brothers endowed the Lloyd Library and Museum in Cincinnati, a institution concerning medical botany, pharmacy, eclectic medicine and horticulture.
Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines › History of Materia Medica
  • 12447

Le problème physiologique du sommeil.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1913.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine
  • 12448

Sleep and wakefulness as alternating phases in the cycle of existence.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1939.

Discusses phases of the sleep cycle, experimental work on sleep and wakefulness, sleep disorders and their treatment, and such sleep-like states as hypnosis and hibernation.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine
  • 12449

Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep.

Science, 118, 273-274, 1953.

Aserinsky, one of Kleitman's graduate students, decided to hook sleepers up to an early version of an electroencephalogram machine, which scribbled across 12 mile (800 m) of paper each night. In the process, Aserinsky noticed that sleepers went through periods when their eyes darted wildly back and forth several times each night. Kleitman and Aserinsky introduced the world to "rapid-eye movement," or REM sleep, and demonstrated that REM sleep was correlated with dreaming and brain activity. 



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine
  • 12450

Cyclic variation in EEG during sleep and their relation to eye movements, body motility and dreaming.

Electroencephalography & Clin. Neurophysiol., 9, 673-690, 1957.

The authors conducted the first intensive study of the relationship between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine
  • 12451

A treatise on food and diet: With observations on the dietetical regimen suited for disordered states of the digestive organs; and an account of the dietaries of some of the principal metropolitan and other establishments for paupers, lunatics, criminals, children, the sick, &c.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1843.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET
  • 12452

The development of sleep medicine: A historical sketch.

J. Clin. Sleep Med., 12, 1041-1052, 2016.

Extensively bibliographical. Available from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine
  • 12453

Dictionary of protopharmacology: Therapeutic practices, 1700-1850.

Canton, MA: Science History Publications, 1990.


Subjects: Dictionaries, Biomedical, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals
  • 12454

Le sommeil, tiers de notre vie. Pathologie, physiologie, hygiène, psychologie. Traduit de Russe avec l'autorisation de l'auteur par Ernest Jaubert.

Paris: G. Masson, 1896.

Perhaps the first book on the physiology of sleep. The author examines the physiology, pathology, hygiene, and psychology of sleep, including the differences between the waking and sleeping states, the general phenomena of sleep, reflex movements, the brain during sleep, talking in sleep, attention during sleep, theories of sleep, the fear of darkness, the influence of light, dreams, etc.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. Translated into English as Sleep: Its physiology, pathology, hygiene, and psychology. London: Walter Scott Ltd., 1897. Digital facsimile of the English translation from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine, PSYCHOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 12455

An experimental study of sleep. (From the Physiological Laboratory of the Harvard Medical School and from Sidis' Laboratory).

Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1909.

Sidis emphasized his physiological approach in the wording of the title of this book. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine, PSYCHOLOGY › Experimental
  • 12456

Quelques observations expérimentales sur l'influence de l'insomnie absolue.

Arch. Ital. Biol., 21, 322-325, 1894.

The first experimental study of sleep deprivation. Manaseina "performed her experimental investigation on 10 puppies (2, 3, or 4 months old), fed by their mothers, by keeping the animals in constant activity. The experiment came to the straightforward conclusion that "the total absence of sleep is more fatal for the animals than the total absence of food", since the dogs could be rescued after 20-25 days of starvation, but they were "irreparably lost" after a sleep deprivation of 96-120 hours. De Manaceine also noted that older dogs were more resistant to insomnia than younger ones and that body temperature decreased from the second day of sleep deprivation on and was 4,5, or even 5.8°C lower than normal before the animal's death. After the initial decrease of body temperature (0.5-0.9°C), locomotor activity had started becoming "slower and weaker", and red blood cell counts had decreased. The weight loss of the animals before death was relatively mild (5-13%). The "histological study" of body organs (apparently limited, however, to a macroscopic examination) clearly demonstrated that "the brain was the site of predilection of the most severe and most irreparable changes" (the italics are in the original text): "fat degeneration" in many brain "ganglia", abnormalities of blood vessels (probably including perivascular infiltrates), and small hemorrhages. These changes were very different from those De Manaceine had observed in animals that died of starvation, in which the brain was "remarkably spared". She concluded that her findings provided "a proof of the great importance of sleep for the organic life of animals equipped with a cerebral system, and also entitle to consider a bad paradox the strange opinion regarding sleep as a useless, stupid and even noxious habit" (Marina Bentivoglio and Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi,"The history of sleep advances. The pioneering experimental studies on sleep deprivation," Sleep, 20, 570-76).



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 12457

Auscultation of the rhythmic sounds produced by the stomach and intestines.

Amer. J. Physiol., 14, 339-353, 1905.
Cannon reported on the rhythmic sounds made by the GI tract, mostly basing his observations on his own abdomen. This may be the first serous study of this topic.
 
 
 


Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 12458

The lung: Clinical physiology and pulmonary function tests.

Chicago, IL: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1955.

Comroe and associates at the University of Pennsylvania introduced pulmonary function tests developed by physiologists into clinical practice. Comroe invented several of the tests described in the book.



Subjects: PULMONOLOGY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 12459

The African Republic of Liberia and the Belgian Congo based on the observations made and material collected during the Harvard African Expedition, 1926-1927. Edited by Richard P. Strong. 2 vols.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1930.

"The Harvard Medical African Expedition of 1926-1927 was an eight-man venture sent by Harvard University for the primary purpose of conducting a medical and biological survey of Liberia; the secondary purpose being to then cross Africa from coast to coast - west to east - through the Belgian Congo (and other regions) so as to make a comparative study of their Liberian findings.[1][2] Furthermore, the Liberian interior was next of kin to being terra incognita in the West, there having been no previous medical or scientific survey of the region, nor any recorded expedition into the Liberian hinterlands.[1] The Expedition leader was Richard Pearson Strong (Harvard's first Professor of tropical medicine),[3] with the others being zoologists Harold Jefferson Coolidge Jr. (Assistant Curator of Mammals at Harvard) and Dr. Glover Morrill Allenentomologist Dr. Joseph Charles Bequaert, botanist and Washington University Professor David H. Linderbacteriologist Dr. George C. Shattuck, clinician Dr. Max Theiler, and Assistant Ornithologist Loring Whitman (also a Harvard medical student and the Photographer).[4][1] The Expedition was a success and, while its "chief objective was the investigation of tropical diseases, many zoological specimens were collected and the customs of the native tribes were studied."[5] The story of their travels back and forth across Liberia, and reports of the diseases found that ailed the inhabitants, animals and plants was published in the two-volume The African Republic of Liberia and the Belgian Congo: Based on the Observations Made and Material Collected during the Harvard African Expedition, 1926-1927 written by Dr. Strong in a partnership with other Expedition members and Harvard officials" (Wikipedia article on Harvard Medical African Expedition (1926-1927) ).

Digital facsimile of from the Hathi Trust at this link.

The expedition made 5 silent films. When I checked in May 2020 4 of the 5 were available at Vimeo.com: https://vimeo.com/search?q=harvard+african+expedition

 



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Congo, Democratic Republic of the, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Liberia, TROPICAL Medicine , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12460

A revision of the genus Gorilla.

Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50, 293-281, 1929.

Basis of the modern taxonomy of the genus Gorilla. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy › Primatology
  • 12461

Bibliotheca historico-naturalis. Verzeichniss der bücher über naturgeschichte, welche in Deutschland, Scandinavien, Holland, England, Frankreich, Italien und Spanien in den jahren 1700-1846 erschienen sind.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1846.

Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History
  • 12462

Bibliotheca zoologica. Verzeichniss der Schriften über zoologie, welche in den Periodischen werken enthalten und vom Jahre 1846-1860 selbständig erschienen Sind. Mit Einschluss der allgemein-naturgeschichtlichen periodischen und palaeontologischen Schriften. 2 vols.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1861.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, ZOOLOGY
  • 12463

Du Jardin au Muséum en 516 biographies.

Paris: Publications scientifiques du Muséum, 2004.

"Founded in 1635, the Royal Garden of Medicinal Plants became the National Museum of Natural History during the French Revolution, with magisterial chairs which were suppressed in 1985. During this 350-year period more than 500 scientists, men and women, worked in these two successive institutions. Although some of them like Buffon, Cuvier and Claude Bernard recall something to the common layman, most of these figures are presently unknown out of a restricted set of specialists. The lives and works of these scientists of the Royal Garden and of the Museum were therefore worth of report in a biographical dictionary which includes not less than 516 entries. These men and women with quite diverse social origins, training and characters explored all aspects of physical, natural and human sciences. They widened the field of knowledge, gave rise to new disciplines and institutions, assembled collections, and contributed to the spread of knowledge. Some of them were in parallel appointed civil or military officers, sometimes very close to the French central government. Either scientists with cabinets or great travellers, distinguished persons or unpretentious civil servants, all played a role in the history of the great institution they served."

Digital edition of full text available from books.openedition.org at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History
  • 12464

Pharmaciens au Muséum: Chimistes et naturalistes.

Paris: Publications scientifiques du Muséum, 2019.

"When it was created in 1626 le Jardin royal des plantes medicinales had three chairs: those of Demonstateur des plantes, Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Operations. Apothecaries at the Jardin challenged the Sorbonne by giving the first chemistry lessons taught in France with public demonstration. Philippe Jaussaud's work traces the life, work and contribution of these apothecaries, who we now call pharmacists, to the development of the garden that has become a Museum. They held chemistry chairs there, but also distinguished themselves in natural history, chairs in zoology, physiology, plant physics and even mineralogy. The multidisciplinary nature of their training undoubtedly explains their diversity of interests and skills. Some, like Milne-Edwards or Fontaine were directors of the Museum. All of them, through the quality of their work, have left their mark in the immense field of scientific research. From Nicaise Le Febvre to Pierre Potier, via Nicolas Vauquelin, the author reveals a section of an original story, that of pharmaceutical sciences from the 17th century to the present day" (publisher).



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals
  • 12465

Cuvier’s History of the natural sciences Vol. 1: Twenty-four lessons from antiquity to the renaissance, translated from the French by A. J. Simpson. Vol. 2: Nineteen lessons from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, translated from the French by B. D. Marx. Vol. 3: Twenty lessons from the first half of the eighteenth century. Edited and annotated by T. W. Pletsch.

Paris: Publications Scientifiques du Muséum and Bibliothèque Centrale, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 20122018.

Annotated English editions and translation of Cuvier's 5 volume Histoire des sciences naturelles, depuis leur origine jusqu’a nos jours, originally published in French from 1841 to 1845.



Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History
  • 12466

Georges Cuvier’s historical portrait of the progress of ichthyology, from Its origins to our own time. Second edition, revised and enlarged, edited and annotated by T. W. Pietsch, translated from the French by A. J. Simpson.

Paris: Publications scientifique du Muséum, 2020.


Subjects: ZOOLOGY › History of Zoology, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology
  • 12467

Abortion law and policy around the world: In search of decriminalization.

Health and Human Rights Journal, 19, 13-27, 2017.

Digital edition available from cdn1.sph.harvard.edu at this link.



Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Abortion
  • 12468

Génération pilule.

Paris: Editions Odile Jacob, 1990.

Translated into English as The "abortion pill": RU-486 - a woman's choice by Étienne-Émile Baulieu with Mort Rosenblum. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Abortion, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 12469

Effet d’un stéroide anti-progestérone chez la femme: Interruption du cycle menstruel et de la grossesse au début.

Compt. Rend. l'Acad. Sci., Sér. III, 294, 933–8, 1982.

"In April 1980, as part of a formal research project at the French pharmaceutical company Roussel-Uclaf for the development of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, chemist Georges Teutsch synthesized mifepristone (RU-38486, the 38,486th compound synthesized by Roussel-Uclaf from 1949 to 1980; shortened to RU-486), which was discovered to also be a progesterone receptor antagonist.[54][55] In October 1981, endocrinologist Étienne-Émile Baulieu, a consultant to Roussel-Uclaf, arranged tests of its use for medical abortion in 11 women in Switzerland by gynecologist Walter Herrmann at the University of Geneva's Cantonal Hospital, with successful results announced on April 19, 1982" (Wikipedia article on Mifepristone, accessed 4-2020).



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Abortion, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Abortion
  • 12470

Mammals of North America: The descriptions of species based chiefly on the collections in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1859.

An overview of North American mammals in three parts, assembled from two previously published sources. Parts 1 & 2 are continuously paginated. The work
consists first of a reprint of the Reports upon the Mammals that appeared, in the Pacific Railroad Survey Reports, Vol. VIII, and second in the U.S. and Mexican
Boundary Survey Reports, Vol. II, pt. 2”.  Thus, the work incorporated sheets that were either remaindered or picked up for free from publications paid for by the U.S. government, and combined in single volume issued by a private publisher for profit.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Mammalogy
  • 12471

A flora of North America. Illustrated by coloured figures, drawn from nature. 3 vols.

Philadelphia: M. Carey & Sons, 18201824.

This work represents the first successful use of stipple engravings for the reproduction of images in a book published in the United States. 29 of the 106 hand-colored plates were engraved by Cornelius Tiebout (1773-1832) considered the first truly skilled engraver born in the U.S.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration
  • 12472

Travels through that part of North America formerly called Louisiana by Mr. Bossu, ... Translated from the French by John Reinhold Forster, F.A.S. Illustrated with notes relative chiefly to natural history to which is added by the translator a systematic catalogue of all the known plants of English North America, or a Flora Americae Septentrionalis together with an abstract of the most useful and necessary articles contained in Peter Loefling's travels through Spain and Cumana in South America referred to the pages of the original Swedish edition. 2 vols.

London: T. Davies, 1771.

This work is a series of 21 letters that Bossu wrote to the Marquis de L’Estrade describing his life and travels in the vast Louisiana country from 1751 to 1762. His ventures ranged from Fort Chartres, in present-day Illinois, to Mobile, and along the Mississippi. His visit to New Orleans took place only thirty years after its founding, and he was able to gather considerable information from the memories of locals. “Bossu wrote well and his letters not only give an interesting picture of life in the Mississippi Valley and the Mobile Country to the east at the beginning of the second half of the eighteenth century, but incorporated also are many sketches of events in preceding years” – Streeter. “The first volume is almost entirely filled with historical and personal sketches of the Southern Indian Tribes of the present United States” – Field. Forster devoted nearly of all of the second volume to the catalogue of plants. This catalogue, based on specimens that Forster saw in England, and on the work of the Swedish botanist Pehr Loefling, did not appear in the original French edition of 1768.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Louisiana, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12473

The natural history of North Carolina. With an account of the trade, manners and customs of the Christian and Indian inhabitants. Illustrated with copper-plates, whereon are curiously engraved the map of the country, several strange beasts, birds, fishes, snakes, insects, trees, and plants, &c.

Dublin: James Carson...for the Author, 1737.

Brickell accompanied provincial governor George Burrington to North Carolina in 1724, remaining in the region for six years and becoming one of the first medical doctors in North Carolina. Brickell took the material on the flora and fauna of North Carolina from the work of John Lawson (1709) but the accounts of social and economic history, and of the medical practices of the native tribes is Brickell's work. The book also includes a short comparative vocabulary of the Woccon, Pamticoe, and Tuskeruro Indians.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: NATIVE AMERICANS & Medicine, NATURAL HISTORY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › North Carolina, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12474

A new voyage to Carolina; Containing the exact description and natural history of that country: Together with the present state thereof. And a journal of a thousand miles, travel'd Thro' several nations of Indians. Giving a particular account of Their customs, manners, &c.

London: [No publisher identified], 1709.

Lawson, who characterized himself as "Surveyer-General of North Carolina" explored the interior of colonial North Carolina, South Carolina and George. He was guided by American Indians and made careful note of vegetation, wildlife and many Indian tribes he encountered. His book, which underwent several editions and translations, attracted many immigrants to the region.

"In September 1711, Lawson and his associate Christopher von Graffenried were captured by Tuscarora Indians while ascending the Neuse River. The Tuscarora released von Graffenried, but they subjected Lawson to ritual torture, typical of warriors, and killed him.[1] Shortly thereafter, tensions between the Tuscarora and their allies and settlers erupted into a bloody conflict known as the Tuscarora War, lasting until the defeat of the Tuscarora in 1715. The colonists gathered their own American Indian allies, especially from among the Yamasee and Cherokee, traditional enemies and competitors of the Tuscarora" (Wikipedia article on John Lawson (explorer) accessed 4-2020).

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › North Carolina, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › South Carolina, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12475

Notes on the natural history of the Strait of Magellan and the west coast of Patagonia made during the voyage of HMS 'Nassau' in the years 1866, 67, 68, & 69.

Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1871.

Cunningham, a physician, was naturalist aboard the Nassau, a steamer sent to survey the Strait of Magellan and the adjacent channels. This book contains a narrative of the voyage and natural history descriptions. Cunningham’s own interest was in the ornithology of the region, but he also discussed the botany of the area, mentioning his collections of plants in the Royal Herbarium, Kew, and promising articles on the reptiles, amphibia, fishes, mollusca, and crustacea in Linnean Transactions. He acknowledged the help of Hooker, Huxley, Newton, Flower, Sclater, Salvin, Gray, Gunther, and Baird.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Argentina, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Chile, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12476

The new and heretofore unfigured species of the birds of North America. 2 vols.

New York: Published by the Author, 18661868.

Elliot described his aims for this work in the preface:

"Since the time of Wilson and Audubon, no work has been published upon American Ornithology, containing life-size representations of the various species that have been discovered since the labors of those great men were finished. The valuable productions of Cassin, as well as the revised edition of the ninth volume of the Pacific Rail Road Report, the joint labor of Messrs. Baird, Cassin and Lawrence had indeed appeared...but no attempt had been made to continue the works of the first great American naturalists in a similar manner [i.e. with the birds represented full-size where possible]....It was, therefore, with the desire to contribute...towards the elucidation of the comparatively little known species of the Birds of North America, their habits and economy, as well as to render their forms familiar so far as life-size representation of them might serve to do, that I undertook the present publication."

The work includes 72 handcolored lithographed plates, including 55 by Elliot, and 15 by Joseph Wolf (1820-1899).

Digital facsimile of the 1869 issue from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 12477

Characteres generum plantarum, quas in itinere ad insulas maris Australis, collegerunt, descripserunt, delinearunt, annis 1772-1775.

London: B. White, T. Cadell, & P. Elmsly, 1776.

This account of botanical discoveries made by the Forsters in Australia and New Zealand on Cook's second voyage was one of the earliest scientific publications resulting from that voyage. Specimens were illustrated on 78 engraved plates. The regular edition was in quarto form; 8 copies were issued in folio format.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › New Zealand, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12478

Flora Virginica exhibens plantas quas v. c. Johannes Clayton in Virginia observavit atque collegit. Easdem method sexuali-disposuit, ad genera propria retulit, nominbus specificis insignivit, & minus cognitas descriptsit.

Leiden: Cornelis Haak, 1743.

The first flora of Virginia. As stated on the title page, Gronovius, a Dutch botanist, based this work on specimens collected by the Virginia plant collector and botanist John Clayton. While Clayton supplied the specimens, the final identification of the plants, the science and system of the book were the work of Gronovius.  The second edition of 1762 included a map documenting Clayton's travels.

Digital facsimile of the first edition from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Virginia
  • 12479

Voyage médicale autour du monde, exécuté sur la Corvette du Roi La Coquille commandée par M. L. I. Duperrey pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825; ou rapport sur l' état sanitaire de l'équipage pendant la durée de la campagne, avec quelques renseignemens sur des pratiques empiriques locales en usages dans plusieurs des contrées visitées par l'expédition; suivi d'un mémoire sur les races humaines répandues dans l'Océanie, la Malaisie et l'Australie.

Paris: Roret, Libraire, 1829.

Lesson who was naturalist and physician on the voyage of La Coquille was a prolific author of works concerning natural history. This was his account of the voyage from his point of view as a physician. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12480

[New York Natural History and Geological Survey.] Natural history of New York. 30 vols.

Albany, NY: [Various], 18421894.

The New York Natural History and Geological Survey was established by the state legislature in 1836 under the direction of James Ellsworth DeKay. By far the most ambitious scientific project undertaken in the United States to that date, it was issued in six sections: Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, Geology, Agriculture, and Paleontology. Volumes began to appear in 1842. The first four parts, a total of twelve volumes, were issued in 1842-44, and the five volumes of the Agriculture section between 1846 and 1854. The final section, Paleontology, began publication in 1846, but under its editor, James Hall, it took on a life of its own. Hall managed to turn it into a long career in his position as state paleontologist, ultimately issuing thirteen volumes where only one had been planned. Without Hall’s lobbying for additional state funds, the entire project would have been completed in the 1850s. Instead Hall was still in office, at age 83, when the final volumes were published.

Natural History of New York is notable for its vast array of color plates, and in later volumes its use of other innovative forms of natural history illustration. In all it contains several thousand plates, colored and uncolored, making it a project on the same scale as the Pacific Railroad Survey. The set is much less well known because far fewer volumes were produced than the U.S. government publications, but it clearly was the model on which the great U.S. surveys of the 1850s were based. Meisel includes a detailed collation.



Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › New York
  • 12481

The Botanic physician: Being a compendium of the practice of physic, upon botanical principles, containing all the principal branches necessary to the study of medicine, as anatomy; physiology; surgery; causes, symptoms and cure of diseases; midwifery; materia medica; pharmacy, botany, &c. Together with a great variety of useful recipes.

New York: Murphy & Bingham, 1830.

“The first treatise to attempt a scientific synthesis of the botanic practice....The first significant attempt to synthesize and systematize the prevailing botanic practice and plant materia medica” (Berman & Flannery, America's botanico-medical movements (2001) 46-49, 72, 73)

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Medical Botany, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines
  • 12482

Impressions of Western Africa. With remarks on the diseases of the climate and a report on the peculiarities of trade up the rivers in the Bight of Biafra.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans & Roberts, 1858.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, Slavery and Medicine, TROPICAL Medicine , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12483

Travels in Europe, Asia Minor, and Arabia.

London: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 1805.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Middle East, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Saudi Arabia, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12484

A history of childbirth in America.

New York: Free Press, 1977.

Expanded edition, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › History of Obstetrics, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Midwives
  • 12485

Sound motion pictures in obstetrics.

Journal of the Biological Photographic Assoc., 2, 60-68, 1933.

DeLee was one of the pioneers of filmmaking for the purpose of medical teaching. In this paper he described the necessary components of a medical film, including scripts, props, lighting, sound and expert staff members.

For a detailed account of DeLee's medical film productions see Caitjan Gainty, "A bit of Hollywood in the operating room," (2019) from medicineonscreen.nlm.nih.gov at this link. Here is an example of one of DeLee's films:



Subjects: IMAGING › Cinematography, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 12486

Medicine's moving pictures: Medicine, health, and bodies in American film and television. Edited by Leslie J. Reagan, Nacy Tomes, and Paula A. Treichler.

Rochester, NY.


Subjects: IMAGING › Cinematography, IMAGING › Television
  • 12487

No magic bullet: A social history of venereal disease in the United States since 1880.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.


Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 12488

The principles and practice of obstetrics.

Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1913.

Digital facsimile of the 1914 printing from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 12489

The prophylactic forceps operation.

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 1, 34-44, 1920.

DeLee's advocacy of prophylactic forceps delivery made forceps deliveries more common. It remains probably his most controversial contribution to obstetrics.

"At a meeting of the American Gynecological Society in 1920, DeLee sparked controversy when he presented a paper advocating for the use of a systematic approach to childbirth for physicians, including the use of forceps and episiotomy even in women who had no labor complications.[3] DeLee's "prophylactic forceps operation" consisted of several steps: scopolamine injections in the first stage of labor, ether anesthesia in the next stage, then episiotomy and forceps delivery. Ergot was used in the subsequent manual extraction of the placenta.[10] DeLee reasoned that the episiotomy prevented perineal tears which could cause complications like uterine prolapse and vesicovaginal fistula. He said that the early use of forceps would avoid pressure from the pelvic bones against a baby's head, thus preventing complications like epilepsy and cerebral palsy; DeLee said that fatal complications occurred in 4–5% of labors managed with the traditional conservative approach.[11] Though DeLee said that such interventions should only be carried out by a well-equipped physician specialist, John Whitridge Williams and other prominent obstetricians criticized DeLee sharply. They felt that DeLee was being too aggressive by removing a baby before complications occurred; DeLee's colleagues preferred to be conservative and to manage complications as they arose. (Wikipedia article on Joseph DeLee, accessed 4-2020).

Digital facsimile from academyofpelvicsurgery.com at this link.


Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Forceps, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 12490

Public health and the state: Changing views in Massachusetts, 1842-1936.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.


Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Massachusetts
  • 12491

A history of public health in New York City.

New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1974.


Subjects: PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › New York
  • 12492

The healthiest city: Milwaukee and the politics of health reform.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.


Subjects: POLITICS, MEDICAL, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Wisconsin
  • 12493

Medicine on screen: Films and essays from NLM.

Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013.
https://medicineonscreen.nlm.nih.gov/

Medicine on Screen logo
"Medicine on Screen is a curated portal to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) historical audiovisual collections. This site showcases unique, rare, and important medical films enriched with contextual information, scholarly essays, and related resources.


"NLM holds a world-renowned historical audiovisual collection of nearly 10,000 titles from the silent era to the present. These films cover a broad range of medical and health-related topics, from public health, surgery, and nursing to mental health, cancer, tuberculosis, child development, tropical medicine, genetics, and substance abuse. Some are public education films, some are professional training films, and some document scientific or medical research. The collection does not generally include Hollywood-type entertainment films, though the occasional celebrity name does appear, for example, Gene Kelly directed and starred in a WWII-era naval training film. Many of these films are rare, and in some cases NLM may have the only surviving copy.

"Medicine on Screen replaces the inventive NLM project Medical Movies on the Web, which debuted in 2013 under the direction of David Cantor, Michael Sappol, and Paul Theerman. Building on that foundation, Medicine on Screen adds fresh design, content, and functionality, and continues to highlight selected films from the Library’s audiovisual collections along with expert commentary that sets the films in historical context. In some cases, the films are supplemented with a bibliography and a selection of related materials from the collections of the Library and other repositories. Access to these and other digitized films is also provided through the NLM Digital Collections and YouTube channel."

 



Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , IMAGING › Cinematography
  • 12494

A view of society and manners in France, Switzerland and Germany: with anecdotes relating to some eminent characters. By a gentleman, who resided several years in those countries. 2 vols.

London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1779.

Digitial facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Germany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Switzerland, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12495

A view of society and manners in Italy, with anecdotes related to some eminent characters. 2 vols.

London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1781.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12496

Travels through France and Italy. Containing observations on character, customs, religion, government, police commerce, arts, and antiquities. With a particular description of the town, territory, and climate of Nice: To which is added a register of the weather, kept during a residence of eighteen months in that city. 2 vols.

London: R. Baldwin, 1766.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

"After suffering the loss of his only child, 15-year-old Elizabeth, in April 1763, Smollett left England in June of that year. Together with his wife, he traveled across France to Nice. In the autumn of the next year, he visited GenoaRomeFlorence and other towns of Italy. After staying in Nice for the winter he returned to London by June 1765. Travels Through France and Italy is his account of this journey.

"Smollett describes in great detail the natural phenomena, history, social life, economics, diet and morals of the places he visited. Smollett had a lively and pertinacious curiosity, and, as his novels prove, a very quick eye. He foresaw the merits of Cannes, then a small village, as a health-resort, and the possibilities of the Corniche road.

"The writing is often characterized by spleen, acerbity and quarrelsomeness. Smollett quarrels with innkeepers, postilions and fellow travelers and holds many (though by no means all) foreigners he meets in contempt. He derides the Roman Catholic faith, dueling, petty and proud nobility, such domestic arrangements as the cicisbeo, and many other French and Italian customs.

"Laurence Sterne, who met Smollett in Italy, satirized Smollett's jaundiced attitude in the character of Smelfungus in A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, which was written in part as an answer to Smollett's book" (Wikipedia article on Travels Through France and Italy, accessed 4-2020).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › France, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12497

Travels along the Mediterranean, and parts adjacent; in the company with the Earl of Belmore, during the years 1816-17-18: Extending as far as the second cataract of the Nile, Jerusalem, Damascus, Balbec &c. &c. 2 vols.

London: T. Cadell, 1822.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Israel, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Middle East, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Syria, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 12498

An argument for Divine Providence, taken from the constant regularity observed in the births of both sexes.

Phil. Trans., 27, 186-190, 1710.

"Arbuthnot examined birth records in London for each of the 82 years from 1629 to 1710 and the human sex ratio at birth: in every year, the number of males born in London exceeded the number of females. If the probability of male and female birth were equal, the probability of the observed outcome would be 1/282, a vanishingly small number. This is vanishingly small, leading Arbuthnot that this was not due to chance, but to divine providence: "From whence it follows, that it is Art, not Chance, that governs." This paper was a landmark in the history of statistics; in modern terms he performed statistical hypothesis testing, computing the p-value (via a sign test), interpreted it as statistical significance, and rejected the null hypothesis. This is credited as "… the first use of significance tests …",[3] the first example of reasoning about statistical significance and moral certainty,[4] and "… perhaps the first published report of a nonparametric test …" (Wikipedia article on John Arbuthnot, accessed 4-2020).

Digital facsimie from royalsocietypublishing.org at this link.



Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 12499

An essay concerning the effects of air on human bodies.

London: J. Tonson, 1733.

Arbuthnot believed that air had significant effects on personality, and he believed that the air of locations resulted in the characteristics of the people, as well as particular diseaes. He recommended ventilation of sickrooms, and urged readers to seek fresh air in crowded, poorly sanitized Augustan era cities. 

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Bioclimatology, Ventilation, Health Aspects of